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JACOPO  CARUCCI  DA  PONTORMO 


PUBLISHED  ON  THE  FOUNDATION 
ESTABLISHED  IN  MEMORY  OF 

HENRY   WELDON   BARNES 

or  THE  CLASS  OF  1882,  YALE  COLLEGE 


THE  HENRY  WELDON  BARNES  MEMORIAL 
PUBLICATION  FUND 

The  present  volume  is  the  fifth  work  published  by  the 
Yale  University  Press  on  the  Henry  Weldon  Barnes 
Memorial  Publication  Fund.  This  Foundation  was  estab- 
lished June  16,  1913,  by  a  gift  made  to  Yale  University  by 
William  Henry  Barnes,  Esq.,  of  Philadelphia,  in  memory 
of  his  son,  a  member  of  the  Class  of  1882,  Yale  College,  who 
died  December  3,  1882.  While  a  student  at  Yale,  Henry 
Weldon  Barnes  was  greatly  interested  in  the  study  of  litera- 
ture and  in  the  literary  activities  of  the  college  of  his  day, 
contributing  articles  to  some  of  the  undergraduate  papers 
and  serving  on  the  editorial  board  of  the  Yale  Record.  It 
had  been  his  hope  and  expectation  that  he  might  in  after- 
life devote  himself  to  literary  work.  His  untimely  death 
prevented  the  realization  of  his  hopes,  but  by  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  Henry  Weldon  Barnes  Memorial  Publication 
Fund  his  name  will  nevertheless  be  forever  associated  with 
the  cause  of  scholarship  and  letters  which  he  planned  to 
serve  and  which  he  loved  so  well. 


JACOPO  CARUCCI 

DA  PONTORMO 

HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 


BY 


FREDERICK   MORTIMER  CLAPP 


WITH  A  FOREWORD  BY 
FRANK  JEWETT  MATHER,  JR. 


•  /.  \ 


NEW  HAVEN:   YALE  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 
LONDON:   HUMPHREY  MILFORD 
OXFORD  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 
MDCCCCXVI 


COPYRIGHT,  1916 
BY  YALE  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 


First  published,  October,  1916 


ND 


PIC  5  8 


AVAILABLE 


;Si  vede  apertamente  che  quel  cervello 
andava  sempre  investigando" 

— Vasari 


TO 

M.  C.  C. 


FOREWORD 

If  Mr.  Clapp's  book,  instead  of  appearing  in  the  century 
of  Picasso,  had  appeared  in  that  of  Pontormo,  there  would 
have  been  prefatory  sonnets  written  by  friends  who  believed 
in  the  artist  and  in  the  author.  Believing  in  both  myself,  I  offer 
a  kind  of  substitute  in  plain  prose,  for  the  author,  who  is  an 
accomplished  poet  and  therefore  well  able  to  write  his  own 
complimentary  verses,  evades  the  task. 

It  is  a  significant  fact  that  Mr.  Clapp's  first  considerable 
publication  on  his  favorite  artist,  "Les  Dessins  de  Pontormo," 
was  written  in  French  and  published  in  Paris.  Nor  is  it 
betraying  confidence  to  tell  that  the  present  book  in  its  trial 
stages  existed  in  a  French  version.  The  fact  that  Mr.  Clapp 
has  to  this  extent  assimilated  the  French  language  is  interesting, 
but  it  is  far  more  important  to  note  that  he  has  equally  assimi- 
lated certain  solid  merits  and  enlivening  graces  of  French 
scholarship.  I  shudder  when  I  think  what  a  German  or  a 
Germanized  American  scholar  would  have  made  of  the  subject 
of  Pontormo.  In  his  solitary,  experimental  career,  in  the  now 
elegiac,  now  tragic  flavour  of  his  personal  poetry,  there  was 
every  opportunity  and  temptation  for  indulgence  in  the  irre- 
sponsible joys  of  sentimentalism.  In  the  mere  physical  abun- 
dance of  new  data,  there  was  every  incentive  to  shoot  it  all  into 
one  of  those  imposing  academic  rubbish  heaps  which  in  mere 
bulk  are  more  impressive  than  real  books,  as  they  are  of  more 
portentous  effect  upon  the  benevolent  commonalty. 

What  is  remarkable  about  Mr.  Clapp 's  book  is  not  that  he 
has  avoided  deliberate  gush  and  casual  disorder  —  one  trusted 
the  fine  man  of  letters  in  him  for  so  much  —  but  rather  that  he 
has  lured  and  compelled  into  his  long  task  positive  qualities  of 
orderliness,  lucidity,  and  discipline.  With  a  vast  and  easily 
confusing  mass  of  material,  he  has  been  content  to  wait  until 


XI 


FOREWORD 

the  place  appeared  where  each  fact  not  merely  might  but  must 
be  taken  up  into  the  fabric  of  the  book.  This  means  that,  while 
the  book  is  thickly  set  with  data,  the  gentle  reader  will  find  an 
uncluttered  fairway. 

Notable  too  is  the  way  in  which  narrative  and  comment 
have  been  knit  into  one  structure.  Criticism  remains  unpre- 
tentious and  chiefly  implicit.  The  close  and  logical  order  of  the 
exposition  builds  up  a  kind  of  persuasive  portrait,  which  is  on 
the  whole  left  to  the  reader's  judgment.  It  is  a  satisfactory 
procedure,  indicative  of  probity  in  the  author,  and  compli- 
mentary withal  to  the  reader's  intelligence.  Mr.  Clapp  not 
merely  keeps  a  facile  subjectivity  out  of  his  task  of  research, 
but  so  conducts  the  work  that,  even  under  that  self-denying 
ordinance,  it  eventuates  as  a  contribution  to  literature.  While 
re-reading  the  proof  sheets  I  have  had  a  haunting  image  of  one 
of  those  precise,  complete,  and  austerely  attractive  portraits 
by  Philippe  de  Champaigne,  in  which  the  conscience  of  the  eye 
and  hand  constitute  the  style.  Mr.  Clapp  is  fortunate  in  being 
one  of  the  first  to  naturalize  in  our  scanty  literature  of  art  these 
sterling  traits  of  the  Gallic  spirit. 

FRANK  JEWETT  MATHER,  JR. 


Xll 


PREFACE 

When  early  one  morning,  some  years  ago,  I  went  into  the 
church  of  Santa  Felicita  in  Florence,  I  did  not  know  that  I  was 
taking  the  first  step  in  a  task  that  has  since  then  occupied  all 
my  leisure.  It  was  in  the  autumn,  and  I  imagined  —  it  seems 
to  come  back  to  me  —  that  on  such  a  sunny  day  it  might  be 
possible  to  see  an  altar-piece  at  which  I  had  often  peered  in  vain 
in  the  darkness  of  the  Capponi  Chapel.  I  was  not  mistaken. 
The  light,  slanting  through  the  upper  windows  of  the  nave, 
was  falling  even  into  that  dimmest  of  corners  and,  in  the 
fugitive  splendour,  for  the  first  time  I  really  saw  Pontormo's 
"Deposition." 

The  moment  was  one  of  unexpected  revelation.  As  I 
studied  the  picture  with  amazement  and  delight,  I  became 
conscious  not  only  of  its  beauty  but  of  the  blindness  with  which 
I  had  accepted  the  prejudice  of  those  for  whom  Andrea  del  Sarto 
is  the  last  great  Florentine  artist  and  his  younger  contem- 
poraries, one  and  all,  mere  facile  eclectics  whose  work  Vasari 
summed  up  in  the  frescoes  of  the  Palazzo  Vecchio. 

I  had  discovered  Pontormo.  Little  by  little  I  made  my 
way  through  the  neglect  into  which  he  had  fallen,  and  he  became 
for  me  a  living  person.  His  solitary  aloofness  appealed  to  me, 
his  disdain  of  patronage,  and  the  passion  with  which  he 
pursued  the  phantom  of  a  more  creative,  a  more  personal 
form  of  expression  than  the  graphic  arts  are  perhaps  capable 
of  affording. 

His  drawings  quickened  my  sense  of  his  evolution.  They 
are  more  numerous  than  those  of  any  other  Tuscan  who  worked 
before  1550.  And,  as  I  turned  them  over  through  many  months, 
I  experienced,  again  and  again,  moments  of  the  intellectual 
pleasure  that  comes  from  the  recognition  of  rare  and  significant 
things.  At  that  time  Mr.  Bernhard  Berenson's  essay  in  his 
"Drawings  of  the  Florentine  Painters"  was  the  only  attempt 


xin 


PREFACE 

that  had  been  made  to  estimate  the  importance  of  Pontormo's 
sketches,  and  in  studying  them  I  found  it  an  unfailing  source 
of  illumination.  More  recently  a  splendid  folio  of  facsimiles, 
published  under  the  auspices  of  the  Uffizi  Gallery,  has  made  a 
limited  selection  of  them  known  to  a  larger  public. 

But  Pontormo  was  a  greater  draughtsman  than  anyone  has 
realized.  I  have,  indeed,  come  to  feel  that  his  drawings  alone, 
with  all  of  which  I  have  dealt  exhaustively  in  my  "Dessins  de 
Pontormo,"  are  enough  to  give  him  a  place  among  the  greatest 
names  in  Italian  art. 

The  lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  and  his  portraits,  many  of 
which  have  been  ascribed  to  other  masters,  were  my  next 
enthusiasm.  From  them  it  was  clear  to  me  that  Pontormo 
was  a  decorator,  at  times  unsurpassed  in  his  sense  of  the 
exquisitely  appropriate,  a  subtle  reader  of  the  souls  of  men  and, 
in  more  ways  than  one,  the  founder  of  modern  portraiture. 

The  book  is  divided  into  eight  parts:  a  critical  study  of 
Pontormo's  life;  a  catalogue  raisonne  of  his  authentic  works; 
a  catalogue  raisonne  of  the  pictures  that  have  been  ascribed 
to  him;  a  catalogue  of  the  pictures  attributed  to  him  at  sales 
and  in  loan  exhibitions;  a  catalogue  of  paintings  and  frescoes 
that  have  been  destroyed,  lost,  or  are  as  yet  unidentified;  an 
appendix  in  which  I  have  discussed  his  apprenticeship  in 
greater  detail  than  was  advisable  in  the  text  itself ;  an  appendix 
in  which  I  have  transcribed  thirty-six  documents  relative  to 
his  career,  most  of  which  are  now  printed  for  the  first  time; 
an  appendix  that  consists  of  a  transcript  of  his  diary,  which  has 
never  before  been  published,  and  a  chronological  reconstruction 
of  its  pages  followed  by  analyses  of  the  material  it  contains. 

The  Index,  which  is  alphabetical  and  analytical,  refers  to 
the  notes  as  well  as  to  the  text.  No  bibliography  has  been  added 
because,  with  the  exception  of  the  brief  notices  in  the  Uffizi 
folio  of  his  drawings,  Berenson's  essay,  my  " Dessins,"  and  a 
few  scattered  articles  devoted  chiefly  to  individual  pictures, 
nothing  that  is  not  a  mere  repetition  of  Vasari's  narrative  has 
been  written  on  the  subject.  A  complete  running  bibliography 
of  the  references  to  Pontormo  that  occur  here  and  there  in  the 


XIV 


PREFACE 

literature  of  the  history  of  art  will  be  found  in  the  footnotes 
and  in  the  bibliographies  of  the  catalogues  raisonnes. 

In  the  Catalogue  of  Authentic  Pictures  I  have  studied  the 
seventy  surviving  works  that  I  believe  to  be  genuine.  After 
the  text  itself  this  is  the  most  important  part  of  the  book.  In 
the  Catalogue  of  Attributed  Pictures  I  have  examined  in  detail 
one  hundred  and  nine  pictures  which  I  am  persuaded  have 
been  erroneously  given  to  Pontormo.  Some  of  these  are  still 
ascribed  to  him;  others  now  bear  names  concerning  the  fitness 
of  which  I  am  not  always  in  accord  with  other  critics.  In  the 
case  of  a  few  others,  notably  the  "Pieta,"  in  the  Academy  at 
Florence,  the  "Portrait  of  a  Man,"  in  Stuttgart,  the  "Portrait 
of  a  Lady,"  in  Turin,  and  the  two  portraits  in  the  Jarves 
Collection,  further  study  has  modified  the  opinion  that  I 
expressed  in  my  "Dessins."  This  catalogue,  by  the  strange 
diversity  of  the  pictures  it  contains,  reveals  the  vague  impres- 
sions and  misapprehensions  that  have  prevailed  about  Pon- 
tormo's  manner.  Since,  in  a  way,  it  defines  by  elimination  some 
of  the  qualities  that  distinguish  his  work,  it  may  serve  a  purpose 
and  prevent,  in  some  measure,  the  repetition  of  false  attribu- 
tions. In  it  will  be  found  three  pictures  ascribed  to  Pontormo 
by  Berenson,  which  I  have  not  seen  and  of  which  I  have  not 
been  able  to  obtain  photographs.  No  attributions  could  carry 
greater  weight  or  deserve  more  scrupulous  attention.  I  have, 
however,  not  felt  that  I  could  stand  sponsor  for  the  authenticity 
of  any  picture  with  which  I  am  personally  unacquainted. 

In  both  catalogues  all  the  known  material  related  to  each 
picture  is,  for  the  sake  of  easy  reference,  arranged  in  the 
following  order:  (1)  the  title  preceded  by  the  collection  or 
gallery  number;  (2)  a  detailed  description  of  the  composition 
and  the  colour;  (3)  the  "precedes"  and  the  size;  (4)  a  critical 
account  of  the  history  of  the  picture,  its  derivation,  iconography, 
significance,  and  influence  upon  other  pictures;  (5)  its  condi- 
tion; (6)  its  date;  (7)  all  preparatory  drawings  now  known  to 
exist  with  all  photographs  or  reproductions  that  have  been  made 
of  them;  (8)  documents;  (9)  reproductions,  including  copies 
and  engravings;  (10)  bibliography. 


XV 


PKEFACE 

In  addition  to  the  pictures  cited  in  the  two  catalogues  just 
mentioned,  there  are  thirty-eight  others  ascribed  to  Pontormo 
in  catalogues  of  sales  and  loan  exhibitions.  These  and  all 
details  known  about  them  I  have  placed,  as  a  matter  of  record, 
in  a  third  catalogue,  although  such  attributions  are  in  general 
quite  arbitrary  and  have  no  value  for  the  antiquarian,  unless 
he  has  been  able  to  examine  the  panels  or  canvases  in  question, 
most  of  which  cannot  now  be  traced.  An  illustration,  however, 
has  not  infrequently  been  sufficient  to  convince  me  that  the 
picture  to  which  it  refers  has  without  reason  been  thought  to 
be  a  Pontormo. 

Last,  in  this  part  of  the  book,  comes  the  list  of  forty-four 
works,  now  lost  or  unidentified.  They  are  ascribed  to  Pontormo 
by  the  documents,  by  Vasari,  or  by  other  early  writers,  and 
among  them  several,  with  which  many  drawings  that  survive 
can  be  identified,  are  of  peculiar  interest. 

The  ideal  of  absolute  completeness  that  I  have  kept  before 
me  is,  I  am  fully  aware,  unattainable  in  catalogues  of  this  kind. 
Pictures  and  drawings,  attributed  to  Pontormo  and  as  yet 
unknown  to  me,  may  at  any  time  make  their  way  into  the  market 
or  be  referred  to  in  articles  concerned  with  more  or  less  obscure 
collections. 

Except  for  a  few  cases  where  measurements  in  feet  or  inches 
have  been  cited,  the  size  of  pictures  and  drawings  is  given  in 
metres  or  centimetres. 

The  transcriptions  of  the  documents  and  of  Pontormo 's 
diary  reproduce  exactly  the  form,  spelling,  and  abbreviations 
of  the  originals. 

In  the  course  of  my  researches  I  have  made  more  than  three 
hundred  photographs.  From  these  I  have  drawn  most  of  my 
illustrations,  all  of  which  have  been  placed  in  chronological 
order,  between  the  text  and  the  Catalogue  of  Authentic  Pictures 
to  facilitate  reference  to  them  from  either  the  former  or  the 
latter.  They  should  not  only  help  the  reader  to  follow  Pon- 
tormo's  development  as  an  artist  but  enable  him  to  trace  the 
evolution  of  some  of  the  more  important  paintings.  To  give  a 
fuller  idea  of  Pontormo 's  draughtsmanship  I  have  included 


XVI 


PREFACE 

illustrations  of  a  few  drawings  which  I  have  discussed  so  fully 
in  my  "Dessins"  that  further  reference  to  them  in  this  book 
seemed  superfluous. 

My  thanks  are  especially  due  to  George  Pannly  Day,  Esq., 
without  whose  generous  and  sympathetic  interest  this  book 
might  never  have  been  printed;  to  Frank  Jewett  Mather,  Jr., 
who  has  consented  to  give  my  work  the  authority  and  interpre- 
tation of  a  foreword  from  his  pen ;  to  H.  G.  Dwight,  Esq.,  who 
has  pointed  out  to  me  certain  pictures  ascribed  to  Pontormo 
and  who  has  read  the  proofs ;  to  Mrs.  Katharine  Hooker,  for  her 
constant  encouragement  and  help;  to  J.  V.  Alden,  Esq.,  for 
information  about  the  pictures  known  as  Pontormos  in 
America,  to  the  accuracy  of  which  I  am  now  able  to  testify; 
to  Porter  Garnett,  Esq.,  whose  knowledge  of  typography  has 
helped  me  to  avoid  errors  into  which  I  might  otherwise  have 
fallen;  to  Signor  O.  H.  Giglioli;  to  L.  D.  Caskey,  Esq.;  to 
Carleton  L.  Brownson,  Esq.;  to  E.  Byrne  Hackett,  Esq.;  to 
Signor  Gino  Carlo  Sensani,  for  verifying  the  reading  of  three 
documents,  for  transcribing  the  sonnets  on  Pontormo 's  death 
and  for  sending  me  photographs  and  descriptions  of  several 
attributed  pictures  on  which  my  notes  were  incomplete;  to 
Dr.  Osvald  Siren,  for  suggestions  with  regard  to  the  pictures 
ascribed  to  Pontormo  in  the  Jarves  Collection,  the  catalogue  of 
which  he  has  recently  written  with  scholarly  acumen ;  to  William 
Clifford,  Esq.,  for  access  to  the  shelves  of  the  Library  of  the 
Metropolitan  Museum  in  New  York,  a  courtesy  that  greatly 
facilitated  and  shortened  my  work  there;  to  Bernhard  Beren- 
son,  Esq.,  to  whose  books  I  owe  the  beginning  of  my  interest 
in  Italian  art;  to  M.  Henry  Lemonnier,  membre  de  1'Institut, 
M.  Emile  Bertaux,  and  M.  Emile  Male,  whose  fine  sense  of 
values,  clarity  of  vision  and  flexible  thoroughness  of  method 
have  been  my  touchstone  in  the  pursuit  of  these  studies.  I  must 
also  acknowledge  my  gratitude  to  the  publishers  who  generously 
allowed  me  to  increase  the  scope  of  the  illustrations  when  the 
book  was  in  course  of  preparation. 

F.  M.  C. 


XVll 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Foreword  by  Frank  Jewett  Mather,  Jr.      ....  xi 

Preface    ..........  xiii 

Chapter 

I.     1494-1512 1 

II.     1512-1518 7 

III.  1518-1520 18 

IV.  1520-1522 28 

V.     1522-1527 37 

VI.     1527-1530 51 

VII.     1530  to  1545  and  Later 58 

VIII.     1545-1557 73 

IX.    Portraits 82 

X.    Last  Years :  His  Life  from  Day  to  Day    ...  89 

Paintings  and  Drawings  by  Pontormo,  following        .         .  98 

Catalogue  Raisonne  of  Authentic  Frescoes  and  Pictures      .  101 

Catalogue  Raisonne  of  Pictures  Attributed  to  Pontormo      .  193 
Catalogue  of  Pictures  Attributed  to  Pontormo  in  Catalogues 

of  Sales  and  Loan  Exhibitions    .....  241 

Catalogue  of  Lost  Pictures        ......  253 

Appendix  I:  Note  on  the  Apprenticeship  of  Pontormo       .  267 

Appendix  II :  Documents  Relative  to  the  Life  of  Pontormo  271 

Appendix  III:  Diary  of  Pontormo 295 

Index  321 


xix 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

Illustrations  are  grouped  between  pages  98-99 

Fig.    1.    "The  Hospital  of  San  Matteo,"  Academy,  Florence 
/Fig.     2.     Madonna  and  Saints,  Chapel  of  San  Luca,  SS.  Ammnziata, 

Florence 
Fig.    3.    Study  for  San  Luca  Madonna  and  Saints  (Print  Eoom, 

Dresden) 
Fig.    4.     Study  for  the  San  Luca  Madonna  and  Saints  (Uffizi  6676 

verso,  Florence) 
l/  Fig.     5.     The  Visitation,  SS.  Annunziata,  Florence 

Fig.    6.    Study  for  the  Visitation  in  SS.  Annunziata,   Florence 

(Uffizi  6603,  Florence) 
Fig.     7.     Study  for  the   Visitation  in   SS.   Annunziata,   Florence 

(Uffizi  6542,  Florence) 
Fig.    8.     Study  for  the  Baptist  of  the  Carro  della  Zecca  (Uffizi  6581 

verso,  Florence) 

Fig.    9.     Study  for  a  Lost  Pieta  (Uffizi  6690  verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  10.    Portrait  of  an  Engraver  of  Precious  Stones,  Louvre  1241, 

Paris 
Fig.  11.     Study  for  the  Lost  Santa  Cecilia  of  the  Oratory  of  Santa 

Cecilia  in  Fiesole  (Corsini  124161,  Rome) 
Fig.  12.     Sketch  for  the  Lost  Santa  Cecilia  of  the  Oratory  of  Santa 

Cecilia  in  Fiesole  (Uffizi  6694,  Florence) 

^    Fig.  13.     Madonna  and  Saints,  San  Michele  Visdomini,  Florence 
Fig.  14.     Sketch  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini (Corsini  124232,  Rome) 
Fig.  15.     Sketch  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini (Corsini  124244,  Rome) 
Fig.  16.    Sketches  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini (Uffizi  6551,  Florence) 
Fig.  17.     Sketch  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini (Uffizi  6551  verso,  Florence) 


xx 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig.  18.     Sketch  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini  (Uffizi  6545,  Florence) 
Fig.  19.     Sketch  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini  (Uffizi  6744  verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  20.     Study  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini  (Uffizi  654,  Florence) 
Fig.  21.     Study  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini  (Uffizi  6662,  Florence) 
Fig.  22.     Study  for  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini  (Uffizi  6581,  Florence) 
Fig.  23.     Study jEor  the  Madonna  and  Saints  of  San  Michele  Vis- 

domini  (Uffizi  6744,  Florence) 
Fig.  24.     Study    for    a    Lost    Madonna    and    Child    (Uffizi    6729, 

Florence) 
Fig.  25.     Study  for  the  Joseph  Discovering  Himself  to  His  Brethren 

in  the   Collection   of  Lady   Desborough,   Panshanger 

(Uffizi  6692,  Florence) 
Fig.  26.     Joseph  Discovering  Himself  to  His  Brethren,  Collection 

of  Lady  Desborough,  Panshanger 
Fig.  27.     The  Baker  Led   Out  to   Execution,   Collection   of  Lady 

Desborough,  Panshanger 
Fig.  28.     Study  for  the  Joseph  Discovering  Himself  to  His  Brethren 

(Uffizi  6542  verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  29.     Study  for  the  Baker  Led  Out  to  Execution  (Uffizi  6690, 

Florence) 
Fig.  30.    Joseph  Sold  to  Potiphar,  Collection  of  Lady  Desborough, 

Panshanger 
Fig.  31.     Study   for   the   Joseph    Sold   to   Potiphar    (Uffizi    6556, 

Florence) 
Fig.  32.     Study  for  the  Joseph  Sold  to  Potiphar  (Uffizi  6692  verso, 

Florence) 

Fig.  33.     The  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  Palazzo  Pitti  379,  Florence 
Fig.  34.     Study  for  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi  (Uffizi  6722,  Florence) 
Fig.  35.     St.  John  the  Evangelist,  San  Michele  in  Pontormo 
Fig.  36.     St.  Michael,  San  Michele  in  Pontormo 
Fig.  37.     Study  for  St.  John  the  Evangelist  and  for  the  Hands  of 

St.  Michael  of  San  Michele  in  Pontormo  (Uffizi  6571, 

Florence) 
Fig.  38.     Study  for  a  Portrait  of  a  Youth  (Uffizi  452,  Florence) 


XXll 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig.  39.    Study  for  a  Lost  Pieta  (Uffizi  300  F,  Florence) 

Fig.  40.     Study  for  St.  Michael  of  San  Michele  in  Pontormo  (Uffizi 

6506,  Florence) 

Fig.  41.    Portrait  of  a  Youth,  Palazzo  Bianco  6,  Genoa 
Fig.  42.     Portrait  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio,  Uffizi,  Florence 
Fig.  43.     Study  of  Three  Nudes  (Uffizi  672,  Florence) 
Fig.  44.     Study  of  Three  Nudes  (Uffizi  442,  Florence) 
Fig.  45.     Study  of  a  Man  (Uffizi  6571  verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  46.     Study  of  a  Nude  (Uffizi  6504,  Florence) 
Fig.  47.    Three  Sketches  of  a  Nude  (Uffizi  6516  verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  48.     Portrait  of  a  Boy,  Trivulzio  Collection,  Milan 
Fig.  49.     Study  of  a  Youth  (Uffizi  6682,  Florence) 
Fig.  50.    Pomona  and  Vertumnus,  Lunette  in  the  Medicean  Villa  at 

Poggio  a  Cajano 
Fig.  51.     Right  Half  of  the  Lunette,  in  the  Medicean  Villa  at  Poggio 

a  Cajano 
Fig.  52.    Left  Half  of  the  Lunette,  in  the  Medicean  Villa  at  Poggio 

a  Cajano 
Fig.  53.    Sketches  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6660 

verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  54.    Sketches  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6557, 

Florence) 
Fig.  55.     Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6673, 

"Florence) 
Fig.  56.    Sketch  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6514, 

Florence) 
Fig.  57.    Sketch  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6515 

verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  58.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6673 

verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  59.     Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano   (Uffizi  6544, 

Florence) 
Fig.  60.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6555, 

Florence) 
Fig.  61.     Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6731, 

Florence) 
Fig.  62.    Sketch  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6662 

verso,  Florence) 


XXlll 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig.  63.     Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6531, 

Florence) 
Fig.  64.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6547, 

Florence) 
Fig.  65.    Sketch  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6646, 

Florence) 
Fig.  66.     Sketch  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6661, 

Florence) 
Fig.  67.    Studies  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6669 

recto,  Florence) 
Fig.  68.    Studies  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6669 

verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  69.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6651, 

Florence) 
Fig.  70.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6559, 

Florence) 
Fig.  71.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6685 

recto,  Florence) 
Fig.  72.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano  (Uffizi  6579, 

Florence) 
Fig.  73.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano   (Uffizi  454, 

Florence) 
Fig.  74.    Study  for  the  Lunette  at  Poggio  a  Cajano   (Uffizi  455, 

Florence) 

Fig.  75.     Study  of  a  Nude  (Uffizi  6727  recto,  Florence) 
Fig.  76.     Study  for  a  Young  Baptist  in  the  Wilderness  (Uffizi  6597, 

Florence) 

Fig.  77.    Study  of  Three  Nudes  (Stadel  Institute  4288,  Frankfort) 
Fig.  78.     Study  of  Three  Nudes  (Uffizi  6677  verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  79.     Christ  before  Pilate,  Cloister  of  the  Certosa,  near  Florence 
Fig.  80.     The  Way  to  Golgotha,  Cloister  of  the  Certosa,  near  Flor- 
ence 

Fig.  81.     The  Risen  Christ,  Cloister  of  the  Certosa,  near  Florence 
Fig.  82.     The  Supper  at  Emmaus,  Academy  190,  Florence 
Fig.  83.     Sketch  for  a  Projected  Descent  from  the  Cross  in  the 

Cloister  of  the  Certosa,  near  Florence   (Uffizi  6622, 

Florence) 
Fig.  84.    Study  for  the  Supper  at  Emmaus    (Uffizi  6656  verso, 

Florence) 


XXIV 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig.     85.     Sketch  for  a  Projected  Nailing  to  the  Cross  in  the  Cloister 

of  the  Certosa,  near  Florence  (Uffizi  6671,  Florence) 
Fig.     86.     Study  for  a  Projected  Nailing  to  the  Cross  in  the  Cloister 

of  the  Certosa,  near  Florence  (Uffizi  6665,  Florence) 
Fig.    87.     Study  for  the  Angel  of  the  Annunciation  in  the  Capponi 

Chapel    of    Santa    Felicita,    Florence     (Uffizi    6653, 

Florence) 
Fig.     88.     Study  for  the  Virgin  of  the  Annunciation  in  the  Capponi 

Chapel  of  Santa  Felicita,  Florence  (Uffizi  448,  Florence) 
Fig.     89.     Study  for  a  Projected  Nailing  to  the  Cross  in  the  Cloister 

of  the  Certosa,  near  Florence  (Uffizi  447,  Florence) 
Fig.    90.     Detail  of  the  St.  Quentin  in  Borgo  San  Sepolcro 
Fig.    91.     Sketch  for  the  Head  of  the  St.  Quentin  in  Borgo  San 

Sepolcro  (Uffizi  6647  verso,  Florence) 

Fig.    92.    The  Deposition,  Capponi  Chapel,  Santa  Felicita,  Florence 
Fig.    93.     Study  for  the  Deposition  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  (Uffizi 

6666,  Florence) 
Fig.    94.     Study  for  the  Deposition  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  (Uffizi 

6627,  Florence) 
Fig.    95.     Study  for  the  Deposition  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  (Uffizi 

6577,  Florence) 
Fig.    96.     Sketches   for   the   Deposition   of   the    Capponi   Chapel 

(Corsini  124230,  Kome) 
Fig.     97.     Sltudies  for  the  Deposition  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  (Uffizi 

6730,  Florence) 
Fig.     98.     Sketches  for  the  Deposition  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  (Uffizi 

6613  verso,  Florence) 
Fig.    99.    Study  for  the  Deposition  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  (Uffizi 

6619,  Florence) 
Fig.  100.     Study  for  the  Deposition  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  (Uffizi 

6576  recto,  Florence) 

Fig.  101.    Study  for  a  Portrait  of  a  Young  Girl  (Uffizi  449,  Flor- 
ence) 

Fig.  102.     Studies  for  a  Portrait  of  a  Boy  (Uffizi  6667,  Florence) 
Fig.  103.    The  Madonna,  Child  and  Little  St.  John,  Palazzo  Corsini 
/  141,  Florence 

104.    The  Madonna,  St.  Anne  and  Four  Saints,  Louvre  1240, 

Paris 

xxv 


/  LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig.  105.     Study  for  the  Madonna,  St.  Anne  and  Four  Saints,  in  the 

Louvre  (Uffizi  460,  Florence) 

Fig.  106.     The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice,  Palazzo  Pitti  182,  Flor- 
ence 

Fig.  107.     The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice,  Uffizi  1187,  Florence 
Fig.  108.     Study  for  a  Variant  of  the  Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice 

(Museum  21253,  Hamburg) 

Fig.  109.     Study  for  a  St.  Jerome  (Uffizi  441,  Florence) 
Fig.  110.     Study  of  a  Nude  Woman  (Uffizi  441  verso,  Florence) 
Fig.  111.     The  Visitation  in  the  Parish  Church  of  Carmignano 
Fig.  112.     Study  for  the  Visitation  in  the  Parish  Church  of  Car- 
mignano (Uffizi  461,  Florence) 
Fig.  113.     Study  of  a  Nude  (Uffizi  6723,  Florence) 
Fig.  114.    Birth-plate:  The  Birth  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  Uffizi 

1198,  Florence 

Fig.  115.     Portrait  of  a  Youth,  Pinacoteca  75,  Lucca 
Fig.  116.     Portrait  of  a  Youth,  Morelli  Collection  59,  Bergamo 
Fig.  117.    Anatomical  Study  (Uffizi  6718,  Florence) 
Fig.  118.    Portrait  of  a  Man,  Uffizi  1220,  Florence 
Fig.  119.    Lucretia,  Borghese  Gallery  75,  Eome 
Fig.  120.     Study  for  a  Portrait  of  a  Soldier  (Uffizi  463  F,  Florence) 
Fig.  121.     Study  of  a  Nude  (Uffizi  6561,  Florence) 
Fig.  122.     Study  for  the  Three  Graces  (Uffizi  6748,  Florence) 
Fig.  123.    Venus  and  Cupid,  Uffizi  1284,  Florence 
Fig.  124.     Portrait  of  Alessandro  de '  Medici,  Johnson  Collection  83, 

Philadelphia 

Fig.  125.    Portrait  of  a  Man,  Palazzo  Pitti  249,  Florence 
Fig.  126.     Portrait  of  Bartolomeo  Compagni,  Stirling  Collection, 

Keir,  Dunblane,  Scotland 

Fig.  127.     Portrait  of  a  Young  Woman,  Stadel  Institute  14  A,  Frank- 
fort 
Fig.  128.     Portrait  of  a  Young  Woman,  Von  Dirksen  Collection, 

Berlin 

Fig.  129.    Portrait  of  a  Woman  in  Green,  Augusteum  19,  Oldenburg 
Fig.  130.    Portrait  of  the  Cardinal  Spannocchi  Cervini,  Borghese 

Gallery  408,  Rome 

Fig.  131.     Portrait  of  a  Lady  with  a  Volume  of  Verse,  former  Yerkes 
Collection 

xxvi 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig.  132.    Probable  Study  for  One  of  the  Lost  Allegorical  Figures 

in  the  Loggia  of  the  Medicean  Villa  at  Castello  (Uffizi 

6584,  Florence) 
Fig.  133.    Probable  Study  for  One  of  the  Lost  Allegorical  Figures  in 

the  Loggia  of  the  Medicean  Villa  at  Castello  (Uffizi 

6586,  Florence) 
Fig.  134.    Benjamin  at  the  Court  of  Pharaoh.     Tapestry  Woven 

after  a  Design  by  Pontormo,  Palazzo  del  Quirinale, 

Rome 
Fig.  135.     Studies  for  the  Tapestry  of  Benjamin  at  the  Court  of 

Pharaoh  (Uffizi  6593,  Florence) 
Fig.  136.    Joseph  and  Potiphar's  Wife.     Tapestry  Woven  after  a 

Design  by  Pontormo,  Palazzo  del  Quirinale,  Rome 
Fig.  137.    Study  for  the  Lost  Expulsion  from  Paradise  in  San 

Lorenzo,  Florence  (Uffizi  6715,  Florence) 

Fig.  138.     Study  for  the  Lost  Christ  in  Glory  in  San  Lorenzo,  Flor- 
ence (Uffizi  6609,  Florence) 
Fig.  139.    Study  for  the  Lost  Moses  Receiving  the  Law  in  San 

Lorenzo,  Florence  (Uffizi  6749,  Florence) 
Fig.  140.     Study  for  the  Lost  Four  Evangelists  in  San  Lorenzo, 

Florence  (Uffizi  6750,  Florence) 
Fig.  141.     Study  for  the  Lost  Sacrifice  of  Cain  and  Death  of  Abel 

in  San  Lorenzo,  Florence  (Uffizi  6739,  Florence) 
Fig.  142.    Study  for  the  Lost  Death  of  Abel  in  San  Lorenzo,  Flor- 

.  ence  (Uffizi  6746,  Florence) 
Fig.  143.     Study  for  the  Lost  Tilling  of  the  Soil  in  San  Lorenzo, 

Florence  (Uffizi  6535,  Florence) 
Fig.  144.     Study  for  the  Lost  Deluge  in  San  Lorenzo,  Florence 

(Uffizi  6753,  Florence) 
Fig.  145.     Study  for  the  Lost  Deluge  in  San  Lorenzo,  Florence 

(Uffizi  6752,  Florence) 
Fig.  146.     Study  for  the  Lost  Deluge  in  San  Lorenzo,  Florence 

(Uffizi  6528,  Florence) 
Fig.  147.     Study  for  the  Lost  Ascent  into  Heaven  in  San  Lorenzo, 

Florence  (Academy,  Venice) 
Fig.  148.    Study  for  a  Figure  in  One  of  the  Lost  Frescoes  in  San 

Lorenzo,  Florence  (Uffizi  6560,  Florence) 
Fig.  149.    Study  for  a  Figure  in  One  of  the  Lost  Frescoes  in  San 

Lorenzo,  Florence  (Uffizi  6679,  Florence) 

xxvii 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig.  150.    Portrait  of  an  Old  Lady,  Belvedere  48,  Vienna 

Fig.  151.    Portrait  of  a  Lady,  Jacquemart- Andre  Collection,  Paris 

Fig.  152.    Page    4    of    Pontormo's    Diary    (Biblioteca    Nazionale, 

Florence) 
Fig.  153.     Study  for  the  Figure  in  the  Lost  Frescoes  of  San  Lorenzo 

Mentioned  in  the  Last  Line  of  Page  4  of  Pontormo's 

Diary  (Uffizi  6760,  Florence) 


XXVlll 


ABBREVIATIONS 

A.  S.  F.  —  Archivio  di  Stato  di  Firenze. 

B.  F.  D.  —  Berenson,  Drawings  of  the  Florentine  Painters. 

B.  F.  P.  R.  —  Berenson,  Florentine  Painters  of  the  Renaissance. 

Dessins  —  Clapp,  Dessins  de  Pontormo. 

D.  Gr.  U.  —  Disegni  della  Galleria  degli  Uffizi  —  the  folio  devoted  to 

Pontormo 's  drawings. 
On  Certain  Drawings  —  Clapp,  On  Certain  Drawings  of  Pontormo 

(pamphlet). 

Photo.  F.  M.  C.  —  photographs  taken  by  the  author. 
Vasari  —  Milanesi's  edition  of  the  " Lives." 


JACOPO  CARUCCI  DA  PONTORMO 


JACOPO  CARUCCI 

DA  PONTORMO 


CHAPTER  I 

1494-1512 

Vasari  says  that  Jacopo  Carucci,  called  II  Pontormo,  was 
generally  believed  to  be  descended  from  an  old  Tuscan  family 
that  came  originally  from  Ancisa,  the  famous  "castello"  in 
Valdarno  where  Petrarch's  ancestors  were  born.1  From  other 
sources  we  know  that  in  the  Middle  Ages  one  branch  of  the 
Carucci  lived  in  Monte  Pilli  and  Terzano,  castle-towns  on  the 
Poggio  di  San  Martino  in  the  Arno  valley,2  and  that  there  were 
in  Florence"  between  the  thirteenth  and  the  seventeenth  century 
still  other  Carucci  whose  forbears  had  lived  in  Colle  Val  d'Elsa.3 

Numerous  documents  in  the  Florentine  Archives,  the 
Hospital  of  the  Innocents,  the  Marucelliana,  and  the  Biccar- 
diana,  mention  Florentines  of  our  painter's  name.  The  earliest 
of  these  references4  known  to  me  states  that  the  family  burial- 
place  was  in  Santa  Croce,  under  the  vaults  of  the  room  of 
the  Compagnia  di  Loreto,  and  that  there  one  formerly  read: 
"Filiorum  Carucci  1298."  In  1348  a  Francesco  Carucci,5 

1  Vasari,  VI,  245. 

2  Biblioteea  Nazionale,  Firenze,  Priorista  di  Monaldi,  p.  267  v.     See  Appendix  II, 
Doc.  1. 

s  A.  S.  F.,  Consorteria,  S.  Giovanni,  I,  94  v.    See  Appendix  II,  Doe.  2. 

*  Biblioteea  Riccardiana,  Firenze,  Cod.  1894,  p.  132.     See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  3. 

6  Biblioteea  Nazionale,  Firenze,  Codice  Araldico,  p.  129.     See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  6. 


PONTORMO 

"pianellaio,"6  was  buried  in  San  Pancrazio,  and  it  was  in  the 
following  year  that  the  first  member  of  the  Monte  Pilli  branch 
of  the  family  took  up  his  residence  in  Florence7 — a  certain 
Taddeo  di  Caruccio,  two  of  whose  descendants  were  buried 
almost  half  a  century  later  in  the  cloister  of  Santa  Croce  and 
their  gravestone  marked:  "Ruggieri  Taddei  Carucci  et  Suor 
MCCCLXX.  ' '  Soon  after  this  latter  date  we  come  upon  the  earliest 
figure  among  Pontormo's  remoter  ancestors  whose  place  in 
Florentine  society  is  made  clear  by  the  documents,  a  Ruggieri 
di  Taddeo  Carucci8  who  on  February  28,  1380,  was  one  of  the 
Ufficiali  della  Torre  and  evidently,  therefore,  a  person  of  some 
importance.  In  1381  a  Rogerius  Taddei  Carucci,9  '  i  pannolini, ' no 
is  mentioned  in  the  "Squittinio  del  Gonf  alone  di  Bue,"  and  we 
know  that  five  years  later,  between  March,  1386,  and  April, 
1387,  a  Carucci  of  the  same  name,11  but  this  time  called  a 
"vinaiolo,"12  sat  in  the  Signoria  of  Florence.  The  parish 
churches  of  the  family  were  Santa  Croce  and  San  Remigio.13 

Pontormo's  ancestors  appear,  then,  to  have  been  burghers 
and  free  citizens14  of  the  Republic  of  Florence.  They  followed 
humble  trades  like  many  of  their  fellow-townsmen,  but  they  also 
took  part,  at  an  early  date,  in  governing  the  city.  During  the 
fifteenth  century  their  fortunes  do  not  seem  to  have  risen,  and, 
although  one  branch  of  the  family  continued  to  live  in  Florence, 
we  know  little  about  them  except  that  in  1460  a  Ruggiero 
Carucci  was  buried  in  Santa  Croce,15  and  that  between  1481 

6  Tile  or  slipper  maker. 

7  Priorista  di  Monaldi,  p.  267  v. 

s  Biblioteca  Eiccardiana,  Cod.  1187.    See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  4. 

9  Delizie  degli  Eruditi  Toscani,  XVI,  139.     These  last  three  allusions  to  a  Rogerius 
or  Ruggieri  Carucci  may  possibly  refer  to  the  same  person,  although  in  that  case  he  would 
seem  to  have  followed  different  occupations  at  different  times.     The  inscription   on  the 
tombstone  in  Santa  Croce  is  drawn  from  the  "Poligrafo  Gargane,"  now  in  the  Biblioteea 
Nazionale  of  Florence. 

10  Linen-draper. 

11  Biblioteca  Marucelliana,  Firenze,  Cod.  C  1,  p.  278.    See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  5. 

12  Wine-merchant. 

is  Biblioteca  Riccardiana,  Cod.  1894,  p.  132.     See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  3. 
i*  For  the  arms  of  the  family,  see  Appendix  II,  Doc.  1  and  6. 
is  Codice  Araldico,  p.  129.    See  Appendix  II,  Doe.  6. 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

and  1622  the  books  of  the  Consorteria16  cite  no  less  than  eighteen 
Carucci,  all  of  whom  were  of  the  Gonfalone  del  Bue,  and  lived 
in  the  quarter  of  Santa  Croce.17  In  the  records  of  the  Hospital 
of  the  Innocents,18  a  Lisabetta  Carucci,  wife  of  Pagolo,  is 
mentioned  several  times  in  1528-1530,  and  it  is  evident  from 
other  sources  that  later  on  the  Carucci19  owned  a  chapel  in  the 
Carmine  which  passed  in  1624  into  the  possession  of  the  Delia 
Moriana  family.20 

Pontormo's  father,  Bartolomeo  di  Jacopo  di  Martino 
Carucci,  was  —  Vasari's  testimony  in  this  connection  is 
precise21  —  a  Florentine,  a  painter,  "secondo  que'  tempi 
ragionevole, "  and  a  pupil  of  Ghirlandaio.  Of  his  life  and 
work  nothing  is  known.  I  have  not  been  able  to  find,  either  in 
the  Florentine  Archives  or  in  those  of  the  Collegiata  of  Empoli, 
even  so  much  as  the  date  of  his  death.  According  to  Vasari, 
he  carried  on  his  trade  chiefly  among  the  hamlets  of  the 
Valdarno,  and  it  is  not  impossible  that  unidentified  specimens 
of  his  work  may  still  exist  in  the  frescoes  of  the  churches  or 
shrines  of  those  villages,  or  among  the  paintings  that  once 
belonged  to  them,  but  have  since  been  scattered. 

Bartolomeo  di  Jacopo 's  wandering  life  as  a  provincial 
artist  brought  him  finally,  sometime  about  1490,  to  Empoli,22 
and  while  he  was  at  work  there  upon  certain  pictures  he  went 
to  live  in  the  village  of  Pontormo,  which  lies,  at  a  distance  of 
not  more  than  a  mile  from  Empoli,  in  the  direction  of  Montelupo. 

ie  A.  S.  F.,  Consorteria,  S.  Croce,  I  and  II,  83;  idem,  Gonfalone  Bue,  II,  26  v. 
See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  7. 

IT  The  Carucci  da  Colle  lived  in  the  Gonfalone  del  Chiave.  The  books  of  the  Con- 
sorteria (I,  94  v.)  mention  two  members  of  this  branch  of  the  family.  See  Appendix  II, 
Doc.  2. 

isEntrata  e  Uscita  D  (1527-1528),  p.  54;  idem,  Z,  p.  52  (October  10,  1530);  for 
mention  of  a  Checci  Carucci,  idem,  p.  54.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  8. 

i»  For  references  of  a  later  date  to  other  members  of  the  family,  see  Bibl.  Magliab., 
Cod.  401,  Cl.  25,  p.  80 — "Buggieri  di  Taddeo  Carucci,  1545,  De  Notai  Nobili";  A.  S.  F., 
Necrologia  della  Grascia  (1570-1591) — "M.  Marietta  donna  fu  di  S.  Euggieri  Carucci  in 
S.  Croee  10  luglio,  1572";  A.  S.  F.,  Catasto,  Niechio,  1534,  G.  L.,  S.  Spirito — "Jacopo  di 
Giovanni  Carucci ' ' ;  idem,  Bue,  F.  I.,  S.  Croce — ' '  Jacopo  di  Luca  Carucci ' ' ;  see  also 
Ammirato,  Stor.  Spogl,  p.  329;  Bibl.  Eiccard.,  Cod.  3107,  p.  163. 

20  Biblioteca  Marucelliana,  Cod.  B  VII.  14,  p.  11.    See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  9. 

21  VI,  245. 

22  Ibid. 

3 


PONTORMO 

It  is  now  a  diminutive  place,  although  in  early  days  it  had  at 
least  three  churches.  Between  it  and  Empoli  a  little  torrent 
runs,  which  is  called  the  Orme,  and  from  the  bridge  that  crosses 
this  stream  the  village  takes  its  name.23  Around  it  on  all  sides 
the  level  land,  covered  with  vineyards,  stretches  away  toward 
the  olive-grey  lower  slopes  of  Monte  Albano  and  east,  across 
broader  spaces,  to  foot-hills  rising  range  behind  range  to  the 
Apennines.  The  landscape  is  Tuscan  with  a  touch  in  it  of 
Pisan  breadth  and  a  faint  taste  of  the  sea.  Its  salient  features 
are  the  Orme  bridge  and  the  Romanesque  campanile  of  San 
Michele.  Here,  according  to  Vasari,  Jacopo's  father  married 
Alessandra,  "una  molto  virtuosa  e  da  bene  fanciulla,"  daughter 
of  Pasquale  di  Zanobi  and  Mona  Brigida,  and  here,  on  May 
24,  1494,24  our  master  was  born.  The  tradition  of  art  was  part 
of  Pontormo's  inheritance. 

Jacopo  spent  his  earliest  years  in  his  native  place,  where, 
while  still  a  child,  he  lost  in  quick  succession,  father,  mother 
and  grandfather.  It  was  to  his  grandmother,  therefore,  that  he 
owed  his  bringing-up  and  early  education,  and  it  was  at  her 
instance  that  he  was  taught  the  rudiments  of  Latin  and  to  read 
and  write.  Later  on  she  took  him  to  Florence  and  placed  him 
in  the  care  of  a  certain  Battista,  "calzolaio,"  who  was  a  distant 
kinsman  of  hers.25  This  journey  must  have  been  made  before 

23  O.  H.  Giglioli,  Empoli  Artistica,  p.  192. 

24  The  sacristy  of  San  Michele  at  Pontormo  contains  no  baptismal  register  earlier 
than  the   seventeenth   century.      Some   of   the  records   of   this   church   may,   however,   be 
preserved  among  the  books  of  the  Knights  of  Santo   Stefano  in  the  Archives  of  Pisa. 
They  are  not  to  be  found  in  the  Collegiata  at  Empoli.    The  date  that  we  have  given  is  based 
upon  the  following  calculation:     The  commemorative  tablet,  placed,  it  would  seem,  in  the 
choir  of  San  Lorenzo  in  1558  when  the  frescoes  that  Pontormo  painted  there  were  at  last 
finished  by  Bronzino,  bore  an  inscription  which  is  quoted  by  Moreni  (II,  119).     This  gave 
Pontormo's  age,  when  he  died,  as  62  years,  7  months  and  6  days.     From  the  Libro  dei 
Morti  we  know  that  his  death  occurred  on  December  31,  1556,  or  January  1,  1557   (New 
Style).     Simple  subtraction  gives  the  date  of  his  birth.     Vasari    (VI,  245)    erroneously 
states  that  Pontormo  was  born  in  1493  and  that  he  was  sixty-five  at  the  time  of  his  death. 
Milanesi   (VI,  288)   notices  these  errors  and  quotes  in  a  note  the  inscription  from  San 
Lorenzo.     We  now  know  that  when  Pontormo  became  a  "commesso"  of  the  Hospital  of 
the  Innocents,  on  August  20,  1549,  he  gave  his  age  as  fifty-five — conclusive  proof  that  he 
was  born  in  1494. 

25  Vasari,  "VT,  246. 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WOEK 

1503,  and  we  may  surmise  that,  even  at  that  early  date,  the 
orphan  boy's  future  had  been  decided  upon. 

Vasari  implies  that  Jacopo's  training  as  a  painter  did  not 
begin  until  1506-1507,26  although,  from  a  document27  that  I  have 
discovered,  it  appears  to  be  not  unlikely  that  before  April  10, 
1503,  he  had  already  begun  his  apprenticeship,  for  on  that  day 
the  monks  of  Santa  Maria  Novella,  wishing  to  record  the  terms 
upon  which  they  had  sold  a  house  in  the  GKialf  onda  to  Alberti- 
nelli,  had  a  deed  drawn  up  in  which  mention  is  made  of  a  Jacopo 
Carucci.  Since,  between  1500  and  1505,  no  adult  of  that  name 
is  referred  to  in  either  the  Catasto  or  the  Consorteria,  we  are, 
it  would  seem,  justified  in  believing  that  the  Jacopo  in  question 
was  none  other  than  our  master,  although  he  was,  of  course, 
only  a  child.28 

Did  the  fact  that  his  father  had  been  a  painter  influence 
his  relatives  when  they  thought  of  choosing  a  trade  for  the  boy  ? 
Was  Jacopo  a  painter  by  chance "?  Or  did  he  show  an  aptitude 
that  parents  in  those  days  were  often  quick  to  notice  and 
appreciate?  We  do  not  know.  We  have,  however,  reason  to 
conjecture  that  he  was  precocious,  for  Vasari  speaks  of  a  small 
" Annunciation,"  painted  while  Jacopo  was  still  with  Alberti- 
nelli,29  which  the  elder  master  used  proudly  to  show  to  all  those 
who  came  to  his  "bottega."  Raphael  once  saw  it,  and  was 
amazed  that-  it  was  the  work  of  one  so  young.  The  little  panel 
must  therefore  have  been  in  existence  before  September  5, 
1508,  the  date  of  Raphael's  departure  for  Rome.30  Pontormo 
was  not  then  fourteen. 

We  cannot  tell  how  long  Jacopo  frequented  Albertinelli's 
workshop,  but  in  1507  he  had  perhaps  already  left  it.  At  any 
rate,  Albertinelli  was  not  the  clever  boy's  only  master.  As  an 
orphan,  who  had  escaped  from  the  bondage  of  apprenticeship 

26  ma. 

27  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  102,  No.  89,  Eicordi,  pp.  14,  41  f .     See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  10. 
2«  For  the  early  age  at  which  children  were  sometimes  apprenticed,  see  Vasari 's 

statement  (VI,  202)  that  Bugiardini  went  to  work  with  Ghirlandaio  while  the  latter  was 
painting  the  choir  of  Santa  Maria  Novella,  in  other  words,  when  he  was  only  ten  years  old 

29  Vasari,  VI,  246. 

«o  Idem,  IV,  329. 


PONTORMO 

by  some  happy  chance  the  nature  of  which  we  are  unable  to 
define,  he  was  freer  than  most  gifted  boys  are  at  his  age.  No 
parent  hampered  him,  for,  if  we  are  to  believe  Vasari,  Mona 
Brigida  soon  returned  with  Jacopo's  sister31  to  Pontormo,  and 
from  there  she  could  hardly  have  influenced  her  grandson. 
However  that  may  have  been,  we  now  know  from  a  document 
that,  on  January  24,  1508,  all  that  was  left  of  his  father's  tiny 
estate  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Public  Guardians.32 

Left,  then,  to  work  out  his  own  future  unaided  and  undi- 
rected Pontormo  gave  Immediate  evidence  of  his  mobility  of 
spirit.  No  master  satisfied  him,  and  he  passed  rapidly  from 
one  to  another.  Before  he  reached  sixteen  he  had  tasted  some- 
thing of  the  simplicity  of  the  quattrocento  tradition  that 
lingered  in  the  work  of  Albertinelli,  the  fantastic  playfulness 
of  Pier  di  Cosimo,  the  enigmatic  spirit  of  Leonardo's  recondite 
beauty,  and  the  warm  naturalism  of  Andrea.  These  were, 
according  to  Vasari,83  his  masters,  and  Pontormo 's  early  work 
corroborates  his  biographer's  assertion:  it  is  a  curious  mixture 
of  many  tendencies.  The  doll-like  figures  in  trailing  robes  of 
the  "  Hospital  of  San  Matteo"  (fig.  1)  owe  much  to  Pier  di 
Cosimo;  the  composition  of  the  "San  Luca  Madonna"  (fig.  2) 
is  well  within  the  canon  of  Fra  Bartolommeo,  Albertinelli 's 
master  and  partner;  the  chiaroscuro  of  the  Visdomini  and 
Parinola  panels  is  derived  from  the  practice  of  Leonardo ;  the 
"putti"  of  the  Santa  Veronica  fresco  and  the  saints  of  the 
"Visitation"  (fig.  5),  at  the  Annunziata,  are  reminiscent  of 
Andrea. 

The  variety  of  influences  that  we  detect  in  these  pictures 
demonstrates  that  as  a  youth  Pontormo  was  restless  and 
impressionable.  Vasari  represents  him  as  thoughtful,  melan- 
choly, and  taciturn,  nursing  his  plans  in  silence  and  not 
infrequently  an  object  of  ridicule  to  his  fellow-apprentices 
most  of  whom  must  have  been  of  smaller  talent  and  of  coarser 
grain.  A  friendless,  bitter  childhood  marked  the  sensitive  and 
precocious  boy  whose  timidity  forecast  the  solitary  shyness  of 
his  later  life. 

si  Idem,  VI,  246.  32  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  11.  »»  VI,  246. 

6 


CHAPTER  II 

1512-1518 

When  Giuliano  de'  Medici  rode  into  Florence  with  his 
relatives  and  friends  on  September  14, 1512,1  Soderini's  govern- 
ment was  at  an  end,  and  the  city  faced  a  new  regime.  Vengeance 
was  visited  upon  the  conspirators  Boscoli  and  Capponi,2 
persecutions  upon  the  friends,  even  upon  the  dependents  of 
Soderini,3  and  the  people  applauded.  A  year  later  they 
publicly  rejoiced  at  the  election  of  Leo  X,*  and  no  observer 
could  have  failed  to  realize  that,  in  the  spirit  of  Florentine 
democracy,  fundamental  changes  had  taken  place.  One 
curious  result  of  these  changes  was  that,  from  1512  on,  an 
increasing  proportion  of  the  orders  given  to  artists  came  from 
the  Medici  or  their  satellites.  No  scantiest  fragment  of 
information  concerning  the  political  sympathies  of  the  young 
Pontormo  has  survived,  and  it  is  not  inconceivable  that  he  was 
too  much  absorbed  in  his  work  to  care  what  changes  took  place 
around  him.  All  we  can  say  is  that  he  received,  between  1512 
and  1515,  five  commissions  from  the  usurpers  or  their  partisans.6 

We  do  not  know  to  whom  Jacopo  owed  his  first  important 
commission.  It  was  for  a  fresco  which  was  once  in  a  chapel  of 
San  Ruffillo  in  Piazza  dell 'Olio6  —  a  work  for  which  we  have 
no  documents.7  Vasari  places  it  after  the  "Faith  and  Charity" 

1  Guicciardini,  Stor.  d '  Italia,  XI,  ii,  5,  pp.  15-20. 

2  Villari,  II,  195. 

3  Guicciardini,  Op.  ined.,  VI,  146. 

*  Nardi,  VI,  ii,  31.    Landucci,  pp.  336  f. 

s  The  "Faith  and  Charity"  of  the  portal  of  the  Annunziata,  the  triumphal  cars 
for  the  Compagnia  del  Broncone  and  for  the  Compagnia  del  Diamante,  the  triumphal  arch 
at  the  head  of  the  Via  del  Pelagic,  the  frescoes  in  the  Pope's  Chapel. 

6  The  church  was  destroyed  when  the  palace  of  the  archbishop  was  rebuilt ;  the 
fresco  was  transferred  to  the  Chapel  of  San  Luca  in  the  Annunziata  in  1813. 

*  The  records  of  the  church  have  disappeared. 


PONTORMO 

of  the  facade  of  the  Annunziata.8  We  have,  however,  every 
reason  to  conjecture  that  it  was  executed  between  the  autumn  of 
1512  and  the  summer  of  1513.  The  upper  part  of  this  fresco 
terminated  in  a  lunette  of  "God  the  Father  with  Cherubim," 
which  has  been  destroyed.  It  is  interesting  to  remark  that  the 
same  motive  had  been  treated  by  Albertinelli9  once  at  least  to 
our  knowledge,  and  that  when  Jacopo  himself  used  it,  a  year  or 
two  later  in  the  Pope's  Chapel,  he  did  so  quite  in  the  spirit  of 
his  old  master.  The  ruined  remains  of  the  San  Ruffillo  fresco 
(fig.  2)  are  still  preserved  in  the  Chapel  of  San  Luca  at  the 
Annunziata  and  reveal  a  Madonna  standing,  the  Child  in  her 
arms,  and  with  her  two  saints  that  stand  and  two  that  kneel. 
These  figures  have  in  them  something  of  the  last  flicker  of  the 
quattrocento  tradition,  which  Albertinelli  had  transmitted  to 
our  master.  The  composition  is  reminiscent  of  Fra  Barto- 
lommeo,  and,  though  juvenile,  it  is  not  without  a  stately 
simplicity  and  a  naive  charm.  Pontormo  was,  in  all  likelihood, 
already  at  work  in  Andrea's  shop  when  he  executed  this  fresco,10 
but  he  had  not  yet  made  his  own  the  larger  characteristics  of 
Andrea's  craft.  The  reason  for  this  was  simple:  Andrea 
developed  much  more  slowly  than  Jacopo,  and,  though  he  was 
eight  years  Pontormo 's  senior,  his  style  was  still,  in  1512-1514, 
tentative  and  immature. 

For  the  San  Ruffillo  fresco  we  have  two  drawings  (fig.  3 
and  4),  which  are  particularly  precious  documents,  because 
they  give  us  an  insight  into  the  formation  of  Pontormo 's 
draughtsmanship.  One  (Dresden,  No.  200) "  is  an  angular 
variant,  scattered  in  its  modelling  but  searching  in  its  contours, 
of  the  technique  that  was  employed  by  Andrea  between  1510 
and  1514,  and  in  it  Jacopo 's  effort  to  imitate  his  master  is 
unquestionably  evident.  He  tried,  crudely  but  earnestly,  to 
catch  the  tricks  of  Andrea's  hand.  The  other  sheet  (Uffizi 

8  VI,  256.     Kicha,  IV,  146. 

»Cf.,  for  example,  the  "Holy  Trinity"  by  Albertinelli  (Vasari,  IV,  222)  which 
is  now  No.  63  in  the  Academy  at  Florence. 

10  Andrea's  shop  was  in  the  Sapienza,  near  the  Annunziata.  He  shared  it  with 
Franciabigio. 

^Dessins,  pp.  83  f. 

8 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

6676  verso),12  a  study  from  the  nude  for  the  Madonna,  is  more 
vigorous,  and  in  its  structure  recalls  the  nudes  of  the  "Battle 
of  the  Cascina."  Even  at  so  early  a  date  Jacopo  was  feeling 
his  way  in  a  new  direction. 

Late  in  the  summer  of  1513  our  young  painter  received  a 
more  important  task.  The  Servites,  who  were  "Palleschi," 
were  energetically  proceeding  with  the  embellishment  of  their 
convent  of  the  Annunziata  in  celebration  of  the  election  of 
Leo  X,  and  in  the  summer  following  that  event,  Andrea,13 
Franciabigio  and  Rosso  were  all  at  work  in  the  small  cloister 
or  atrium  of  their  church.  Jacopo  was  chosen,  almost  by 
accident,  to  do  part  of  the  projected  work,  and  in  this  connection 
Vasari  tells  a  story.14  Andrea  di  Cosimo15  had,  it  would  seem, 
been  commissioned  to  paint  the  arms  of  Leo  above  the  principal 
arch  of  the  fagade  and,  finding  himself  unequal  to  the  task, 
had  called  in  Pontormo.  Payments  that  I  have  found  in  the 
Libro  del  Camarlingo  prove  that  Jacopo  worked  on  this  fresco 
in  the  autumn  and  winter  of  1513  and  in  the  spring  of  1514." 
The  last  payment  was  made  in  June,  1514.  From  these  same 
accounts  it  is  also  clear  that  the  mechanical  part  of  the 
decoration,  such  as  the  gilding,  was  done  by  the  very  Andrea 
di  Cosimo  Feltrini,17  who  according  to  Vasari  had  undertaken 
to  complete  with  his  own  hands  the  "stemma"  and  all  its 
decoration^  Still  another  story,  recorded  by  Vasari,  has  it  that 

12  Hid.,  p.  226. 

!3 1  have  found  several  payments  made  to  him  during  this  period  (A.  S.  F.,  Convento 
119,  No.  705,  pp.  76,  106,  116). 

"VI,  248. 

is  For  the  life  of  Andrea  di  Cosimo  Feltrini,  see  Vasari,  V,  204-210.  The  records 
of  the  Servites  tell  us  that  in  1510-1511  he  painted  the  fa§ade  of  their  church  in  mono- 
chrome (A.  S.  F.,  Convento  119,  Libro  del  Camarlingo,  1509-1512,  p.  49;  Entrata  e  Uscita, 
No.  747,  p.  84).  From  documents  that  I  have  discovered  we  know  that  he  also  painted 
the  arms  of  Leo  X  between  two  doors  opening  into  the  church  from  the  small  cloister. 
For  these  he  received  on  September  3,  1513,  fourteen  lire  on  account  (A.  S.  F.,  Convento 
119,  No.  705,  p.  103).  See  also  Vasari,  V,  207.  Feltrini  was  skilled  in  gilding  and 
grotesques.  On  several  occasions  he  was  associated  with  Pontormo,  with  Bidolf  o  Ghirlandaio, 
with  Franciabigio  (at  Poggio  a  Cajano),  and  still  later  with  Vasari  (decorations  for  the 
reception  of  Charles  V  at  Florence). 

i«A.  8.  F.,  Convento  119,  No.  705,  pp.  113  v.,  122  v.,  124  r.,  127  r.,  132  r.  See 
Appendix  II,  Doc.  12. 

IT  Ibid.,  p.  124  r. 

9 


PONTORMO 

the  young  Pontormo  hid  himself  in  Sant'Agostino  alia  Porta 
a  Faenza  to  make  his  drawings,  and  that  until  they  were  quite 
finished  he  did  not  go  to  the  "bottega"  to  show  them  to  his 
master.  When  Andrea  saw  them  he  was  stupefied.  And  from 
that  day,  for  reasons  known  only  to  himself,  he  shut  the  doors 
of  his  shop  against  Jacopo.18  Such  is  Vasari's  tale,  mere 
gossip  perhaps,  but  indicative  of  an  attitude  of  mind  not  unlike 
that  of  the  whimsical  and  solitary  Pontormo. 

He  now  withdrew  from  the  life  of  the  "botteghe,"  and,  says 
his  biographer,  by  practising  great  economy  —  "comincio  a 
fare  sottilissime  spese  perche  era  poverino" —  he  finished  his 
part  in  the  decoration  of  Leo's  arms  for  the  Servites.  Hardly, 
however,  had  he  completed  it  when  he  made  up  his  mind  to 
destroy  it,  and  paint  it  all  over  again  from  a  design  upon  which 
he  had  already  begun  work  when  to  his  great  indignation  the 
fresco  was  uncovered.  Here  too,  Vasari's  narrative  is  true 
to  Jacopo 's  sensitive,  searching,  and  disinterested  nature. 
Even  as  a  boy  he  had  a  touching  eagerness  of  mind,  a  thorough- 
going contempt  for  work  that  he  had  put  behind  him. 

The  fresco,  which  represented  Faith  and  Charity19  with  two 
"putti"  that  supported  the  papal  blazon,  is  now  all  but 
obliterated,  although  one  still  dimly  discerns  two  seated 
figures,  voluminously  draped,  and  about  them,  traces  of  "putti," 
seated  or  flying.  That  phase  of  Andrea's  art  which  is  exem- 
plified by  his  "Marriage  of  St.  Catherine"  seems  to  have 
presided  over  the  composition,  but  the  work  has  been  too  badly 
damaged  to  yield  any  secrets  of  form  -or  modelling.  Vasari 
devotes  to  this  decoration  two  pages  in  which  he  praises  the 
beauty  of  the  "putti,"  "la  dolcezza  delle  teste,"  and  the 
refreshing  daring  of  the  treatment.20  Throughout  the  sixteenth 
century  it  was  famous.21 

With  these  figures  no  drawings  can  be  identified.  One 
faded  sketch  of  a  "putto"  clinging  to  a  tree  (Uffizi  6706) 22  is 

is  Vasari,  VI,  248. 
« Ibid. 

20  Ibid.,  p.  250. 

21  Ibid.,  VI,  248  f .    Boechi,  pp.  415  f .    Eicha,  V,  52. 

p.  249. 

10 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

perhaps  a  fragment  of  Jacopo's  preparatory  work,  but  we 
hazard  this  conjecture  only  because  in  Bocchi's  opinion  a 
"putto"  in  that  pose  was  one  of  the  beauties  of  the  composition.23 

Two  drawings  for  Medici  arms  supported  by  two  figures 
exist,  in  the  Uffizi,  that  one  is  sometimes  tempted  to  connect, 
at  any  rate  remotely,  with  the  " Faith  and  Charity"  of  the 
Annunziata,  to  which,  however,  in  its  final  form  at  least,  they 
are  not  related.  Neither,  in  my  opinion,  can  they  be  identified 
with  any  of  the  Medici  arms  surmounted  with  tiara  and  keys 
and  supported  by  "putti"  that  one  sees  in  the  ceiling  of  the 
Pope's  Chapel  at  Santa  Maria  Novella,  although  one  of  the 
drawings  (Uffizi  418)  may  preserve  an  idea,  finally  rejected, 
for  these  bearings,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  we  find  in  it  no 
indication  of  the  papal  keys.  It  is  likewise  not  inconceivable 
that  the  other  drawing  (Uffizi  417 )24  is  a  sketch  for  the  arms 
of  Leo  that  Pontormo  painted  for  his  native  town,  inside  the 
castle  gate  which  opened  into  the  main  street.25  This  '  *  stemma, ' ' 
of  which  no  vestige  remains,  was  executed  just  after  the 
" Faith  and  Charity."  At  all  events,  these  two  sketches  are 
among  the  earliest  specimens  that  we  have  of  Pontormo 's 
draughtsmanship,  and  in  them  his  conception  of  form  owes 
much  to  Andrea,  but  the  stroke,  hooked  and  broad  at  one  end, 
is  an  evidence  of  certain  habits  of  hand  that  could  have  been 
acquired  only  in  Albertinelli's  "bottega." 

No  documents  survive  for  the  frescoes  of  the  Pope's 
Chapel.  Indirect  evidence  however  indicates  clearly  enough 
the  date  of  this  decoration ;  it  must  have  been  begun  during  the 
summer  of  1515.  In  writing  the  lives  of  several  other  artists, 
Vasari  speaks  of  the  embellishments  of  the  Pope's  apartments 
in  the  convent  of  Santa  Maria  Novella.28  Ridolfo  Ghirlandaio 
received  the  commission  for  all  these  decorations,  but  the  work 
had  to  be  finished  under  pressure  for  Leo's  triumphal  return 

23  Bocchi,  p.  416 :  "  E  ammirato  un  altro  puttino,  che  da  alto  guarda  in  gift,  ed 
affacciatosi  ad  una  spronda,  sembra  per  1'altezza  grande,  di  hauer  timore  di  cadere. " 
Of.  Richa,  loc.  cit. 

2*  Dessins,  pp.  89  f . 

25  Vasari,  VI,  250. 

26  Ibid.,  pp.  255  f .,  541. 

11 


PONTORMO 

to  his  native  town,  and  Bidolfo,  unable  to  finish  it,  without 
assistance  in  the  time  given,  confided  to  Pontormo  the  chapel 
which  was,  in  some  respects,  the  most  important  part  of  the 
undertaking.  Leo  entered  Florence  on  November  15,  1515. 
Pontormo 's  decoration  must,  therefore,  have  been  completed 
before  that  date. 

The  chapel  is  on  the  north  side  of  the  convent  and  is  lighted 
by  a  single  window.  The  ceiling,  a  barrel  vaulting,  forms  with 
the  end-walls  circular  lunettes.  In  the  lunette  behind  the  altar 
is  a  "Coronation  of  the  Virgin,"  perhaps  by  Ridolfo,27  which 
has  been  disastrously  repainted.  In  the  lunette  over  the  door 
Pontormo  painted  in  fresco  a  "Santa  Veronica  Holding  the 
Sudario."  The  saint  kneels  facing  us,  a  figure  of  fine  sim- 
plicity. The  sweeping  folds  of  her  robe  recall  Albertinelli's 
drapery,  but  her  face,  long  and  oval,  suggests  a  type  evolved 
by  Michelangelo  as  early  as  1505.  Right  and  left,  in  profile, 
kneels  a  cherub,  holding  a  flaming  vase.  The  composition  is 
adequate  but  not  inspired.  The  ceiling  and  side-walls  are 
covered  with  grotesques  in  the  geometrical  framework  of  which 
are  four  small  medallions,  in  each,  a  flying  "putto";  and  four 
squares,  in  each,  the  arms  of  Leo  supported  by  "putti."  In  the 
middle  of  the  ceiling,  in  a  large  "tondo,"  Pontormo  painted 
a  God  the  Father  descending,  arms  outspread,  a  figure  altogether 
in  the  tradition  of  Mariotto.  Only  the  medallions  and  squares 
of  this  ceiling  decoration  were  executed  by  Pontormo,  and  even 
these  have  been  so  completely  repainted  as  to  show  now  no 
trace  of  his  hand.  The  grotesques  were  executed  by  Andrea 
di  Cosimo  Feltrini,  who  in  all  probability  designed  them  as  well. 

The  "Madonna  of  San  Ruffillo,"  the  "Faith  and  Charity" 
of  the  Annunziata,  and  the  decorations  of  the  Pope's  Chapel, 
are  the  earliest  achievements  of  Pontormo  that  now  survive. 
He  was  hardly  nineteen  when  he  painted  them  and,  although 
they  do  not  reveal  the  talent  that  his  later  works  might  lead 
us  to  expect,  they  do  show  clearly  certain  characteristics  of  his 
maturer  years  in  the  gracious  strangeness  of  the  heads,  the 

2*  J&td.,  p.  541,  note  3. 

12 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

supple  movement  of  the  figures,  and  in  the  love  of  novelty  that 
here  and  there  is  apparent  in  them. 

The  festivities  following  Leo's  elevation  to  the  papacy 
brought  Pontormo  many  commissions  to  which  Vasari,  writing 
about  1560  with  a  desire  to  please  Cosimo  I,  devotes  more  than 
six  pages.28  In  the  carnival  procession  of  1514,  the  Compagnia 
del  Diamante,  a  society  led  by  Giuliano  de'  Medici,  had  three 
triumphal  cars  which  represented  "Youth,"  "Manhood,"  and 
"Age" —  subjects  chosen  by  Andrea  Dazzi,29  the  latinist.  The 
woodwork  of  the  cars  was  by  Raffaello  delle  Viviole  and  II 
Carota,  and  the  decorative  motives,  by  Andrea  di  Cosimo.30  The 
costumes  were  designed  by  Giuliano  da  Vinci  and  Bernardino 
di  Giordano,  while  the  songs  were  written  by  Antonio  Alamanni. 
Pontormo  painted  on  these  three  cars  stories  of  the  Trans- 
formations of  the  Gods,31  and  so  great  was  their  success  that 
they  stirred  to  emulation  a  rival  society,  II  Broncone,  of  which 
Lorenzino  was  the  leader.  For  the  carnival  of  1515,  this 
company  ordered  no  less  than  seven  cars,  the  subjects  repre- 
sented upon  which  were  chosen  by  Jacopo  Nardi,32  who  also 
wrote  the  songs.33  For  the  first  car  Pontormo  painted  on 
panels,  and  probably  in  chiaroscuro,  "Legends  of  Saturn,"  for 
the  second,  "Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Numa  Pompilius,"  for 
the  third,  "Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Titus  Manlius  Torquatus," 
for  the  fourth,  "The  Deeds  of  Julius  Caesar,"  for  the  fifth, 
"Episodes  from  the  Life  of  Augustus,"  for  the  sixth,  "Scenes 
from  the  Life  of  Trajan."  The  seventh  car  represented  "The 
Golden  Age"  and  on  it  were  ornamental  figures  in  relief  by 
Bandinelli,34  among  them  "The  Four  Cardinal  Virtues."  All 
we  can  say  of  these  lost  works  is  that  they  seem  to  have 
increased  Pontormo 's  popularity.  They  were  probably  not 
unlike  the  decorations  prepared  for  Leo's  visit  to  Florence  in 

28  Hid.,  pp.  250-255. 

29  1475-1548.    See  W.  Eiidiger,  Andreas  aus  Florens,  Halle,  1897. 
so  Vasari,  VI,  251. 

si  The  panels  of  these  cars  were  once  in  the  possession  of  Pietro  Paulo  Galeotti,  the 
goldsmith. 

32  1476-1556. 

33  Canti  Carnascialeschi,  Firenze,  1559,  pp.  120-124. 
84  Vasari,  VI,  254. 

13 


PONTORMO 

the  autumn  of  1515.88  On  that  occasion  Jacopo  painted  various 
compositions  —  among  which  Vasari  mentions  a  "  Pallas 
Tuning  her  Instrument  to  Apollo's  Lyre"  —  on  a  triumphal 
arch  of  wood  erected  by  Baccio  da  Montelupo  in  front  of  the 
Badia,  at  the  head  of  the  Via  Pelagio.86  These  paintings  were 
in  a  ruinous  condition  even  when  Vasari  wrote,  and  like  the 
cars  of  the  Diamante  and  the  Broncone  they  have  long  since 
perished. 

We  can,  however,  form  some  idea  of  the  character  of 
such  ephemeral  decorations  from  another  "carro"  which 
was  decorated  by  Pontormo,  and  with  which  the  officials  of 
the  Zecca  used  to  take  part  in  the  yearly  procession  of  San 
Giovanni.37  It  was  broken  up  in  1810,  but  twenty  small  panels 
from  it  are  still  preserved  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio,38  many  of 
them,  it  is  true,  so  grossly  and  so  many  times  repainted  as 
to  leave  hardly  a  vestige  of  Pontormo 's  hand.  They  are  three 
long  panels:  "St.  John  in  the  Wilderness, "  "The  Preach- 
ing of  St.  John,"  "The  Beheading  of  the  Saint";39  six 
smaller,  vertical  panels:  "The  Baptist,"  "The  Visitation," 
"St.  Zenobius,"  "Zechariah,"  with  two  others  which  represent 
an  apostle  or  a  prophet;  and  twelve  small,  square  panels  of 
"putti"  dancing  and  playing,  some  of  which  are  delightful. 

85  Ibid.,  p.  255.  See  also  A.  S.  F.,  Carteggio  di  Cosimo  I,  Cl.  50,  No.  239,  carta  1, 
Relazione  dell '  ingresso  che  fece  Leone  X  in  detto  giorno  nella  citta  di  Firenze,  30  nov., 
1515. 

so  Ibid.,  p.  255.  Numerous  triumphal  arches  and  temporary  decorations  were  erected 
for  this  occasion.  Vasari  speaks  of  them  a  number  of  times.  Pier  di  Cosimo,  Granacci, 
Baccio  da  Montelupo,  Rosso,  Andrea,  Jacopo  di  Sandro,  Giuliano  del  Tasso,  Bandinelli, 
Sansovino,  Rustici  and  Pontormo  were  all  employed  in  preparing  them.  Vasari  states  in  his 
' '  Life  of  Pontormo ' '  that  the  arch  at  the  Badia  was  by  Montelupo.  In  his  "  Life  of  Andrea 
del  Sarto"  he  says  that  the  arch  between  the  Badia  and  the  Palazzo  del  Podesta  was  by 
Granacci  and  Aristotile  da  San  Gallo.  In  his  "Life  of  Granacci"  he  speaks  of  it  as 
"dirimpetto  alia  porta  di  Badia"  (V,  342) — a  phrase  which  he  repeats  in  his  "Life  of 
Aristotile"  (VI,  436).  For  Pier  di  Cosimo 's,  Andrea's,  Jacopo  di  Sandro 's,  Montelupo 's, 
and  Granacci 's  work  in  connection  with  these  festivities,  see  Vasari,  V,  24  and  note  3. 
For  Rustici 's  decorations,  see  idem,  VI,  602. 

"  Vasari,  "VT,  256.  We  have  no  document  for  this  work;  the  account-books  of  the 
Zecca  between  1510  and  1530  have  been  lost. 

as/bid.,  p.  257,  note  1.  Milanesi  states  that  eighteen  pieces  still  exist;  in  reality 
we  have  twenty  fragments. 

3»  The  composition  of  this  panel  is  practically  identical  with  that  of  a  "predella" 
picture  (Academy,  Florence,  No.  77)  which  is  attributed  to  Andrea. 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

On  two  of  these  the  "putti"  support  Medici  arms.  The  wood- 
work of  the  car,  which  has  disappeared,  was  by  Marco  del 
Tasso.  What  the  original  grouping  of  these  fragments  was 
cannot  now  be  determined,  although  a  notion  of  the  whole  may 
be  formed  from  that  other  car  that  one  sees  in  the  streets  of 
Florence  on  the  Saturday  before  Easter  —  the  Carro  de'  Pazzi. 

Vasari  places  the  Carro  della  Zecca  between  the  "San 
Ruffillo  Madonna"  and  the  fresco  of  the  "Visitation"  in  the 
cloister  of  the  Annunziata,  that  is,  in  1514-1515.  Certainly  the 
composition  of  the  little  "Visitation,"  which  once  belonged  to 
it,  is  closely  derived  from  Mariotto's  "Visitation"  of  1503,40  and 
is  one  of  the  last  traces  of  his  old  master's  instruction  left  in 
Pontormo's  art.  Ruined  as  it  is,  the  panel  is  more  vital  than 
Albertinelli's  altar-piece. 

For  this  neglected  work  of  Pontormo's  I  have  discovered 
one  drawing  (fig.  8;  Uffizi  6581  verso)41  —  a  study  for  "The 
Baptist."  The  draughtsmanship,  and  especially  the  modelling 
of  the  forearm,  place  this  sheet  about  1515-1516,  which  is  the 
date  that  Vasari  gives,  by  implication,  for  the  undertaking. 

The  relation  between  the  "Madonna  with  Saints"  that 
Pontormo  painted  for  San  Ruffillo  and  his  "Visitation"  in  the 
cloister  of  the  Annunziata42  is  quite  evident:  the  latter  (fig.  5) 
is  merely  an  elaboration  of  the  former  (fig.  2),  and  in  both  the 
face  of  the  Virgin  is  the  same.  The  features  of  the  woman 
with  a  bundle  on  her  head  in  the  "Visitation"  recall  the  Santa 
Lucia  of  the  "San  Ruffillo  Madonna."  A  similarity  of  rhythm 
in  the  two  compositions  makes  these  resemblances  still  more 
striking;  both  arrangements  are  triangular,  with  a  figure  on 
either  side.  The  "Visitation,"  however,  is  strongly  influenced 
by  Andrea,  although  vestiges,  almost  imperceptible,  of  Alberti- 
nelli's methods  may  be  discovered  in  it  by  attentive  study. 
But  the  movement,  the  power  and  novelty  of  the  fresco,  its 
light  harmonies,  its  fresh  colour,  its  crisp  execution,  reveal  a 
personality  more  vivacious  than  Mariotto's,  while  the  whole 

40  Now  in  the  Uffizi. 

41  Dessins,  pp.  166  f . 

42  Vasari,  VI,  256  f .    Boechi,  p.  424.    Eicha,  VIII,  60. 

15 


PONTORMO 

breathes  a  poetry  compared  with  which  the  "Birth  of  the 
Virgin,"  painted  by  Andrea  in  the  same  cloister  between  1511 
and  1514,43  is  pat  and  prosaic.  Only  the  grouping  of  the  eight 
figures  in  the  background  shows  a  certain  inexperience. 

It  is  now  possible  to  supplement  the  documents  relative  to 
this  fresco  that  are  mentioned  by  Milanesi  and  incompletely 
cited  by  Colasanti.44  The  first  payment  was  made  in  December, 
1514,  the  last  about  the  middle  of  June,  1516,45  and  the  decoration 
was,  therefore,  unfinished  when  Leo  came  to  Florence.  For  it 
Jacopo  received  eighty  "lire." 

The  drawings  for  this  work  have  perished  with  the 
exception  of  two  studies,46  one  (fig.  6;  Uffizi  6603)  light  and 
facile  but  tame,  for  the  woman  seated  on  the  steps,  the  other 
(fig.  7;  Uffizi  6542)  for  the  "putto,"  seated  to  her  right.  Both" 
are  vaguely  reminiscent  of  an  early  phase  of  Andrea's 
draughtsmanship,  of  which  we  have,  in  the  Louvre,47  an  excel- 
lent example.  Compared  with  our  two  studies  for  the  "San 
Ruffillo  Madonna,"  they  mark  a  notable  advance. 

Just  after  the  "Visitation"  I  am  inclined  to  place  a  lost 
"Pieta"  for  which  several  drawings  survive.  The  touch 
indicates  that  these  sketches  were  drawn  between  1516  and 
1519,  and  in  them  Pontormo  is  master  of  his  early  technique. 
Five  (Uffizi  6670  recto  and  verso;  6689;  6690  verso;  6691) 48 
are  studies  for  the  same  Dead  Christ  (fig.  9)  and  they  are  of 
a  relaxation  exquisitely  felt.  Uffizi  6670  verso  is  unmistakably 
for  the  same  undertaking,  which  was  perhaps  the  "Pieta"  that 
Vasari49  describes  as  having  existed  in  a  chapel  of  the  garden 
of  the  San  Gallo  monks,  outside  the  San  Gallo  gate,  and  which 
was  evidently  destroyed  during  the  siege  in  1529-1530.  We 

4«  Vasari,  V,  67.    On  the  cornice  of  the  fire-place  one  reads :     A.  D.  M.  D.  X.  IIII. 

44  Ibid.,  VI,  258,  note  1.    Colasanti,  Bull.  soc.  filol.  romana,  II,  51,  note  2. 

45  A.  8.  F.,  Convento  119,  No.  705,  pp.  149  v.,  165  v.,  192  v.,  200  v.,  202  v.     See 
Appendix  II,  Doc.  13. 

4«  Dessins,  pp.  142,  180.    Uffizi  6556  recto  and  verso  are  also  sketches  for  this  fresco. 
Of.  ibid.,  p.  151,  and  On  Certain  Drawings,  p.  7. 
47  No.  45. 

4»  Dessins,  pp.  221  f.,  234  f.,  237. 
4»  VI,  260. 

16 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

cannot  cite  documents  to  determine  the  date  of  this  composition 
because  the  books  of  the  convent  have  perished. 

Sometime  in  these  busy  years  Jacopo  also  painted  over  the 
door  of  the  Women's  Hospital,60  a  lost  fresco  of  " Christ  as 
Pilgrim."  These  figures  were  in  chiaroscuro,  and  it  is  worthy 
of  notice  that  Andrea  was  employing  the  same  medium  at 
precisely  the  same  moment  in  the  cloister  of  the  Scalzo51  —  a 
coincidence  that  may  have  a  certain  bearing  on  Bocchi's  state- 
ment52 that,  at  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  this  fresco  was 
generally  thought  to  be  by  Andrea.  There  was  probably  in  it 
a  strong  influence  of  his  work. 

To  the  same  period  belonged  the  arms  of  Giovanni 
Salviati,  supported  by  two  "putti"  and  surmounted  by  a 
cardinal's  hat,  which  in  Vasari 's  time  adorned  the  courtyard 
of  Filippo  Spina's  house,  opposite  its  main  entrance.  These 
Vasari53  places  after  the  Visdomini  altar-piece,  although  they 
were  in  all  probability  executed  as  early  as  1517,  in  which  year 
Salviati  was  made  cardinal  by  Leo  X. 

The  last  of  the  undertakings  that  immediately  followed 
the  " Visitation"  was  the  lunette  frescoed  in  Fiesole  over  the 
gate  of  the  Compagnia  della  Cecilia.  An  early  sketch  in  red 
chalk  (fig.  12)  for  this  lost  work  exists  in  the  Uffizi,  which  was 
marked  in  the  seventeenth  century:  "Per  la  Sta  Cecilia  che  e 
in  Fiesole.  "-^  I  have  found  the  finished  study  (fig.  11)  in  the 
Corsini  Collection,  in  Rome.54  The  composition  is  admirable 
and  corresponds  precisely  to  Vasari 's  description56  of  the 
lunette:  "una  S.  Cecilia  colorita  in  fresco  con  alcune  rose  in 
mano  tanto  bella  e  tanto  bene  in  qual  luogo  accomodata."  The 
quality  of  both  drawings  clearly  indicates  1517-1518  as  the  date 
of  this  decoration. 

50  ma.,  p.  256. 

si  A.  S.  F.,  Compagnia  di  San  Giovanni  detta  dello  Scalzo,  Libro  maestro,  Debitori 
e  Creditor!  B  (1514-1535),  p.  30. 

52  Ed.  Cinelli,  p.  19. 

53  VI,  261. 

s*  Dessins,  pp.  240  f.,  333. 
55  VI,  257. 


17 


CHAPTER  III 

1518-1520 

The  "Visitation"  at  the  Anmmziata  marks  the  culmination 
of  Pontormo's  first  period.  From  Andrea  he  had  taken 
solidity  of  form,  variety  of  movement,  and  familiar  simplicity 
of  gesture  —  qualities  which  he  touched,  however,  with  a 
graciousness  and  a  poetry  that  were  unrevealed  to  his  master's 
more  pedestrian  mind.  With  a  fine  instinct  for  decorative 
harmonies,  he  had  lightened  Andrea's  warm  but  heavy  colouring 
by  eliminating  the  half-tones,  thinning  the  yellows  and  the 
reds,  and  with  great  skill  carrying  a  few,  strong,  light  colours 
through  a  whole  composition.  But  his  restless  mind  found 
no  repose.  New  problems  of  form  attracted  him,  and  new 
influences  swayed  his  sensitive  nature. 

In  the  "Visitation,"  his  figures  show  a  tendency  to  a  heroic 
largeness  of  type.  Many  sketches,  drawn  between  1513  and 
1518,  indicate  beyond  the  possibility  of  a  doubt  that  the  source 
of  this  tendency  was  Michelangelo's  cartoon  of  the  "Battle 
of  the  Cascina."  Jacopo  was  attracted  by  the  easy  play  of 
muscles  in  new  attitudes,  which  it  revealed  so  abundantly,  and 
some  of  the  poses  he  studied  many  times.  It  is  also  quite  clear 
that  he  was  not  unacquainted  with  certain  lost  drawings  for 
the  Sixtine.  And  since  touch  is  more  persistent  than  borrowed 
conceptions  of  type  or  gesture,  these  drawings  resemble,  from 
a  technical  point  of  view,  certain  sketches  that  Andrea  made 
between  1512  and  1518,  although  Jacopo 's  work  is,  of  course, 
not  literal. 

During  these  years  he  studied  still  another  master  — 
Leonardo  da  Vinci,  whose  influence,  though  infinitely  less 
potent  and  lasting  than  that  of  Michelangelo,  is  strikingly 
present  in  the  Visdomini  altar-piece  (fig.  13),  which  is  the  most 

18 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

important  picture  that  Pontormo  painted  after  the  "Visitation" 
and  before  the  lunette  at  Poggio.  Tentative  exploration  of  new 
ground,  crossing  and  recrossing  of  impulses  old  and  new,  are 
characteristic,  as  we  have  seen,  of  Jacopo's  early  work.  These 
various  tendencies  meet  in  the  Visdomini  altar-piece.  The 
St.  Joseph,  the  St.  James,  and  the  St.  John  the  Evangelist, 
recall  Andrea,  while  the  gestures  of  other  figures  are  Leon- 
ardesque,  as  is  the  pose  of  the  Christ  Child  and  of  the  little 
St.  John.  Prom  Leonardo  too  is  derived  the  graduated  chiaro- 
scuro and  the  mysterious  smile  that  plays  upon  many  of  the 
faces.  It  would  almost  seem  that,  when  he  painted  certain 
parts  of  this  picture,  Pontormo  had  in  mind  an  early  work 
by  Da  Vinci,  which  was  known  and  treasured  then,  but  is  now 
lost.  The  composition,  on  the  contrary,  is  not  derivative,  but 
is  based  upon  a  curious  attempt  to  create  a  new  rhythm.  One 
is  tempted  to  believe  that  Pontormo  meant  the  personages  of 
the  picture  to  be  united,  not  by  the  passage  of  line  into  line, 
but  by  their  common  meditation  upon  the  mystery  of  the 
Divine  Mother.1  To  our  modern  taste  the  general  effect  is,  as 
a  result,  broken  and  somewhat  trivial. 

Francesco  Pucci  ordered  the  picture  for  the  second  altar 
to  the  right  in  San  Michele  Visdomini.2  It  was  famous  in  its 
day,  and  Vasari  merely  echoes  a  prevalent  opinion  when  he 
says:  "questa  e  la  piu  bella  tavola  che  mai  facesse  questo 
rarissimo  pittore."  Even  at  a  much  later  date  it  was  highly 
prized  and  Eicha3  tells  us  that  the  Archduchess  Maria  Madda- 
lena  once  tried  to  buy  it,  but  was  unable  to  do  so  because  it  is 
an  inalienable  part  of  the  Pucci  heritage.  In  the  Doetsch 
Collection,4  which  was  dispersed  some  years  ago  in  London,  a 
copy  existed  that  certain  critics  believed  to  be  the  original.5 
The  picture  in  San  Michele  is  badly  lighted  and  can  with 
difficulty  be  examined.  It  would  be  hazardous  to  come  to  a 

i  Vasari,  VI,  258. 


s  VII,  23. 
4  In  1895. 

s  See    Catalogue    Kaisonnl    under    Doetsch    Collection    and    Florence,    San    Michele 
Visdomini. 

19 


PONTOEMO 

definite  conclusion  in  regard  to  its  authenticity.  Among  those 
papers  of  the  Pucci  family  which  are  now  in  the  Archives  of 
Florence  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  the  contract.  But  if  we 
had  it,  it  would  perhaps  add  nothing  of  an  essential  nature  to 
our  information.  The  date  of  the  panel  is  known.  On  the  book 
which  St.  John  holds  are  the  letters,  M.  D.  xiij. 

We  possess  many  drawings6  for  this  altar-piece  (fig.  14 
to  23).  With  it  Berenson  has  identified  thirteen  studies,  among 
them  our  painter's  best  jotting  in  pen  and  ink  (Uffizi  6545), 
and  to  these  I  have  added  eight  preliminary  sketches,7  all  of 
which  are  swift,  fresh,  and  masterful. 

Between  the  St.  Francis  of  the  Visdomini  and  the  St. 
Jerome  (reversed)  of  an  unfinished  little  altar-piece,  now  in 
the  Uffizi,8  we  detect  a  distinct  resemblance  that  is  made  sig- 
nificant by  another  drawing  for  the  St.  Francis  (Uffizi  6742 
verso),9  in  which  the  saint  is  seen  standing,  and  which,  not 
improbably,  served  for  the  St.  Jerome  of  the  smaller  picture. 
At  any  rate,  the  colour,  the  character  of  the  heads,  especially 
that  of  the  Madonna,  the  fall  of  the  drapery,  and  the  rhythm 
of  the  composition  make  it  certain  that  the  Uffizi  panel  belongs 
in  date  just  after  the  Visdomini  picture.  From  the  same  year 
we  have  a  beautiful  black-chalk  sketch  (fig.  24;  Uffizi  6729) 10 
for  another  "Madonna  and  Child,"  the  fate  of  which  is 
unknown,  that  must  have  had  the  same  qualities  as  the  Uffizi 
picture  but  greater  charm. 

From  this  period,  and  like  the  Visdomini  panel  harking 
back  to  Leonardo's  chiaroscuro,  though  in  structure,  motive, 
and  gesture  recalling  Andrea,  is  the  "Madonna  and  Little  St. 
John,"  now  in  the  possession  of  the  Marchese  Farinola.  The 
picture  is  not  mentioned  by  Vasari,  and  for  it  we  have  no 
documents. 

Between  the  Visdomini  and  Poggio,  and  accordingly  for  a 

6  Dessins,  p.  67. 

7  On  Certain  Drawings,  pp.  6,  20. 
s  No.  1177. 

•  Dessins,  p.  271. 

10 /bid.,  p.  262  f.  Possibly  a  study  for  the  "Madonna"  of  the  " drappelloni " 
painted  in  1519  for  the  funeral  of  Bartolomeo  Ginori. 

20 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

period  which  embraces  less  than  two  years,  Vasari  mentions 
thirteen  pictures  —  a  number  so  great  that  it  is  apparent  that 
here  his  chronology  needs  some  correction.  Two  of  his  errors 
are  easily  eliminated.  The  arms  of  the  Lanfredini,11  now 
destroyed,  which  Jacopo  painted  over  a  door  on  the  Lungarno 
between  Ponte  Santa  Trinita  and  Ponte  alia  Carraia,  were 
placed  by  Bronzino,  according  to  Vasari  himself,  among  the 
earliest  undertakings  of  Pontormo,  and  the  "St.  Quentin," 
begun  by  Giovanmaria  Pichi  for  the  Osservanti  of  Borgo  San 
Sepolcro  and  finished  by  Jacopo,12  is  obviously  so  closely  related 
to  the  Certosa  frescoes  that  it  can  hardly  have  been  painted 
earlier  than  1522.13 

The  principal  works  that  belong  between  the  summer  of 
1518  and  the  autumn  of  1519  are  three14  "cassone"  pictures16 
of  "Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Joseph,"  a  panel16  of  "Joseph  in 
Egypt"  (all  executed  for  Pierfrancesco  Borgherini),  the 
"Portrait  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio,"  of  the  Uffizi,17  and  the 
"Portrait  of  a  Youth,"  now  in  Genoa.18  No  written  document 
fixes  the  date  of  these  pictures  (fig.  26,  27,  30,  41,  42),  but  on 
internal  evidence  one  may  be  certain  that  they  were  executed 
in  1518-1519.  Vasari  records19  that,  in  the  "Joseph  in  Egypt," 
Pontormo  painted  the  portrait  of  the  young  Bronzino.  Angelo, 
who  is  represented  as  about  fifteen  years  of  age,  was  born 
November  17,  1503.20  The  date  of  the  panel  would,  then,  be 
1518.21  A  similar  deduction  gives  us  the  date  of  the  "Portrait 

11  Vasari,  pp.  258  f. 

12  Ibid. 

is  Dessins,  p.  203. 

i*  Berenson  (Florentine  Painters,  p.  175)  mentions  only  two  of  these  panels. 

is  Now  in  Panshanger.  See  Catalogue  Baisonn4.  These  small  pictures  are  usually 
called  "cassone"  panels,  but  they  may  have  formed  part  of  a  "lettuccio"  or  settle,  or 
they  may  have  been  ornaments  of  a  "spalliera"  which  would  be,  in  our  modern  usage, 
a  wainscot. 

i«  National  Gallery,  No.  1131 ;  now  apparently  transferred  to  canvas. 

IT  Now  in  the  Uffizi. 

i8  Palazzo  Bianco,  No.  6. 

i»  VI,  261. 

20  Eegistro  dei  Battezzati  di  S.  Giovanni  Battista,  1503,  p.  33,  line  27. 

21  Eichter,  to  whom  Bronzino  appears  here  to  be  but  ten  years  of  age,  erroneously 
places  this  picture  in  1512.    It  is  not  necessary  to  point  out  that  such  a  date  would  mean 

21 


PONTORMO 

of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio."  It  was  ordered  by  Goro  Gheri  while 
he  was  secretary  to  Lorenzino  de'  Medici,  and  we  know  that 
Lorenzino  died  on  May  4, 1518. 

In  the  composition  of  the  Borgherini  panels  Jacopo  makes 
a  rather  self-conscious  effort  to  escape  from  old  formulas  by 
distributing  his  figures  and  arranging  them  in  little  groups, 
on  planes  that  are  defined  by  the  various  parts  of  an  archi- 
tectural setting.  In  this  there  was  nothing  new.  Quattrocento 
pictures,  such  as  Ghirlandaio's  "Adoration  of  the  Magi,"  as 
well  as  numerous  mythological  subjects  by  Pier  di  Cosimo,  are 
similarly  composed,  and  we  also  find,  at  precisely  this  moment, 
Andrea  combining  naturalistically  a  similar  kind  of  grouping 
with  architecture  and  flights  of  steps,  in  his  "  Scenes  from  the 
Life  of  Joseph,"  now  in  the  Pitti.22  But  even  a  cursory  com- 
parison satisfies  us  that  the  younger  artist  had  the  more 
fantastic  spirit.  In  the  Borgherini  panels,  as  in  the  Visdomini 
altar-piece,  certain  figures  are  in  type,  structure,  and  drapery, 
reminiscent  of  Andrea.  The  slender  legs,  the  trailing  draperies, 
the  long  lines  of  the  folds  of  other  figures,  the  interrupted 
rhythm  of  the  composition  are  of  quite  another  inspiration,  as 
is  also  the  light  and  delicate  colour. 

These  four  little  pictures  were  famous;  Vasari  places  the 
"Joseph  in  Egypt"  among  Jacopo 's  finest  productions.23  For 
us  too  they  have  a  peculiar  interest,  for  they  were  part  of  the 
room  decorated  and  furnished  for  Borgherini  by  Andrea, 
Granacci,  Pontormo  and  other  great  craftsmen.24  Pontormo's 
"Joseph  in  Egypt"  was  placed  in  the  corner  to  the  left  of  the 
door.  His  three  "Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Joseph"  either 

that  Pontormo  manifested  a  masterful  individuality  of  style  bordering  on  exaggeration 
while  he  was  still  an  apprentice  in  the  "bottega"  of  Andrea. 

22  Nos.  87  and  88. 

23  VI,  261. 

24  Idem,  V,  26  f.,  342  f.;  VI,  261,  455.    Pierfrancesco  Borgherini  married  Margherita 
Acciaiuoli  in  1515,  but  the  decoration  of  their  famous  room  was  not  finished,  it  would  seem, 
until   several   years   later.     Pontormo's   panels    cannot   have   been   painted    before    1517. 
Margherita  was  born  in  1495  and  was  still  alive  in  1558,  in  which  year  Domenicho  dedicated 
to  her  his  "Life  of  Santa  Brigida."     For  the  courageous  way  in  which  she  denounced 
Delia  Palla's  attempt  to  gain  possession,  during  the  siege,  of  the  works  of  art  that  the 
room  contained,  see  Vasari,  VI,  263. 

22 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WOBK 

formed  part  of  two  "cassoni,"  or  were  framed  in  the  decorative 
inlaid  woodwork  of  the  room,  the  design  and  execution  of  which 
was  Baccio  d'Agnolo's. 

For  the  three  "cassone"  panels  (fig.  26,  27  and  30)  I  have 
discovered  five  studies.  Of  these,  Uffizi  6690,25  a  sketch  (fig.  29) 
from  the  nude  for  one  of  the  figures  on  the  steps  to  the  left  in 
the  " Baker  Led  out  to  Execution,"  is  technically  near  Jacopo's 
studies  from  Michelangelo's  cartoon  for  the  " Battle  of  the 
Cascina,"  and  should  be  compared  with  Uffizi  442  (fig.  44) 
in  which  there  is,  however,  a  greater  tension  of  rhythm.  For 
one  of  the  figures,  in  the  upper  left-hand  corner  of  "  Joseph 
Sold  to  Potiphar,"  we  have  a  scrawl  (fig.  31)  of  delicious 
verve,26  and  for  another,  a  brilliant  but  somewhat  unsympathetic 
drawing  (fig.  32),  which  might  have  been  done  by  Naldini. 
Uffizi  6692  (fig.  25)  is  a  sketch  for  the  youth  descending  the 
steps  on  the  right  of  "  Joseph  Discovering  Himself  to  His 
Brethren."  Its  freshness  and  facility  are  delightful.  Uffizi 
6542  verso  (fig.  28) "  prefigures  the  boy  kneeling  to  the  left 
in  the  same  composition,  and  in  it  the  structure  of  the  nude 
recalls  Andrea,  but  the  hair  is  blown  out  in  the  way  that 
Leonardo  loved.  These  last  two  are  important  drawings  that 
no  one  would  think  of  ascribing  to  Andrea,  although  the  panel 
for  which  they  were  drawn  is  universally  held  to  be  by  Del 
Sarto  and  until  recently  all  three  pictures  were  ascribed  to 
him.28 

In  the  grouping  of  the  composition,  these  "cassone" 
decorations  resemble  the  " Adoration  of  the  Magi"  (fig.  33  )28 
painted  for  Giovanmaria  Benintendi,30  where,  however,  in  his 

25  Dessins,  p.  236. 

26  Ibid.,  p.  151,  where  I  incorrectly  identified  this  sheet  with  the  saint  to  the  extreme 
right  of  the  "Visitation"  at  the  Annunziata. 

27  Ibid.,  p.  142. 

28  Catalogue  of  Exhibition  of  Old  Masters  in  Aid  of  the  National  Art-Collections 
Fund,  October  4-December  28,  1911,  p.  50.    Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  saw  that  they  displayed 
qualities  characteristic  of  Pontormo,  History  of  Painting,  ed.  Borenius,  VI,  202.     See  also 
an  article  by  Sir  Claude  Phillips  in  the  Art  Journal,  1906,  p.  1. 

2»  Pitti,  No.  379. 

so  Andrea  di  Cosimo,  Franciabigio  and  Bacchiacca  worked  for  Benintendi  when  he 
decorated  his  house  (Vasari,  V,  196,  209;  VI,  455). 

23 


PONTORMO 

use  of  a  dark  and  rich  colour,  Pontormo  is  nearer  Andrea  than 
he  will  ever  be  again.  The  figures  are  broad-faced,  prodigiously 
stout,  and  wear  enormous  sleeves.  Jacopo  was,  we  may  surmise, 
experimenting  with  a  new  form  of  elegance.  Like  the  Bor- 
gherini  panels,  this  picture,  which  is  now  in  the  Pitti,  was 
painted  in  competition  with  other  masters.  Franciabigio's 
"cassone"  panel  for  Benintendi  as  well  as  a  companion  piece 
by  Bacchiacca,  is  now  in  the  Dresden  Gallery,  and  in  the  lower 
left  corner,  one  finds  the  date:  A.  s.  MDXxrn.  Pontormo 's 
"Adoration"  cannot  however  be  later  than  1519-1520.  For  the 
horses  in  the  background  three  vigorous  drawings  (fig.  34) 
exist31  that,  by  their  touch,  insistently  suggest  several  studies 
for  the  lunette  at  Poggio. 

The  figures  of  Pharaoh  and  his  retinue  in  the  foreground 
and  to  the  left  of  "Joseph  in  Egypt"  remind  one  vividly  of  the 
St.  Michael  and  the  St.  John  the  Evangelist  (fig.  35  and  36), 
which  Pontormo  painted  for  the  citizens  of  his  native  town  and 
which  are  still  in  the  church  of  San  Michele  at  Pontormo. 
Statuesque,  and  visibly  affected  by  the  work  done  by  Andrea 
between  1515  and  1519,  they  are  nevertheless  clearly  less 
naturalistic.  The  drawings  for  these  figures  are  of  exceptional 
interest.  We  have  a  finished  study  (fig.  37),  in  black  chalk,  for 
the  St.  John,82  which  is  manifestly  more  pictorial  than  such  a 
drawing  for  the  panels  at  Panshanger  as  Uffizi  6692.  The  long, 
abrupt  breaks  in  the  drapery,  angular  bunches  of  which  are 
gathered  at  the  hips,  as  well  as  the  treatment  of  the  hands,  recall 
the  Corsini  study  (fig.  11)  for  the  lost  "Santa  Cecilia."  But 
not  so  the  studies  in  red  chalk  for  St.  Michael's  hands  that  one 
finds  on  the  same  sheet,  which,  like  the  best  drawings  of  Del 
Sarto,  catch  thrillingly  a  momentary  pulse  of  life,  and  record 
a  moment  in  which  Jacopo  sounded  the  spirit  of  his  master 
more  profoundly  perhaps  than  he  ever  had  or  ever  would  again. 
His  study  for  the  legs  of  St.  Michael  (fig.  40),  on  the  contrary, 
shows  a  love  of  elegance,  and  a  whole-hearted  preoccupation 
with  the  beautiful  and  the  decorative.  It  suggests  some  late 

^Dessins,  pp.  153  f.,  256. 
"Ibid.,  pp.  117,  161. 

24 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

Greek  god,  carved  in  alabaster  or  ivory,  some  god,  tall  and  slim 
beyond  measure,  but  full  of  the  authentic  strangeness  of  rarest 
things.  Conte  Gamba  finds  it  reminiscent  of  the  quattrocentist 
tradition,  and  its  transparent  smoothness  does,  perhaps,  recall 
Rossellino's  somewhat  over-modelled  surfaces,  although  struc- 
turally it  is  of  a  fine  sophistication  that  the  Quattrocento 
seldom  knew. 

In  1519  Pontormo  executed  certain  ephemeral  works,  since 
destroyed  or  lost,  among  them  a  series  of  "drappelloni"  for 
the  funeral  of  Bartolomeo  Ginori  for  which  he  painted,  accord- 
ing to  Vasari,33  a  "  Madonna  and  Child "  on  white  taffeta  with 
the  arms  of  the  family  below  on  coloured  silk.  In  size  and 
lightness,  these  pennons  were  an  innovation  and  set  a  new 
standard.  In  the  middle  of  the  series  there  were  two  banners, 
two  "braccia"  high,  on  each  of  which  a  "St.  Bartholomew." 

To  these  years  also  belong  Pontormo 's  first  known  por- 
traits, although  they  can  hardly  have  been  his  earliest,  since 
we  know,  for  example,  that  in  his  "  Joseph  in  Egypt"  he  had 
already  portrayed  the  young  Bronzino  among  other  figures, 
many  of  which  seem  natural  enough  to  be  portraits.  The 
extraordinarily  lifelike  figure  to  the  extreme  left  in  the  Pitti 
" Adoration,"  has  even  been  considered  to  be  a  likeness  of 
Pontormo  himself,  although  for  such  a  conjecture  there  is  no 
foundation.  ^The  portrait  of  Giovann'  Antonio  Lappoli,34  who 
came  momentarily  under  Jacopo's  instruction35  just  after  the 
"Faith  and  Charity"  of  the  Servites  was  finished,  as  well  as 
the  portrait  of  Becuccio  Bicchieraio's  son-in-law  with  a  friend,36 
have  been  lost.  But  we  have  some  ground,  from  the  sequence 
of  Vasari 's  narrative,  for  imagining  that  they  belonged  to  this 
period,  and  were  therefore  probably  not  unlike  the  "Portrait 
of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio"  (fig.  42),37  the  "Portrait  of  a  Youth," 
at  Genoa  (fig.  41)  ,38  or  the  broad,  massive  portrait-drawing  of 

33  VI,  260.    Cf.  note  10  and  fig.  24. 

34  Ibid. 

35  Ibid.,  p.  6. 
se  Ibid.,  p.  260. 

37  Now  in  the  Uffizi.    Cf .  Vasari,  VI,  264. 

38  Palazzo  Bianco,  No.  6. 

25 


PONTORMO 

a  youth,  alert  and  conscious,  in  ample  robes,  now  in  the  Uffizi 
(fig.  38;  No.  452),  all  of  which  are  excellent  examples  of 
Pontormo 's  early  manner  in  portraiture. 

As  a  young  man  Pontormo  worked  hard,  and  how  creative 
his  spirit  was,  how  disciplined  his  hand !  These  were  perhaps 
his  happiest  years.  He  was  popular,  and  from  all  sides  orders 
came  to  him,  which  he  met  with  a  power  and  a  versatility  that 
made  him  the  most  conspicuous  and  promising  painter  of  the 
younger  generation,  and  gave  him,  though  he  was  but  five-and- 
twenty,  an  eminent  place  among  the  ablest  craftsmen  then  at 
work  in  Florence. 

Between  1512  and  1519  his  manner  had  undergone  numer- 
ous changes  of  unusual  interest,  through  which  we  have  been 
able  to  follow  the  drift  of  his  unquiet  spirit.  The  conception 
of  form  that  he  had  inherited  from  Albertinelli  and  Pier  di 
Cosimo  mingled,  not  without  hesitations,  with  the  realism  that 
he  had  caught  from  the  sturdiest  draughtsman  Florence  ever 
had.  Now  and  then,  as  he  developed,  he  found  Leonardo's 
types  attractive,  but  most  of  all,  and  increasingly,  Michel- 
angelo's art  moved  him  to  a  profounder  study  of  the  problem 
of  decorative  and  yet  convincing  form. 

The  first  decade  of  Pontormo 's  career  gives  us  a  sense  of 
the  forces  that  outlined  his  creative  individuality,  and  although 
most  of  the  pictures  of  that  period  are  important  rather  as 
documents  than  as  works  of  art,  one  divines  in  them,  neverthe- 
less, a  constant  preoccupation.  Jacopo  had  that  rarest  of  gifts, 
the  decorative  instinct.  Not,  then,  as  an  eclectic,  or  as  an 
imitator,  did  he  pass  consecutively,  and  sometimes  even  simul- 
taneously, through  the  various  traditions  that  Florence  kept 
alive.  Through  all  these  superficial  changes  he  was  struggling 
to  formulate  his  vision,  for  he  wanted  to  treat  form,  not  merely 
with  mysterious  science  like  Leonardo,  not  simply  with  conven- 
tionality like  Albertinelli,  not  even  with  convincing  naturalistic 
prosiness  like  Andrea,  but  for  its  own  sake,  joyously,  lightly, 
and  decoratively.  To  spread,  as  it  Were,  a  feast  of  problems 
solved  with  a  magnificent,  fine  facility  for  the  pure  distraction 
of  our  pictorial  sense  —  that  was  his  apparent  aim.  But,  as  a 

26 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

youth,  he  had  been  commissioned  to  paint  sacred  subjects,  and 
these  hardly  gave  his  talent  for  decoration  a  sufficient  outlet, 
chiefly  because  the  effort  to  establish  a  new  canon  for  the 
favorite  themes  of  religious  painting  needed  a  forceful  self- 
confidence  that  Jacopo  did  not  have.  To  express  himself  freely, 
moreover,  he  seems  to  have  required  an  equilibrium  between  his 
vision  and  his  environment  more  delicately  adjusted  than  any 
he  had  found  so  far.  In  1520  such  an  equilibrium  was  estab- 
lished when,  given  a  fine  task  and  a  free  hand,  he  painted  one 
of  the  greatest  mural  paintings  of  the  Renaissance,  the  lunette 
in  the  Great  Hall  of  the  Medicean  villa  at  Poggio  a  Cajano. 


27 


CHAPTER  IV 

1520-1522 

No  documents  exist  for  the  lunette  at  Poggio.  Only  a 
careful  scrutiny  of  several  circumstances  will  enable  us  to 
conjecture  the  date  at  which  it  was  begun.  The  decision  to 
undertake  the  decoration  of  the  Great  Hall  came  from  Leo  X.1 
It  was  to  be  a  tribute  to  the  memory  of  his  father,  and  he  made 
Ottaviano  de '  Medici  general  director  of  the  work.2  We  imagine 
that  this  enterprise  was  intended  by  the  Pope  to  serve  also  as 
a  token  of  his  desire  that  Lorenzino  settle  down  in  Florence 
and  not  in  Rome,  and  that  it  could  hardly  have  received  serious 
attention  until  Lorenzino  returned  to  Florence,  on  September  7, 
1518,3  with  his  bride,  Madeleine  de  la  Tour  d'Auvergne.  Six 
months  later  Lorenzino  died  (May  4,  1518), *  and  it  is  but 
reasonable  to  suppose  that  his  death  may  have  somewhat 
delayed  the  preliminary  arrangements.  The  painters  could,  as 
a  result,  hardly  have  begun  work  before  the  early  spring  of 
1519.  Franciabigio  and  Andrea  di  Cosimo  were  then  com- 
missioned to  gild  the  ceiling,  but,  even  when  finally  undertaken, 
the  work  progressed  slowly. 

Besides  Pontormo,  Andrea  del  Sarto  and  Franciabigio8 
were  engaged,  and  to  them  the  side-walls  were  entrusted,  while 
to  Pontormo  were  given  the  end-walls,  the  upper  part  of  each 
of  which  is  a  lunette.  His  whole  task,  therefore,  was  to  include 
two  lunettes  and  two  large  frescoes,6  and  as  the  lunettes  were 

iVasari,  V,  195;  VI,  265. 
2  Ibid.,  VI,  p.  264. 

a  Anonymous  continuator  of  Landucci,  p.  365.  Letter  of  Cardinal  Giulio  to  Antonio 
Pucci,  August  3,  1518,  Catalogo  dei  Manoscritti  Torrigiani,  p.  271. 

*  Cambi,  XXII,  pp.  144  f .    Nerli,  VI,  p.  132.    Ammirato,  XXIX,  p.  335. 

6  Vasari,  V,  pp.  35, 195.    The  painters  were  paid  thirty  "seudi"  a  month  (V,  196). 

« Ibid.,  VI,  264. 

28 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

the  more  difficult  part  of  the  undertaking,  it  was  on  one  (fig.  50, 
51  and  52)  of  them  that  Jacopo  began  work.  Paolo  Giovio, 
bishop  of  Nocera,  chose  the  subject,7  "Pomona  and  Vertumnus," 
having  in  mind,  it  would  seem,  one  of  the  less  well-known 
passages8  of  the  "  Metamorphoses. "  With  a  simple  lunette 
(fig.  11)  Pontormo  had  already  dealt,  once  with  great  charm9 
in  the  "Santa  Cecilia,"  once  with  mastery  in  a  drawing  for  a 
lost  "Pieta"  (fig.  39;  Uffizi  300F),10  and  he  attacked  the  new 
and  greater  problem  of  a  lunette  pierced  by  a  bull's-eye  with 
the  greatest  earnestness,  devoting  to  his  preparation  much  time 
and  thought,  feverishly  undoing  today  the  work  of  yesterday — 
"sempre  facendo  nuovi  trovati."11 

At  the  same  time,  ideas  apparently  came  to  him  for  all 
four  decorations,  for  I  cannot  but  think  that  in  many  drawings 
of  passionate  force,  of  sparkling  rhythm,  or  of  wistful  tran- 
quillity, which  are  manifestly  of  this  period,  but  in  no  way 
related  to  the  lunette,  we  have  first  thoughts  for  one  of  the  other 
projected  but  unexecuted  frescoes.  What  the  subjects  of  these 
compositions  were  to  have  been  we  do  not  know,  and  it  is  possible 
that  he  only  made  tentative  plans  for  them,  for  in  the  time  that 
he  took  to  paint  the  first  lunette,  Franciabigio  finished  only 
one  fresco,12  while  Andrea's  "Tribute  to  Caesar"  was  left  but 
half  painted13  when  the  death  of  Leo  (December  1,  1521) 
interrupted -the  undertaking,"  and  all  work  upon  the  Great 
Hall  was  suspended.  During  the  brief  reign  of  Hadrian  VI, 
the  position  of  the  Medici  was  precarious,  and  it  was  evidently 
not  a  moment  when  they  would  have  spent  much  on  what  the 
Italians  call  "muraglia." 

1 IUd.,  V,  195. 

s  Ovid,  Met.,  xiv,  623-697. 

»  Dessins,  p.  333. 

10  Ibid.,  p.  87. 

"Vasari,  VI,  2641 

12  Ibid.,  V,  195. 

is  Ibid.,  36.  Finished  by  Alessandro  Allori.  On  a  "  cartella ' '  one  reads :  ' '  Anno 
Domini  1521  Andreas  Sartius  pingebat,  et  Anno  Domini  1580  Alexander  Allorius  seque- 
batur. "  Andrea  was  very  busy  during  these  years.  The  "Tabernacle  of  Porta  Pinti" 
was  finished  in  1520.  Cf.  Vasari,  V,  33. 

i*  Ibid.,  VI,  264  f . 

29 


PONTORMO 

Many  drawings  relative  to  Poggio  survive.  We  can 
follow  with  comparative  ease  the  steps  by  which  Pontormo 
advanced  from  a  general  idea  of  the  composition  to  its  final 
form.  The  earliest  sheet  (fig.  53)  we  possess  is  perhaps 
Uffizi  6660  verso,15  on  which  the  lunette  is  mapped  out  and  the 
pose  of  several  figures  indicated,  and  on  which  the  medallion 
under  the  hull's-eye,  the  two  "putti"  over  it,  the  high  wall  and 
the  laurel  branches  also  appear.  Pontormo,  however,  had  not 
decided  what  figures  he  would  use,  nor  yet  made  clear  to 
himself,  where  he  was  to  place  them.  He  seems,  it  is  true,  to 
have  contemplated  an  arrangement  that  involved  two  figures 
with  their  backs  to  the  lower  part  of  the  bull's-eye,  one  seated, 
one  half  reclining  and,  to  the  right  of  the  right-hand  figure,  a 
simple  rustic  gaine.  So  his  mind  played  around  the  Goddess 
of  Gardens  and  her  setting. 

His  next  idea  for  the  whole  composition  is  Uffizi  6742 
verso.  On  this  sheet,  drawn  over  a  preliminary  sketch  for  the 
St.  Francis  of  the  Visdomini,  we  can  trace  outlines  of  the 
lunette,  the  lower  wall,  and  four  seated  figures.  The  peasant- 
like  figure  of  Vertumnus  to  the  extreme  left,  the  figure  to  his 
right,  the  reclining  woman  who  looks  over  her  left  shoulder, 
occur  here,  practically  as  we  find  them  in  the  finished  work. 
This  sheet  is  also  a  curious  link  between  Poggio  and  the  lunette 
of  " Santa  Cecilia,"  for  to  the  extreme  right  one  descries  a 
woman  crouching  in  a  pose  which  repeats  that  of  the  latter 
figure. 

We  can  also  follow  in  some  cases  the  genesis  of  individual 
figures,  and  in  Pontormo 's  second  mapping-out  of  the  whole 
lunette  (Uffizi  6742  verso)  we  find,  for  example,  his  first  idea 
for  the  woman  to  the  left  on  the  lower  right  wall.  For  the 
same  figure  a  study  from  the  nude  survives.  It  was  made, 
however,  before  the  width  of  the  lower  parapet  had  been 
determined.  In  this  sketch  (fig.  54;  Uffizi  6557),  which  is 
strikingly  modern  in  pose  and  treatment,  the  figure  lies  flatter 
than  it  does  in  the  fresco.  The  final  study  (fig.  55 ;  Uffizi  6673), 

16  A  detailed  discussion  of  each  of  these  drawings  will  be  found  in  my  Dessins. 

30 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

the  gracile  charm  of  which  recalls  Fragonard,  is  except  for  the 
fall  of  the  drapery  identical  with  the  finished  work. 

With  even  greater  precision,  we  can  follow  the  evolution 
of  the  figure  to  the  extreme  right  on  the  lower  wall.  For  it 
our  earliest  idea  is  a  study  from  the  male  nude  (fig.  56 ;  Uffizi 
6514)  which,  apart  from  its  rare  plasticity  and  its  beautiful 
lightness  of  touch,  is  of  unusual  interest  because  it  shows  that 
Pontormo  at  first  thought  of  making  the  lower  parapet  twice 
as  high  as  it  is  in  the  fresco.  In  Uffizi  6515  verso  (fig.  57),  we 
find  the  final  pose  of  this  figure  sketched  from  life,  the  model 
a  young  artisan,  the  movement  delightfully  indicated.  Last 
in  this  series  we  have  Uffizi  6673  verso  (fig.  58) ,  which  but  for 
the  drapery  is  close  to  the  figure  in  the  decoration.  In  spirit, 
however,  it  is  different,  for  in  the  sketch  the  beautiful  peasant 
girl  of  the  fresco  is  transfigured  by  a  touch  of  the  superhuman. 
Clearly  this  drawing  owes  indirectly  something  of  its  great, 
indwelling  life  to  Michelangelo  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the 
draughtsmanship  is  devoid  of  any  semblance  of  his  manner. 
The  case  is  otherwise  with  two  extraordinary  sketches  (fig.  59 
and  60)  for  the  pose  of  this  figure  (Uffizi  6544  and  6555). 
These  represent  gigantic  male  nudes,  and  they  cannot  be  placed 
later  than  1521.  Yet  I  know  of  no  drawing  by  Michelangelo, 
earlier  than  1528,  in  which  the  contour  and  modelling  are 
rendered  as  "Pontormo  renders  them  here.  Are  we  to  believe, 
as  Berenson  suggests,  that  in  these  studies  Pontormo,  with 
marvellous  versatility,  outstripped  for  a  moment  Michelangelo 
himself? 

Uffizi  6437  verso  is  a  study  of  drapery  that  falls  from  the 
knees  of  a  seated  female  figure;  the  legs  are  bent  back  at  the 
knees,  and  the  feet  rest  on  a  wall  upon  which  she  had  just 
climbed.  This  was  Jacopo's  first  idea  for  the  rustic  goddess 
to  the  extreme  right  of  the  upper  parapet,  but  with  it  he  seems 
to  have  been  dissatisfied.  For  on  the  recto  of  this  sheet  we  find 
that  he  made  another  study  of  drapery  that  hangs  from  the 
waist  of  the  same  figure,  seated  this  time,  facing  left  astride 
of  a  wall,  and  wearing  a  skirt  that  sweeps  down  the  left  leg 
and  is  caught  up,  at  the  knees,  by  the  parapet.  This  pose  also 

31 


PONTORMO 

had  its  difficulties  —  an  awkward  bundling-up  of  drapery  before 
and  behind  the  figure.  It  interested  Pontormo,  however, 
and  for  it  he  made  one  more  sketch,  a  fine,  small  study  (fig.  54) 
from  the  nude  (Uffizi  6557)  that,  without  the  help  of  6437  recto, 
we  would  never  have  thought  of  identifying  with  any  figure 
in  the  fresco.  Uffizi  6519  verso  is  a  little  sketch  for  part  of  the 
same  drapery,  the  final  form  of  the  lower  part  of  which, 
identical  in  touch  with  the  fragment  just  mentioned,  is  found 
in  Uffizi  6731  recto  (fig.  61).  In  Uffizi  6632  recto,  the  pose  of 
the  torse  is  suggested.  This  is  followed  by  a  curious  series 
of  trial  poses.  The  male  nude,  studied  in  Uffizi  6662  verso 
(fig.  62),  is  seated  as  in  the  fresco  but  the  position  of  the  legs 
and  arms  is  reversed.  Technically  this  drawing,  like  Uffizi 
6544  and  6555,  is  Michelangelesque,  though  less  noticeably  so. 
Corsini  124243  verso,  a  sketch  of  great  spontaneity,  is  probably 
Jacopo's  first  thought  for  the  pose  finally  chosen.  Uffizi  6728 
gives  the  outline  of  the  right  leg  precisely  as  in  the  fresco; 
Uffizi  6531  (fig.  63)  and  6530  are  finished  studies  for  the  whole 
figure,  draped  as  in  the  painting,  and  Uffizi  6547  (fig.  64),  is 
a  rare  but  ruined  study  for  the  head,  enigmatical,  enchantingly 
felt,  dainty  and  free. 

Several  drawings  survive  for  the  child  to  the  left  of  this 
figure,  one  of  the  earliest  of  which  is  Uffizi  8976  verso,  and 
although  it  is  far  from  the  final  pose,  we  can  also  unreservedly 
identify  Uffizi  6646  (fig.  65),  on  which  one  sees,  to  the  left,  the 
curve  of  the  bull's-eye,  as  a  first  thought  for  the  same  infant. 
Uffizi  6728  verso  is  a  sketch  for  the  left  leg.  The  recto  of 
Uffizi  8976  may  represent  another  conception  of  the  figure, 
drawn  while  Pontonno  still  thought  of  making  his  fresco,  not 
a  summer  holiday  of  the  rustic  gods,  but  a  pastoral  "concerto." 
For  the  composition  of  this  proposed  " concerto,"  Uffizi  455 
(fig.  74)  is  a  finished  study  where,  however,  our  figure  does 
not  occur.  It  is  among  certain  drawings  that  preserve  early 
tentative  poses  of  this  figure  that  we  find  two  of  Pontonno 's 
rarest  sketches  (fig.  67  and  68;  Uffizi  6669  recto  and  verso). 
These  drawings,  so  perfect  in  structure  and  yet  so  prompt,  so 
transfused  with  the  quickness  of  lyric  beauty,  attain  to  a  quality 

32 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

that  we  should  look  for  in  vain  in  the  work  of  Del  Sarto.  In 
them  Jacopo  achieves  a  spontaneous  registry  of  vision,  a  tran- 
script of  the  essential,  not  less  magical  than  Leonardo's  own. 
The  only  other  sketch  we  have  for  a  figure  on  this  side  of  the 
lunette  is  Corsini  124240,  a  spirited  jotting  for  the  "putto" 
over  the  bull's-eye. 

For  the  left  half  of  the  lunette,  less  copious  material  has 
come  down  to  us.  The  final  pose  of  the  youth  to  the  extreme 
left,  on  the  upper  wall,  appears  in  no  study  that  is  known  to 
me,  although  the  germinal  idea  is  undoubtedly  a  tiny  sketch 
on  Uffizi  6515  where,  however,  the  movement  of  the  left  arm 
and  of  the  legs  is  different.  Uffizi  6634  may  also  be  a  first 
thought  for  this  figure,  the  pose  still  far  from  that  which  one 
sees  in  the  fresco  and  which  obviously  owes  something  to  the 
"Jonah"  of  the  Sixtine.  On  Uffizi  6661  (fig.  66)  there  is  a 
vibrant  sketch  for  the  " putto,"  to  the  left,  above  the  bull's-eye. 

The  child  to  the  right  of  the  youth  that  we  have  just 
discussed  has  come  down  to  us  in  the  final  study  (fig.  69 ;  Uffizi 
6651)  from  which  the  figure  was  transferred  to  the  wall.  It  is 
exquisitely  lovely,  of  liquid  tonality,  the  movement  seized  with 
masterly  definition.  The  soft  but  vivacious  modelling  gives 
one  a  sense  of  fine  silver  bronze,  and  beautiful  as  this  figure 
is  in  the  fresco,  it  has  surely  lost  some  of  its  own  original, 
delicate  vitality. 

We  cannot  trace  the  loosely  dressed  youth,  seated  to  the 
right  on  the  lower  wall,  in  any  known  drawing  unless,  as  is 
doubtful,  Uffizi  6618  preserves  an  earlier  conception  of  the 
figure.  For  the  left  arm,  however,  as  it  appears  in  the  fresco, 
we  have  a  decisive  study  (fig.  70;  Uffizi  6559),  while  on  Uffizi 
6515  one  finds  what  is  seemingly  a  sketch  for  the  knees  in  a 
slightly  different  pose,  and  a  study  of  the  left  foot  in  the  pose 
finally  chosen. 

The  old  peasant-like  Vertumnus,  to  the  extreme  left,  is 
traceable  in  a  number  of  studies.  As  we  have  already  noted, 
the  idea  of  placing  a  squatting  figure  in  this  corner  of  the  fresco 
occurred  to  Pontormo  early  in  his  work  of  preparation,  and 
one  descries  such  a  pose  in  the  first  draft  of  the  lower  part  of 

33 


PONTOKMO 

the  fresco  (Uffizi  6742  verso).  In  the  beginning,  Jacopo  seems 
to  have  intended  that  this  figure  should  shade  his  eyes  with  his 
right  hand — a  motive  which  first  appears  in  a  scrawl  on  Uffizi 
6599  recto,  and  which  is  studied  again  from  the  nude  in  three 
splendid  sheets,  Uffizi  6515,  spirited  and  immediate,  6685  recto 
(fig.  71),  ringing  and  solid,  6599  recto,  somewhat  arbitrary  in 
its  proportions  but  of  great  indwelling  energy.  For  the  old 
god's  head,  precisely  as  it  appears  in  the  fresco,  Uffizi  6579 
(fig.  72)  is  a  fine  study,  obviously  from  the  life  and  admirable 
in  its  incisive  severity. 

Two  puzzling  designs  for  the  whole  lunette  remain  to  be 
considered  (fig.  73  and  74;  Uffizi  454  and  455),  both  of  which 
recall  the  fresco  without  being  definite  studies  for  it.  In  the 
former,  there  are  three  figures  on  either  side;  around  the 
bull's-eye  is  wound  a  strong  young  sapling  of  which  each  figure 
holds  a  branch,  and  which  without  their  efforts  would  straighten 
out  and  spring  away.  This  motive  is  apparently  symbolic  of 
Pomona's  beneficent  guardianship  of  gardens  and  their  trees, 
and  yet  a  more  felicitous  and  fitting  solution  of  the  mere 
problem  created  by  the  shape  of  the  space  to  be  frescoed  could 
hardly  be  imagined;  no  figure  is  otiose,  and  no  gesture  mean- 
ingless. Pontormo's  insight  into  the  secrets  of  Michelangelo's 
art  could  with  difficulty  be  more  admirably  illustrated  than 
by  the  fine  ease  with  which  he  gives  here  a  real  function  to  every 
figure ;  his  feeling  for  the  fundamentally  significant  in  compo- 
sition finds  nowhere  more  creative  expression. 

Is  our  drawing  a  rejected  study  for  the  existing  lunette 
at  Poggio,  or  is  it  a  project  for  the  second  lunette  of  the  Great 
Hall,  for  which  Jacopo  received  a  new  commission  in  1532,  but 
which  he  never  executed?  The  swollen  contours  and  the  close 
packing  of  the  figures  into  the  space  prescribed  convince 
Berenson  that  our  design  was  drawn  in  1531-1532.  I  believe, 
on  the  contrary,  that  the  exaggerated  contours,  the  rather  puffy 
modelling,  can  more  easily  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  the 
drawing  is  in  pen  and  bistre — a  medium  for  which  Pontormo 
shows  nowhere  either  aptitude  or  predilection.  Moreover,  it 
will  be  noticed  that  this  splendid  design  contains  one  figure 

34 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

closely  related  to  the  Pomona  of  the  finished  fresco;  and  so 
striking  a  relation  must  have  its  own  especial  significance.  In 
a  second  lunette,  in  the  same  Hall,  Jacopo  would  hardly  have 
repeated  a  conspicuous  figure.  But,  if  our  drawing  is  really 
a  project  for  the  first  lunette,  one  wonders  at  first  sight  how 
Pontormo,  who  must  have  realized  its  unusual  beauty,  could 
ever  have  abandoned  it.  He  had,  I  think,  no  choice ;  it  was  the 
great  size  of  the  lunette  at  Poggio  that  forced  him  to  lay  it 
aside  as  impracticable,  for  the  figures  of  the  drawing  expanded 
to  the  scale  of  the  surface  to  be  decorated  would  have  been 
enormous,  larger  even  than  the  clumsy  giants  painted  by 
Alessandro  Allori,  in  1580,  at  the  other  end  of  the  Hall. 

Our  other  study  for  the  whole  lunette  is  also  in  pen  and 
bistre.  Here  too  the  motive  of  the  bent  sapling  is  used,  but 
it  is  held  by  only  two  figures,  both  on  the  same  side  of  the 
bull's-eye.  This  design  must  have  been  drawn  just  after  the 
former,  and  it  shows,  as  we  have  seen,  that  for  a  time  Pontormo 
thought  of  painting,  not  a  rustic  holiday  as  an  interpretation 
of  his  theme,  but  a  pastoral  " concerto."  Many  drawings16  exist 
that  are  not  for  any  figure  of  the  surviving  lunette  at  Poggio 
but  that  date  from  the  same  period.  Among  these  we  find  a 
powerfully  realized  study  (fig.  76;  Uffizi  6597)  for  a  "  Young 
Baptist  in  the  Wilderness,"  the  preliminary  sketch  for  which 
(Uffizi  6645  Tecto)  represents  one  of  Pontormo 's  most  inspired 
moments ;  an  intense  and  enigmatic  composition  of  three  nudes, 
preserved  in  the  Stadel  Institute,  at  Frankfort  (fig.  77)  ;  a 
curious  sketch  of  a  melancholy  and  meditative  youth  wrapped 
in  a  great  mantle  (fig.  49;  Uffizi  6682).  The  latter,  like  many 
other  studies  that  date  from  these  years  —  notably  the  swift 
and  energetic  drawing,  Uffizi  6727  recto  (fig.  75)  —  represents 
a  figure  seated  upon  a  high,  stepped  block.  These,  and  the 
flamelike  study  (fig.  78;  Uffizi  6677  verso)  of  three  nudes,  one 
of  which  stretches  out  a  hand  with  the  gesture  of  the  "Adam" 
of  the  .Sixtine,  help  us  to  measure  the  nature  and  extent  of 
Michelangelo's  influence  upon  Jacopo  between  1519  and  1521. 
Either  Pontormo  had  seen  the  Sixtine  ceiling  itself,  or  he  had 

is  Fig.  43,  44,  45,  46,  47,  49,  75,  76,  77,  78. 

35 


PONTORMO 

studied  many  sketches  made  by  Michelangelo  in  preparation 
for  it  that  have  since  been  lost.  Apart  from  the  drawings  of 
seated  figures,  which  I  have  just  mentioned,  the  earliest  sheet 
that  we  have  for  Poggio  (fig.  53;  Ufiizi  6660  verso)  contains 
three  studies  of  interlaced  "putti"  that  are  unmistakably 
derived  from  the  Sixtine  vault,  although  the  pose  differs  from 
that  of  any  "putti"  now  to  be  seen  there.  More  important 
still,  in  this  connection,  is  the  right-hand  figure  of  Uffizi  6660 
recto,  a  sketch  that  distinctly  recalls  the  figure  in  the  space  to 
the  right  of  and  above  Michelangelo's  "Zerubbabel,"  and  that 
represents,  I  believe,  Pontormo's  first  idea  for  one  of  the 
"putti"  above  the  bull's-eye.  The  slope  on  which  the  figure 
leans  excludes  all  other  explanation.  This  sheet  furnishes  the 
most  direct  evidence  we  have  that  the  Sixtine  ceiling  was  present 
to  our  master's  mind  when  he  was  planning  his  "Pomona  and 
Vertumnus,"  at  Poggio. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  lunette,  in  its  final  form,  owes  little 
to  Michelangelo.  Its  sunny  airiness,  its  autumnal  festivity,  the 
gay  dignity,  the  unity  and  charming  novelty  of  the  composition, 
are  all  Pontormo's  own,  and  in  it  his  fine  instinct  for  the 
decorative  expresses  itself  with  a  gracious  fitness,  a  perennial 
youthfulness,  a  quiet,  delicate  joyfulness,  without  parallel  in 
any  other  Italian  work  of  the  Renaissance. 


36 


CHAPTER  V 

1522-1527 

In  the  fresco  at  Poggio,  one  phase  of  Pontormo 's  talent 
attains  its  fulfilment  and,  upon  so  great  an  achievement, 
another  painter  would  have  formed  a  permanent  manner.  To 
a  less  imaginative  temperament  nothing  would  have  been 
easier;  he  had  been  so  successful  that  many  must  have  con- 
sidered him  to  be  the  most  prominent  painter  of  the  younger 
generation.  Great  things  had  been  expected  of  him;  he  had 
accomplished  great  things.  But  to  Jacopo's  unworldly  mind, 
success  meant  little,  and  when  he  had  conquered  one  problem, 
he  immediately  and  ardently  undertook  the  solution  of  another. 
Some  of  his  contemporaries  felt,  nevertheless,  that  his  mobility 
of  spirit  was  mere  capriciousness,  and  here  and  there,  in  Vasari, 
we  come  upon  echoes  of  their  opinion.  They  failed  to  under- 
stand that  his  changeableness  was  partly  due  to  external  causes, 
the  nature  of  which  they  did  not  realize.  Five  years  earlier, 
Pontormo  had  been  too  exclusively  absorbed  in  his  art  to  notice 
or  care  what  social  or  artistic  revolutions  were  undermining 
Florentine  life,  but  now  his  delicately  balanced  nature  could 
hardly  have  failed  to  react  to  the  great  changes  that  were  taking 
place  around  him.  The  Medici  had  passed  through  troubled 
waters,  but  as  the  political  tide  had  turned  so  also  was  turning 
the  current  of  Florentine  tradition,  and  the  great,  fresh  stream 
of  Tuscan  art,  once  fed  and  kept  pure  by  so  many  springs,  was 
now  irrevocably  flowing  toward  a  despotism  as  absurdly  cruel 
as  that  which  was  to  submerge  Florence  itself.  The  era  of 
the  "Michelangeleschi"  had  begun. 

In  his  effort  to  free  himself  from  the  limitations  imposed 
upon  him  by  Andrea's  unimaginative  naturalism,  Pontormo 
had  sought  the  stimulus  of  Michelangelo's  early  work,  and 

37 


PONTORMO 

by  that  contact,  his  own  style  had  become  more  distinctly 
personal,  even  though  the  deep  study  that  he  made,  during  his 
formative  years,  of  the  cartoon  of  the  "Battle  of  the  Cascina" 
had  profoundly  modified  his  ideal  of  form.  Now,  however,  he 
was  confronted  with  the  inexorable  fascination  of  Michel- 
angelo's maturer  manner,  that  imperious  manner  which  had 
already  begun  to  obsess  all  Florentines.  And  under  such  cir- 
cumstances it  was  inevitable  that  the  magnetism  of  the  older 
master's  superabundant  creativeness,  the  tremendous  emphasis 
of  his  vitality,  and  his  turbulent  mastery  of  material,  should 
cross  Pontormo's  own  ideals  with  lingering  insistence,  and  warp 
the  instinctive  nature  of  his  rare,  unconscious,  personal  vision. 
Had  he  appreciated  his  own  possibilities,  had  the  Florentine 
public  remained  open-minded  to  various  kinds  of  artistic 
achievement,  he  might  have  given  to  the  world  other  works 
as  decorative  and  as  appropriate  as  the  lunette  at  Poggio  or  as 
the  " Deposition"  at  Santa  Felicita. 

But  the  moment  was  unpropitious,  and  Jacopo's  very 
power  had  its  roots  in  his  extreme  sensibility.  Still  he  was 
not  without  intellectual  courage,  and  he  made  a  supreme  effort 
to  avoid  the  trap  into  which  all  his  fellow-painters  were  falling. 
Suddenly  we  are  witnesses  of  the  curious  spectacle  of  an  Italian 
painter  of  great  attainments  seeking  to  escape  from  the  tyranny 
of  Michelangelo's  canon  of  form  by  flying  to  that  of  Diirer.1 
This  choice,  the  strangest  that  an  Italian  ever  made,  was  for 
Jacopo  the  craving  of  an  instinct,  and  quite  apart  fromjns^ 
strangely  modern  susceptibility  to  novelty,  he  was,  we  may 
believe,  swayed  by  an  intimate  compulsion,  for  there  was_in 
Durer's  designs  an  intense  metaphysical  quality  that  Pontormo 
was  born  to  understand.  A  curious  evidence  of  how  well  he 
understood,  of  how  far  he  succeeded  in  seeing  the  world  with 
northern  eyes,  while  the  rhythms  of  the  great  Florentine  were 
still  beating  in  his  memory,  is  furnished  by  such  a  sheet  as 
Uffizi  6702  verso.2  For  a  moment,  he  had  a  divided  mind.  But 

iVasari's  account  of  the  diffusion  of  Diirer  'a  woodcuts  in  Italy  (V,  22,  405;  VI, 
266)  is  full  of  errors,  especially  in  his  "Life  of  Marcantonio. " 
^Dessins,  pp.  246-248. 

38 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WOEK 

he  was  an  absolutist  and  at  cross-roads  he  never  lingered.  In 
the  Scalzo  frescoes  Andrea  had  been  content  to  eke  out  his 
unimaginativeness  with  fragments  taken  from  Diirer's  inven- 
tions.3 Jacopo,  on  the  contrary,  after  he  had  studied  Diirer's 
art,  felt  impelled  to  revolutionize,  as  thoroughly  as  possible, 
his  theories  of  form,  contour  and  composition.  And  were  the 
drawings  that  survive  for  the  frescoes  at  the  Certosa  more 
numerous,  we  might,  perhaps,  be  able  to  demonstrate  that  for 
a  time  Pontormo  attempted  to  draw  with  the  awkward  stress 
and  jerky  pulse  of  an  early  Diirer  woodcut.4  A  sketch  we  find 
on  Uffizi  6648,5  furnishes  us  with  a  reasonable  basis  for  such 
an  assumption. 

Vasari  tells  us  that  Pontormo  began  the  Certosa  frescoes 
in  1522,  and  he  had  reason  to  know,  for  in  1524  he  had  spent 
much  time  in  copying  them.6  In  the  books  of  the  monastery 
I  have  discovered  a  complete  record7  of  the  payments  that  were 
made  to  Pontormo  for  this  work.  In  the  Quaderno  di  Cassa  F,8 
under  the  date  May  26,  1524,  we  read:  "A  mro  Jacopo  di 
bartholomeo  dapontormo  depintore  Ducati  trenta  L  dua  hebe 
dal  procuratore  in  9  volte  per  parte  da  di  4  di  Febraio  1522  per 
insine  adi  10  dapn'lle  1524  supra  ala  depintura  fa  nel  claustro." 
This  is  the  first  entry  and  may,  accordingly,  be  taken  as  con- 
vincing proof  that,  on  February  4, 1522,  Pontormo  was  already 
at  work  in  the  cloister. 

In  Vasari 's  opinion9  it  was  the  return  of  the  plague  to 
Florence  in  1522  that  caused  Pontormo  to  leave  the  city.  But 
he  is  careful  to  add  that  Jacopo,  being  by  nature  lonely  and 
meditative,  loved  the  life  of  the  Certosa  for  its  own  sake  —  the 
silence  and  the  solitude,  in  the  sheltering  peace  of  which  he 

s  In  the  ' '  Preaching  of  St.  John, ' '  the  man  standing  to  the  right  and  the  woman 
seated  holding  an  infant.  Cf .  Vasari,  V,  22 ;  VI,  266. 

*  The  fact  that  Italian  collectors  did  not  like  Pontormo 's  ' '  man iera  tedesca ' '  may 
explain  the  almost  total  disappearance  of  the  drawings  that  he  must  have  made  during 
this  period. 

5  Dessins,  p.  204. 

e  Vasari,  VII,  605. 

T  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  51,  Nos.  16,  40  and  81.    See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  14,  15  and  16. 

8  lUd.,  No.  40,  p.  26  r. 

»  VI,  266. 

39 


PONTOEMO 

hoped  to  accomplish  great  and  novel  things  in  art.  Even  after 
the  frescoes  were  finished  and  he  had  returned  to  the  city,  he 
never  ceased,  Vasari  says,10  to  frequent  San  Lorenzo  a  Galuzzo, 
and  of  that  assertion  Pontormo's  own  diary  contains  a  curious 
confirmation.  On  October  11,  1556,11  less  than  two  months 
before  he  died,  he  wrote :  "domenica  andai  acertosa." 

In  the  cloister  of  the  monastery  five  frescoes  survive 
although  in  a  ruinous  state:  "The  Agony  in  the  Garden," 
" Christ  before  Pilate"  (fig.  79),  "The  Way  to  Golgotha" 
(fig.  80),  a  "Pieta,"  and  "The  Risen  Christ"  (fig.  81). 
According  to  Vasari,12  Jacopo  intended  to  add  a  "Crucifixion" 
and  a  "Deposition,"  and  from  a  drawing  (fig.  85)  that  I  have 
identified13  with  his  work  at  the  Certosa,  we  know  that  he  also 
meant  to  paint  a  "Nailing  to  the  Cross." 

The  difference  in  style  between  Poggio  and  the  Certosa 
is  great.  Vasari  thought  that  no  one  could  distinguish  the 
"Christ  before  Pilate"  from  the  work  of  an  ultramontane 
painter.1*  Such  a  statement  is,  of  course,  an  exaggeration,  and 
closer  study  reveals  that  Pontormo  merely  borrowed  from 
Diirer,15  sometimes  actually  copying  them,  certain  peculiarities 
of  dress,  attitude,  or  contour,  and  the  ragged  silhouette  and 
jumbled  lineal  rhythms  of  the  composition.  The  draperies, 
much  as  Pontormo  may  have  tried  to  change  them,  are  still 
Florentine,  and  the  touch,  the  modelling,  and  the  types,  quite 
Italian.  Vasari  himself  must  have  noticed  Pontormo's  vacil- 
lation between  northern  and  southern  ideals,  for  he  remarks 
that,  though  the  most  successful  fresco,  "The  Way  to  Golgotha," 
shows  throughout  Pontormo's  imitation  of  Diirer,  the  cup- 
bearer of  Pilate  in  the  "Christ  before  Pilate"  still  retains  a 
certain  something  of  Jacopo 's  earlier  manner.16 

10  Hid.,  p.  269. 

n  For  the  text  of  the  Diary,  see  Appendix  III. 
12  VI,  269. 
is  Dessins,  p.  222. 
"VI,  267. 

is  For  the  figures  that  Pontormo  borrowed  from  Diirer,  see  the  Catalogue  Eaisonnfi 
under  Certosa. 

,  268. 

40 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WOBK 

The  frescoes  have  been  restored,  but  from  the  still  undam- 
aged small  copies  by  Jacopo  da  Empoli,17  it  is  evident  that  the 
colouring  was  close  to  Poggio  and  owed  its  vivacity  to  light 
harmonies  on  a  few  tones  that  were  carried  through  the  whole 
composition.  Undoubtedly  they  were  decorative;  even  now, 
although  ruined  and  repainted,  they  sing  out  in  the  sunshine 
as  few  frescoes  later  than  the  Trecento  do.  They  have  a  soft 
vivacity,  an  unforced  gravity,  that  no  transalpine  work  could 
have. 

Besides  the  "  Passion "  of  the  great  cloister,  Jacopo  painted 
for  the  Certosini18  a  "  Supper  at  Emmaus"  (fig.  82),  which  was 
hung  in  the  Foresteria,  and  which  is  now  in  the  Academy  at 
Florence.19  Milanesi  and  others  give  152820  as  the  date  of  this 
picture  but,  as  I  have  pointed  out  elsewhere,21  1525  is  the  date 
which  is  inscribed  on  the  "cartella."  We  have  also  a  payment 
made  on  June  4,  1525,22  for  the  colours  and  the  frame  —  "per 
fare  lo  cenaculo  dela  despensa."  In  this  picture,  the  influence 
of  Diirer  is  confined  to  the  composition,  which  is  derived  from 
the  engraving  of  "Christus  und  die  Jiinger  von  Emmaus"  that 
was  issued  between  1505  and  1511.  The  canvas  is,  otherwise, 
of  a  naturalism  almost  too  naive. 

In  addition  to  the  "Supper  at  Emmaus, "  Vasari23  speaks 
of  a  " Nativity,"  painted  for  the  prior's  room,  and  apparently 
now  lost,  in  which  the  St.  Joseph  held  a  lighted  lantern. 
Pontormo  also  executed  for  the  monastery  a  bust  portrait  of 
a  lay-brother  who  was  120  years  old.  This  fresco,  which  no 
longer  exists,  was  once  on  the  right  side  of  the  altar  of  San 
Benedetto.  Vasari24  praises  it  highly,  finding  it  of  an  excellence 
that  went  far  towards  excusing  the  extravagance  of  manner 
that  marred,  in  his  estimation,  Jacopo 's  other  works  at  the 
Certosa. 

IT  Now  in  the  Ufficio  delle  Belle  Arti  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio. 
is  Vasari,  VI,  270. 
i»  No.  190. 

20  Vasari,  VI,  270,  note  1.    Berenson,  Florentine  Painters,  p.  175. 

21  On  Certain  Drawings,  p.  12. 

22  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  51,  No.  16,  p.  30  r.    See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  15. 

23  VI,  269. 
2*  Ibid. 

41 


PONTOEMO 

Most  of  the  drawings25  for  his  work  at  the  Certosa  have 
perished,  but  among  the  few  that  survive  there  are  several  of 
an  exceptional  interest.  One  of  them  (Uffizi  6702),  to  which 
we  have  already  referred,  shows  that  Michelangelo's  canon  of 
form  still  haunted  Pontormo  even  while  he  was  imitating 
Diirer.  On  it  we  find  a  sketch  of  a  figure,  unquestionably 
derived  from  a  drawing  for  the  "Haman"  of  the  Sixtine, 
which  Jacopo  perhaps  thought  of  using  for  his  "  Risen 
Christ."  When,  however,  he  came  to  paint  that  fresco  he 
followed  Diirer  closely  in  type  and  in  composition.  The  same 
sheet  also  preserves  for  us  a  light  sketch  for  the  woman  seated 
to  the  extreme  right  in  the  "Pieta" —  a  figure  that  has 
no  antecedents  in  Diirer.  Lastly,  this  leaf  contains  a  first 
thought  for  the  Christ  of  the  latter  fresco  in  which  the  pose 
recalls  the  Christ  of  Diirer 's  "Beweinung  Christi"  of  the 
"Kleine  Passion."  In  all  these  studies  the  quality  of  the  line 
is  somewhat  relaxed  and  thin.  Another  drawing  (Uffizi  6674), 
unfortunately  now  quite  ruined,  gives  us  the  Christ  in  a  pose 
nearer  that  which  was  finally  chosen.  Uffizi  6643  verso  appears 
to  be  a  study  from  the  nude  for  the  awkward  figure  that  carries 
the  end  of  the  cross  in  the  "Way  to  Golgotha."  On  Uffizi  6558, 
which  is  chiefly  devoted  to  a  nude  obviously  of  the  Poggio 
period,  we  also  find  two  draped  heads  that  belong  to  the  period 
that  we  are  now  discussing.  A  similarly  draped  head  appears 
on  Uffizi  6539.  These  are,  in  all  likelihood,  studies  for  the 
women  of  the  "Pieta."  Another  sketch  of  the  same  sort, 
Corsini  124242,  is  certainly  for  the  figure  high  up  to  the  left 
in  the  same  fresco.  A  study  of  drapery  for  a  seated  figure, 
preserved  in  Uffizi  6648,  may  very  well  have  been  drawn  for 
the  young  disciple  behind  Peter  in  the  " Agony  in  the  Garden." 
Much  of  this  fresco,  however,  is  so  ruined  that  identifications 
are  hazardous.  Berenson  assigns  this  sketch  to  Certosa  on 
morphological  grounds,  and  it  is  the  only  sheet  from  this  epoch 
of  change  that  he  mentions. 

For  the  monk  to  the  right,  in  the  "Supper  at  Emmaus," 
we  have,  in  Uffizi  6656  verso  (fig.  84),  a  fine  study  from  which 

25  In  my  Dessins  these  drawings  are  discussed  in  detail. 

42 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

we  can  draw  definite  conclusions  about  the  quality  of  Pontormo's 
draughtsmanship  after  what  was  considered  by  his  contem- 
poraries mere  capricious  imitation  of  an  inferior  style.  The 
figure  is  in  red  chalk,  simple,  adequate  and  of  an  unaffected 
lucidity  of  vision. 

The  most  interesting  drawing  (fig.  83;  Uffizi  6622)  that 
we  now  have  related  to  the  frescoes  in  the  Val  d'Ema  is  an 
elaboration  of  the  "Kreuzabnahme"  that  Diirer  engraved 
between  1509  and  1511.  The  arched  form,  the  proportions,  and 
the  space  left  in  the  lower  corner  for  the  top  of  a  rounded  door, 
make  its  identification  easy.  It  is  a  study  for  the  " Deposition" 
that,  as  Vasari  records,  Pontormo  was  to  have  painted  in  the 
great  cloister,  and  which  was  never  executed.  Technically  our 
sketch  is  of  a  flower-like  delicacy  that  is  altogether  lovely. 

With  his  contemporaries  Jacopo's  work  at  the  Certosa  was 
not  popular.  Vasari,  to  be  sure,  devotes  five  pages  to  this 
undertaking.  Nevertheless,  we  read  between  the  lines  that 
Jacopo's  friends  found  it  an  aberration,  and  it  is  not  surprising 
that  his  restless  spirit  soon  passed  on  to  other  aims.  In  one 
of  the  last  drawings  (fig.  85;  Uffizi  6671)  that  he  made  at  the 
Certosa,  a  study  for  a  " Nailing  to  the  Cross,"  he  is  evidently 
already  making  his  way  towards  a  new  understanding  of  art. 
Here,  and  in  no  uncertain  manner,  is  the  dispersed  composition, 
the  crowded-arrangement  of  figures,  that  was  dear  to  the  late 
cinquecentist  and  that,  with  the  cult  of  the  gigantic  and  the 
forceful,  finally  smothered  the  last  embers  of  Florentine  art. 
Pontormo  saw  that,  in  Florence,  painting  could  only  develop 
in  one  direction,  and  in  this  design  he  had  premonitions  of  ideals 
that  were  not  completely  evolved  by  the  Florentine  School 
until  twenty  years  later.  Even  more  interesting,  however,  is 
the  fact  that  the  studies  (fig.  86  and  89)  we  possess  for  indi- 
vidual figures  of  this  composition  (Uffizi  6652  verso  and  6657 ; 
Corsini  124161)  have  still  a  breezy  spring,  a  solidity  that  recalls 
Poggio,  and  a  wirelike  quality  of  line  that  anticipates  various 
sketches  for  Santa  Felicita. 

Vasari26  says  that  Pontormo  had  with  him  at  the  monastery 

26  VI,  270;  VII,  594. 

43 


PONTORMO 

no  one  but  the  young  Bronzino  and  he  implies  that  Pontormo 
executed  practically  with  his  own  hands  the  entire  cloister 
''Passion.'*  In  any  case  we  know  not  only  that  the  books  of 
the  Certosa  contain  no  payment  made  to  any  assistant  other 
than  Bronzino  but  that  Jacopo  spent  four  years  in  the  Val 
d'Ema,27  which  was  more  than  time  enough  to  have  painted, 
without  help  of  any  kind,  all  five  existing  frescoes.  If  in  their 
present  state  these  defy  any  attempt  to  define  in  them  differ- 
ences of  touch,  we  can  at  least  be  sure  that  the  "Supper  at 
Emmaus"  shows  no  trace  of  a  second  hand.  Pontormo  had  an 
instinctive  dislike  of  collaborators;  often  he  would  not  even 
let  his  work  be  seen  before  it  was  finished.28  He  had,  in  fact, 
so  little  patience  with  mediocrity  that,  far  from  allowing  his 
pupils  to  finish  his  pictures,  he  sometimes  could  not  resist  the 
temptation  to  transfigure  their  work  with  last  touches  of  his 
own.  This  he  did,  according  to  Vasari,  when  Lappoli  once 
tried,  with  a  mirror,  to  paint  his  own  portrait  with  results  that 
were  miserable  enough  until  Pontormo  took  the  brush  out  of 
his  pupil's  hand  and  transformed  the  nondescript  likeness  into 
a  masterpiece.  While  he  was  at  work  in  the  Val  d'Ema, 
Jacopo  also  so  completely  rehandled  a  "St.  Quentin"  (fig.  90), 
which  had  been  begun  by  Giovanmaria  Pichi,29  that  the  canvas 
now  retains  hardly  a  trace  of  other  than  the  master's  touch. 
For  it  we  have  a  wonderful  head,30  in  pen  and  bistre,  drawn  on 
a  black-chalk  ground  (fig.  91)  that  Pontormo  seems  to  have 
dashed  off  to  illustrate  for  his  pupil  a  problem  of  pose. 

Between  the  autumn  of  1525  and  the  winter  of  1527  Jacopo 
returned  to  Florence,  although  he  continued  to  occupy  himself, 
from  time  to  time,  at  the  monastery.  An  entry  in  the  Quaderno 
di  Cassa  of  the  monks,  on  December  6,  1526,  for  flour  and 
chickens  sent  to  him  to  Florence,  would  seem  to  fortify  our 
conjecture.31 

Soon  after  he  had  finished  the  Passion  frescoes,  Pontormo 

27  See  in  Appendix  II,  the  documents  cited  above. 

28  Vasari,  VI,  271. 
2»  Ibid.,  p.  259. 

so  Dessins,  p.  203. 

*i  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  51,  No.  40,  p.  108.    See  Appendix  II,  Doe.  15. 

44 


painted,  on  the  walls  of  a  large  way-side  shrine  at  the  cross- 
roads of  Boldrone,  a  Christ  crucified,  Mary,  St.  John  the 
Baptist,  St.  Julian,  and  St.  Augustine  in  episcopal  robes  —  a 
work  which,  in  Vasari's  opinion,32  is  not  unlike  the  "Passion" 
of  the  Certosa.  The  Mary,  the  St.  John,  and  the  St.  Julian 
do  recall  various  figures  in  the  "Christ  before  Pilate"  and  in 
the  "Pieta,"  but  the  ingenuous  simplicity  of  the  composition  — 
due  doubtless  to  the  shape  of  the  shrine  itself  —  bears  no 
relation  to  his  work  in  the  Val  d'Ema.  For  the  fresco  at 
Boldrone  no  document  exists,  but  considerations  of  style  and 
circumstance  make  the  date  of  it  practically  certain.  It  cannot 
have  been  painted  earlier  than  1525  nor  later  than  the  summer 
of  1529,  in  the  autumn  of  which  year  Florence  was  invested 
by  the  Imperial  troops  and  the  country-side  was  no  longer  safe.88 

Pontormo's  imitation  of  Diirer  interrupted,  in  some 
measure,  the  natural  evolution  of  his  talent.  Nevertheless, 
it  was  a  surface  distortion,  which  did  not  modify  the  funda- 
mental groundwork  of  his  art.  His  exploration  of  northern 
formulas  had  been  too  consciously  intellectual  ever  to  pass 
into  his  larger  heritage  as  a  Florentine,  and  Diirer 's  art,  once 
it  had  ceased  to  interest  Jacopo,  left  no  lasting  mark  upon  his 
later  manner.  Even  before  he  had  completely  freed  himself 
from  its  influence,  Pontormo's  genius  was  such  that  he  could 
still  express^  himself  with  a  marvellous  freedom  and  add  the 
"Deposition"  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  (fig.  92)  to  the  master- 
pieces of  Italian  art.  Of  that  difficult  subject  this  altar-piece 
is,  perhaps,  our  rarest  rendering,  as  it  is,  without  doubt, 
Jacopo 's  highest  achievement  in  religious  painting.  In  it,  as 
in  the  lunette  at  Poggio,  he  subordinates  everything  to  a  fine, 
calculated,  decorative  effect  in  a  way  that  was  unique  in  an 
age  of  naturalism  and  the  final  triumph  of  representation. 

The  pale  golden  colour,  enveloped  and  yet  left  singing,  is 
as  delicately  adequate  and  soothing  as  the  forms  are,  in  a  real 
sense  of  the  term,  ethereal,  and  as  the  composition,  with  its 
strange,  torn,  gyrating  rhythm,  its  complex  cycles  of  movement, 

32  VI,  272. 

ss  Nerli,  IX,  202  f . 


PONTORMO 

is  elusively  beautiful.  The  sense  of  amber  dawn-light  playing 
on  lovely,  elemental  beings  is  stronger  here  than  the  sense  of 
death.  Among  these  divinities  of  lithe  limbs  and  curliest  blond 
hair,  grief  and  passion  are  unreal,  for  death  has  been  among 
them  for  the  first  time,  and  in  amazement  rather  than  in  tears, 
they  carry  to  the  grave  their  fairest  youth,  who  lies  as  if  asleep 
upon  their  shoulders,  with  no  indignity  done  to  his  beauty, 
a  tress  upon  his  neck  and  the  first  down  on  his  chin.  His  young 
mother  seated  by  the  roadside  reaches  out  her  hand,  uncompre- 
hending. On  all  the  faces  a  look,  more  of  incredulity  than  of 
despair,  appeals  to  us  to  explain  so  strange  and  sudden  a 
catastrophe. 

The  ''Deposition"  represents  but  part  of  the  work  done 
by  Pontormo  at  Santa  Felicita.34  He  frescoed  the  entire 
Capponi  Chapel,  painting  on  the  side-wall  to  the  right,  an 
"Annunciation";  in  a  "tondo,"  on  each  pendentive  of  the 
vaulting,  a  bust  figure  of  an  Evangelist;  and  in  the  cupola 
itself,  "God  the  Father  and  Four  Patriarchs."  The  general 
effect  of  the  decoration  is  not  perfectly  harmonious,  and  even 
Vasari35  noticed  a  certain  difference  in  style,  colour,  and 
composition,  between  the  "Deposition"  and  the  figures  of  the 
vaulting.  The  "Evangelists"  are,  in  fact,  dull  in  tone,  and  the 
"Annunciation"  is  more  in  harmony  with  them  than  with  the 
altar-piece.  We  cannot,  however,  tell  what  the  original  effect 
was,  for  the  "Annunciation"  has  lost  in  successive  repaintings 
all  its  distinctive  quality,  and  the  figures  of  the  cupola  have 
been  destroyed.36 

In  all  these  pictures  the  influence  of  Diirer  is  slight.  No 
one  who  has  not  seen  Jacopo's  work  at  the  Certosa  would  ever 
think  of  associating  the  "Kleine  Passion"  with  the  "Deposi- 
tion," still  less  with  the  "Annunciation"  or  the  "Evangelists" 
of  Santa  Felicita.  Vasari"  himself  felt  that  in  them  Jacopo  had 
again  become  a  Florentine:  "parve  quasi  che  fusse  tornato  alia 

s*  Vasari,  VI,  271  f. 

ss  Ibid. 

so  In  1766  when  the  organ-loft  was  rebuilt. 

37  VI,  271. 

46 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

sua  maniera  di  prima."  Nevertheless,  a  certain  lingering 
influence  of  Diirer's  engravings  may  be  traced  in  the  rather 
tight,  complicated  folds  and  torn,  cascading  effect  of  the 
draperies  in  the  " Deposition." 

"We  do  not  know  the  exact  date  at  which  Pontormo  was 
commissioned  to  decorate  this  chapel.  The  books  of  the 
monastery  of  Santa  Felicita  are  silent,  and  none  of  the  Capponi 
papers38  that  are  now  in  the  Florentine  Archives  mention  the 
undertaking.  Vasari  speaks  of  it  as  begun  "non  molto  dopo 
la  Certosa,"  and  Balocchi,  who  probably  had  access  to  some 
document  now  lost,  states39  that  Lodovico  di  Gino  di  Lodovico 
Capponi  acquired  the  chapel  in  1525  for  two  hundred  "scudi." 
In  a  Libro  di  Eicordanze40  of  the  monastery  one  gleans  the  fact 
that  the  chapel  was  rented,  in  January,  1490,  by  the  Barbadori 
to  Antonio  di  Bernardo  Paghanelli,  in  the  margin  of  which 
entry  one  reads:  "Compero  il  detto  Antonio  la  detta,  cappeZZa 
da  Barbadori  e  da  Bernardo  suo  figlio  fu  venduta  a  Ludovico 
Capponi  per  scudi  200."  This  note  can  hardly  have  been 
written  later  than  1528,  and  we  will  not  go  far  wrong,  then, 
if  we  suppose  that  Jacopo  began  the  work  late  in  the  autumn 
of  1526.  He  put  up  a  scaffolding  and,  according  to  Vasari,41 
kept  the  chapel  closed  for  three  years.  This,  however,  does  not 
imply  that  Pontormo  undertook,  during  all  that  time,  no  other 
commissions. 

The  preparatory  work  for  these  decorations  may  be 
followed  in  a  number  of  drawings.42  For  the  " Annunciation" 
there  are  two  finished  studies,  one  (fig.  88;  Uffizi  448)  for  the 
Virgin,  a  rather  dry,  meticulous  drawing  in  red  chalk,  the  other 
(fig.  87 ;  Uffizi  6653)  for  the  angel,  a  sketch  full  of  freshness 
and  movement.  Pontormo  employed  in  the  latter  a  mixed 
technique  of  pencil  washed  with  bistre,  which  furnishes  us 
with  a  precious  criterion  of  the  use  that  he  made  of  chalk  and 
wash  toward  the  end  of  the  twenties.  Earlier  sketches  for  the 

ss  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  83,  No.  130,  Scritture  diverse  di  Casa  Capponi  (1410-1539). 

3»  Illust.  di  S.  Felicita,  p.  35. 

w  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  83,  No.  115  (1485-1528),  p.  21.    See  Appendix  II,  Doe.  17. 

*i  VI,  271. 

42  For  a  detailed  discussion  of  these  drawings,  see  my  Dessins. 

47 


PONTORMO 

angel's  neck  and  shoulders  may  be  found  on  Uffizi  6570  verso, 
and  it  is  not  impossible  that  the  draped  figure  on  the  recto  of 
this  sheet  is  an  abandoned  idea  for  the  pose  of  the  Madonna. 
The  touch  is  undoubtedly  of  this  period,  but  the  light  drapery, 
apparently  inappropriate  for  a  Madonna,  weakens  some- 
what our  supposition.  The  figure  may,  of  course,  be  a  study 
for  the  lost  "Pomona"  that  Jacopo  painted  in  fresco  near  the 
door  of  Filippo  del  Migliore's  house,  in  Via  Larga  —  a  work 
that  Vasari  mentions  immediately  after  the  Certosa,  and  which, 
therefore,  should  be  placed  just  before  Jacopo 's  frescoes  and 
altar-piece  at  Santa  Felicita. 

For  the  "Deposition"  of  the  Capponi  Chapel  we  have  many 
drawings.  On  Uffizi  6666  (fig.  93),  the  Madonna's  head  is 
sketched  from  the  male  nude,  and  on  Uffizi  6627  (fig.  94),  the 
head  of  the  woman  to  her  left  is  studied  twice.  In  the 
"Deposition,"  Pontormo  combined  these  studies,  using  one  for 
the  features  and  the  other  for  the  arrangement  of  the  head- 
dress. Both  are  evidently  drawn  from  life,  as  is  Uffizi  6577 
(fig.  95),  a  study  for  the  head  of  the  youth  who  carries  the 
knees  of  Christ,  in  which  the  features  are  more  troubled  and 
more  realistic  than  in  the  altar-piece  where  so  personal  a  note 
would  have  spoiled  the  fine  serenity  of  the  scene.  The  diver- 
gence between  the  painting  and  the  drawing  is  a  clear 
indication  of  how  profoundly  Pontormo 's  imagination  trans- 
figured his  material.  The  youth  who  carries  the  shoulders 
of  Christ  may  be  seen  in  a  number  of  sheets.  Corsini  124229 
verso  and  124230  (fig.  96)  are  first  thoughts  for  his  head  and 
shoulders;  on  Uffizi  6730  (fig.  97)  there  is  a  sketch  for  his  legs 
and  drapery;  and  on  Uffizi  6613  verso  (fig.  98)  the  movement 
of  his  legs  is  studied  from  the  nude.  Here  too  we  find  a  part 
of  his  drapery,  as  well  as  the  marvellously  prompt  strokes  with 
which  Pontormo  first  sketched  the  whole  figure.  A  somewhat 
mannered  study  (fig.  99 ;  Uffizi  6619)  of  an  unpleasant  type  of 
nude,  drawn  from  the  life,  is  Jacopo 's  first  idea  for  the  Christ. 
The  touch  has  a  certain  sincerity,  but  the  pose  is  without  charm 
of  movement,  and  in  the  conception  of  this  figure  the  altar- 
piece  marks  a  notable  advance.  The  drapery  of  the  upper  part 

48 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

of  the  youth  in  the  upper  right-hand  corner  of  the  picture 
appears  in  Uffizi  6730  (fig.  97),  and  in  Uffizi  6576  recto  (fig.  100) 
the  entire  figure  is  studied  from  the  nude.  This  is  by  far  the 
most  interesting  sheet  we  possess  for  Santa  Felicita.  It  is  of 
a  supple  sureness  of  hand,  caressing  and  delightful. 

For  the  "tondi"  of  the  pendentives48  we  have  in  the  British 
Museum  (Payne  Knight  Collection,  P.  p.  2,  102)  an  idea  for 
the  "Evangelist"  to  the  right  above  the  "Annunciation." 
Berenson  believes  that  Uffizi  6647  recto  is  also  a  first  thought 
for  one  of  these  medallions,  but  one  should  notice  in  passing 
that  the  pose  is  far  from  that  of  any  of  the  figures  in  their 
final  form. 

Since  the  frescoes  of  the  cupola  proper  no  longer  exist, 
one  can  hardly  pretend  to  identify  drawings  with  them.  It  is, 
nevertheless,  not  impossible  that  Uffizi  6590  and  6613,  studies 
of  male  figures  seated  on  a  low  step,  are  sketches  for  the 
"Patriarchs."  The  pose,  the  head  thrown  back  gazing  up, 
suggests  that  they  were  intended  to  occupy  the  lower  part  of 
a  circular  vaulting.  Berenson  thinks  that  they  are  for  the 
Vertumnus  at  Poggio.  But  the  quality  of  the  contour  in  Uffizi 
6590  is  precisely  that  of  6576  recto,  one  of  our  best  studies 
for  the  "Deposition,"  and  the  arms,  hands,  and  head,  of  6613 
should  be  compared  with  similar  parts  of  the  latter  drawing. 

The  drawings  for  the  Capponi  Chapel  have,  on  the  whole, 
less  vitality  of  line  than  those  for  Poggio.  In  them  the  touch 
is  a  little  too  fine  and  tight.  They  have  none  of  that  almost 
too  obvious  amplitude  of  form  which  distinguishes  many 
sketches  for  the  earlier  masterpiece,  and  they  are  certainly 
much  less  magnificently  lyrical.  The  portrait-drawings  (fig. 
101  and  102)  from  this  period  are  subtly  imaginative,  fragile, 
and  transparent  evocations  to  which  the  introspective  and 
restless  spirit  of  the  sitter  still  clings. 

While  he  was  still  at  work  in  Santa  Felicita,  Pontormo 

43  In  his  "Life  of  Pontormo"  (VI,  271)  Vasari  states  that  one  of  the  Evangelists 
was  painted  by  Bronzino  who  was  then  working  with  Jacopo;  in  his  "Life  of  Bronzino" 
(VII,  594)  he  says  that  Bronzino  painted  two  Evangelists  and  certain  figures  of  the 
vaulting.  It  is  impossible  now  to  disentangle  these  inconsistencies. 

49 


PONTORMO 

also  painted  for  Capponi  a  portrait  of  his  daughter  as  the 
Magdalen,44  which  has  since  been  lost,  although  we  still  have 
a  drawing  (Uffizi  6546)  that  may  have  been  made  for  the  work 
in  question.  At  all  events  this  sheet  appears  to  date  from  the 
late  twenties  although,  curiously  enough,  it  shows  an  excess 
of  sentiment  hardly  to  be  found  in  Florentine  art  before  the 
Seicento. 

44  Vasari,  VI,  272. 


50 


CHAPTER  VI 


1527-1530 

Between  1527  and  1531  Florence  passed  through  its  last 
tumultuous  crisis.  On  May  16,  1527,  Alessandro,  Ippolito,  and 
their  tutor  Passerini  were  expelled  from  the  city,  and  for  the 
moment,  patriotism  ran  high  in  spite  of  class  selfishness  and 
individual  cupidity.  Unhappily  it  was  too  late ;  the  end  of  the 
Republic  was  at  hand.1 

In  the  popular  enthusiasm  of  those  years,  we  have,  I 
believe,  indirect  evidence  of  the  date  of  the  "Madonna,  St.  Anne 
and  Four  Saints,"  now  in  the  Louvre  (fig.  104).  The  picture 
was  ordered  by  the  Captain  and  Officials  of  the  Signoria  for 
the  nuns  of  St.  Anne.2  In  a  medallion  under  the  Madonna's 
feet,  these  officials,  accompanied  by  commanders,  mace-bearers, 
"tavolaccini,"  fifes  and  trumpets,  are  represented  as  pro- 
ceeding solemnly  to  the  convent  beyond  the  San  Frediano  gate 
where  they  "rendered  homage,  on  July  26  of  every  year,  to  the 
nuns'  patron  saint.  The  origins  of  this  ceremony  went  back 
to  the  Trecento  when,  on  St.  Anne's  Day,  1343,  the  Duke  of 
Athens  was  driven  from  the  city.  In  his  note  on  our  picture 
Milanesi3  refers  to  the  historical  meaning  of  the  ceremony,  and 
since  his  time  a  vague  notion  seems  to  have  arisen  that  this 
altar-piece  was  painted  for  the  two-hundredth  anniversary  of 
the  festival.  Critics  have,  accordingly,  dated  it  1543,4  in  other 
words,  fifteen  years  too  late.  It  is  altogether  unlikely  that  a 

iVettori,  Sommario,  p.  382.  Cambi,  XXII,  pp.  317-319.  Varehi,  Storia,  III,  i, 
pp.  156-158. 

2  Vasari,  VI,  273.     Eicha,  IV,  222. 

s  Vasari,  loc.  cit.,  note  3. 

<  Berenson,  Florentine  Painters,  p.  176.  Lafenestre,  MusSe  National  du  Louvre, 
4th  ed.,  1907,  p.  102.  De  Eicci,  Peintures  du  Louvre,  p.  40. 

51 


PONTORMO 

painting,  so  clearly  intended  to  celebrate  the  deliverance  of  the 
city  from  a  tyrant,  should  have  been  ordered  at  the  very 
moment  when  Cosimo  I  was  sternly  repressing  the  last  traces 
of  freedom  in  Tuscany.5  Such  a  picture  belongs  to  a  very 
different  moment,  and  must  have  been  painted  between  May 
16, 1527,  the  date  of  the  expulsion  of  the  Medici,  and  August  12, 
1530,  when  the  city  surrendered.  After  the  exile  of  Alessandro 
and  Ippolito,  the  festival  commemorating  the  deliverance  of 
Florence  from  an  ancient  tyrant  took  on  an  added  solemnity. 
Of  this,  Pontormo 's  altar-piece  is,  in  all  probability,  a  record. 
The  books  of  the  Signoria  have  been  lost,  so  that  no  documents 
exist  for  this  picture.  It  is,  however,  worthy  of  notice  that 
the  "gonfaloniere"  elected  in  1527  was  Niccolo  Capponi,  a 
relative  of  the  Lodovico  for  whom  Pontormo  was  working  at 
the  moment.6 

But  on  closer  examination,  the  panel  itself  comes  magnifi- 
cently to  our  aid.  The  drapery,  although  heavier,  is  not  unlike 
that  of  the  Virgin  of  the  " Annunciation,"  or  that  of  the 
"Evangelists"  at  Santa  Felicita.  The  Madonna  and  St.  Anne 
wear  a  head-dress  of  the  kind  worn  by  the  Madonna  and  the 
women  of  the  "Deposition,"  and  in  both  pictures  the  features 
of  the  Virgin  are  the  same.  These  are  resemblances  that  cannot 
be  explained,  if  our  picture  really  dates  from  1543,  for  at*  that 
moment  Pontormo  was  more  exclusively  Michelangelesque  than 
at  any  other  period.  Convincing  proof  that  our  chronology 
is  correct  is  to  be  found  in  the  finished  drawing  (fig.  105; 
Uffizi  460)  for  the  whole  composition.  It  is  in  pen  and  bistre 
and  technically  close  to  the  study  for  the  Angel  at  Santa 
Felicita. 

In  the  Louvre  panel,  as  in  the  landscape  of  a  "Madonna 
and  Child"  (fig.  103),  dating  from  1528-1529  and  now  in  the 
Corsini  Palace  in  Florence,  that  faint  influence  of  Diirer's  art 
which  lingered  in  the  Capponi  "Deposition"  is  still  further 
attenuated,  although  the  St.  Sebastian  of  the  former  picture 
recalls  strangely  a  "Sebastian"  from  Diirer's  workshop,  which 


s  Capponi,  II,  494. 

e  Varchi,  VI,  i,  pp.  383,  396. 


52 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

is  now  in  the  Archbishop's  palace  at  Ober  St.  Veit,T  near 
Vienna.  This  resemblance,  which  cannot  be  fortuitous,  may 
explain  Vasari 's  remark  that  the  figures  of  the  St.  Anne  altar- 
piece,  like  those  of  the  shrine  at  Boldrone,  are  not  purely 
Italian  —  a  comment  for  which  there  is  no  other  justification, 
for  the  central  group  of  the  Louvre  picture  certainly  owes 
something  to  Leonardo,  and  the  arrangement  of  the  saints  in  it 
suggests  early  compositions  by  Fra  Bartolommeo. 

Leonardo's  influence  is  visible  elsewhere  in  pictures  of  this 
period.  A  complicated  and  ingenious  composition  of  the 
" Madonna  and  Little  St.  John"8  that  now  hangs  in  the  Uffizi 
may  have  been  suggested  by  some  lost  drawing  of  the  great 
master's,9  although  we  cannot  help  remarking  that  the  move- 
ment of  the  Madonna's  shoulder,  head  and  arm  is  repeated  in 
a  drawing  (fig.  109)  for  a  "St.  Jerome,"  the  archetype  of  which 
is  Leonardo's  unfinished  "St.  Jerome,"  now  in  the  Vatican. 
This  sketch  is  of  the  same  date  as  Santa  Felicita. 

The  frenzied  gestures  of  the  charging  horsemen  in 
Pontormo's  "Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice"  (fig.  106) ,10  the 
frantic,  galloping  horses,  small-nosed,  full-necked,  round- 
haunched  and  compact,  the  wild  rush  of  the  onslaught,  in 
that  "sanguinoso  fango"  where  every  brutal,  pitiless  passion  is 
unchained,  have  their  prototype  in  the  "Battle  of  Anghiari."11 
The  orgy  of  nude  bodies,  on  the  other  hand,  and  the  exaggerated 
muscles  of  the  figures,  are  derived  from  Michelangelo,  although 

i  Painted  for  Friedrich  der  Weise  between  1502  and  1504.  The  drawing  for  this 
picture  is  now  in  the  Stadel  Institute,  in  Frankfort. 

s  Uffizi,  No.  1578.  Gamba  (Disegni  di  Jacopo  Carucci,  Firenze,  1912)  places  this 
picture  about  1525.  In  my  opinion  it  was  painted  about  1528. 

» It  is  interesting  to  note  that  Eleonora  gave  to  the  Duke  of  Altamira  a  copy  that 
Bronzino  made  of  a  "Madonna"  by  Leonardo.  Cf.  Vasari,  VI,  284,  note.  Gaye,  III,  94. 

10  Pitti,  No.  182. 

11  There  are  reasons  to  doubt  the  existence  of  Leonardo 's  work  as  late  as  1528-1530. 
We  know  by  documentary  evidence  that  in  1513  it  was  in  a  condition  so  deplorable  that  a 
beam  had  to  be  used  to  prevent  its  collapse.    The  cartoon,  or  pieces  of  it,  may  have  existed 
long  after  the  wall  painting  had  disappeared.     Both  Cellini  and  Vasari  state  that  the 
cartoon  hung  for  a  long  time  in  the  Sala  del  Papa  and  was  studied  there  by  all  the  young 
artists  of  Florence  (Vasari,  V,  8).     It  is  not  unlikely  that  in  painting  the  "Martyrdom 
of  St.  Maurice"  Pontormo  merely  used  sketches  that  he  had  made  from  the  cartoon  years 
before. 

53 


PONTORMO 

the  type  of  nude  is  still  far  from  the  thick-necked  giant  of  the 
latter 's  middle  period. 

For  this  panel,  which  Vasari12  says  was  ordered  by  the 
women  of  the  Innocents,  we  have  no  document.  Perhaps,  in 
fact,  no  document  ever  existed.  We  know  that  the  women 
occupied,  in  the  hospital,  a  place  apart,  which  was  closed  with 
a  high  double  gate.  If  they  really  ordered  the  picture,  they 
probably  paid  for  it  themselves,  and  such  a  payment  would  not 
have  been  entered  on  the  books  of  the  institution.  It  is  true 
that  in  1529  Pontormo  had  transactions  with  the  authorities 
of  the  hospital,  but  on  grounds  so  circumstantial  we  are  not 
justified  in  assigning  the  picture  to  that  year,  even  though 
Vasari  does  so  by  implication.  Close  study,  however,  of  the 
draperies  of  the  Judge  and  of  the  figure  in  the  foreground 
makes  clear  their  likeness  to  the  drapery  of  the  Louvre  altar- 
piece.  But  we  have  still  other  evidence  for  the  date  of  the 
panel  of  a  more  indisputable  and  intimate  nature :  the  drawing 
we  possess  of  an  arched  variant  (fig.  108)  of  the  upper  left- 
hand  quarter  of  the  composition  is  identical  in  draughtsman- 
ship with  the  sketch  for  a  "St.  Jerome"  (fig.  109;  Uffizi  441) 1S 
of  which  we  have  just  spoken.  In  both  we  find  the  same  fine 
hatchings,  the  same  somewhat  brittle  line,  the  same  violent 
contrast  in  the  modelling  of  the  muscles,  and  in  both  we  have 
the  same  great-shouldered,  bottle-armed,  round-headed  type. 
Our  drawing  of  St.  Jerome,  like  the  delicate  study  of  a  women 
on  the  verso  of  the  same  sheet  (fig.  110),  dates  from  1527-1529; 
its  relation  to  Santa  Felicita  proves  that.  The  "Martyrdom 
of  St.  Maurice"  cannot  be  later  than  1530. 

In  the  Uffizi14  there  is  a  smaller  version  (fig.  107)  of  the 
same  composition  that  Jacopo  painted  for  Carlo  Neroni,15  in 
which  we  find  only  the  cavalry,  the  angels,  and  the  baptism 
of  the  martyrs.  The  vertical  axis  of  the  composition  has  also 
been  rearranged  and  the  colour-scheme  reconsidered,  from 

12  VI,  275. 

is  Dessins,  pp.  91,  290. 

"No.  1187. 

is  Vasari,  VI,  275. 

54 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

which  facts  we  may  conjecture  that  the  Pitti  picture  is  the 
earlier  by  a  brief  interval  of  time.  Both  panels,  which  were 
once  quite  famous,  are  a  mere  patchwork  of  derived  ideas,  and 
in  colouring  they  are  cold  and  dry.  Perhaps  the  neatness  of 
their  execution,  or  the  mere  fact  that  they  are  Michelangelesque, 
veiled  for  Pontormo's  contemporaries  their  poverty  as  art. 

Between  1528  and  1530  Pontormo  painted  the  splendid 
"Visitation"  that  once  adorned  a  villa  of  the  Pinadori  family, 
near  Carmignano,  and  that  is  now  in  the  village  church.16  In 
this  altar-piece  (fig.  Ill),  the  more  than  human  proportions 
of  the  figures,  the  grand  simplicity  of  their  attitude  and  gesture, 
isolates  the  divine  event  and  intensifies  its  significance.  Here, 
then,  we  have  a  curious  attempt  to  give,  in  other  terms  than 
those  commonly  used  by  Michelangelo's  followers,  that  sense 
of  the  superhuman  which  the  latter  so  insistently  dwelt  upon. 
To  emphasize  the  note  of  grandeur  Pontormo,  like  Andrea  in 
all  his  later  pictures,  employs  voluminous  draperies  but,  unlike 
Andrea's  leaden  stuffs,  Pontormo's  are  light  and  loose  in  their 
amplitude.  The  same  folds  may  be  found  again  in  the  Louvre 
1  'Madonna  and  St.  Anne,"  and  in  the  works  at  Santa  Felicita. 
The  composition  is  to  a  certain  degree  suggestive  of  Durer's 
"Die  Vier  Nackten  Frauen,"  and  the  St.  Elizabeth  recalls  his 
"Nemesis"  reversed.  The  final  study  (fig.  112;  Uffizi  461)17 
for  this  "Visitation"  survives,  the  touch  of  which  approaches 
drawings  for  the  Capponi  Chapel.  It  is,  however,  drier  and, 
what  is  rare  with  Pontormo,  the  drawing  is  inferior  to  the 
picture. 

Vasari  mentions  another  work,  "The  Eaising  of  Lazarus," 
now  lost,  that  must  have  been  painted  in  the  second  half  of  the 
decade  of  the  twenties,  and  of  it  he  tells  a  story.  Delia  Palla, 
who  acted  as  a  kind  of  royal  antiquarian  and  art-dealer  to 
Francis  I,  tried,  while  Pierfrancesco  Borgherini  was  absent 

i«Bocchi,  p.  286:  "modello  d  'una  Visitazione  in  piccolo  del  Pontormo,  i  cui  panneg- 
giamenti  son  bellissimi  e  toccati  con  franchezza,  e  stimo  che  1  'originate  in  grande  sia  in  una 
Villa  de'  Pinadori  a  Carmignano."  This  sentence  occurs  in  Bocchi's  description  of  the 


Carmign 
house  of  Andrea  Pitti. 

IT  Dessins,  pp.  104  f. 


55 


PONTORMO 

from  Florence,  to  buy  from  his  wife  Pontormo's  famous 
"cassone"  panels,  and  failing  in  the  attempt,  finally  persuaded 
Jacopo  to  paint  a  special  picture  for  the  French  King.18 
Borgherini  was  a  partisan  of  the  Medici,  and  it  was  in  1527 
that  he  fled  with  them  to  Lucca.  The  " Lazarus,"  therefore, 
could  hardly  have  been  begun  before  1528.  In  1530  Florence 
was  invested  and  all  traffic  stopped,  and  in  1531  Delia  Palla 
was  exiled  from  the  city.19  We  can  hardly  err,  then,  if  we 
assume  that  this  picture  was  finished  about  1529.20  A  beautiful 
drawing  (fig.  113)  exists  that  may  have  served  for  the  figure 
of  Lazarus.21  In  it  we  seem  to  divine  an  exquisite  ecstasy  of 
surprise  such  as  one  might  feel  in  coming  back  to  life. 

During  the  siege  (1528-1530)  Pontormo  painted  the  portrait 
of  Francesco  Guardi  dressed  as  a  soldier,22  which  has  since  been 
lost  or  is  unidentified.  Its  cover,  which  Vasari  attributes  to 
Bronzino,  is  now  in  the  Barberini  Gallery23  and  represents 
* '  Pygmalion  and  Galatea. ' '  In  these  figures  all  serious  students 
of  Pontormo's  art  see,  at  a  glance,  the  master's  hand.  The  type 
of  the  cranium  is  especially  noticeable,  recalling  instantly  many 
of  the  heads  in  the  "Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice."  His  touch 
is  less  convincingly  present  in  the  altar  and  the  accessories,  and 
in  these  details  his  pupil  had,  perhaps,  some  trifling  part  that 
Bronzino  may  have  mentioned  when  he  discussed  the  life  of 
Jacopo  with  Vasari.  It  is  permissible  to  conjecture  that 
the  latter,  misinterpreting  Bronzino 's  remarks,  was  led  to 

is  Vasari,  V,  27;  VI,  262  f.  For  Delia  Palla 's  activities  as  a  picture-dealer,  see 
Vasari,  V,  27,  50,  51,  55;  VI,  61. 

i»  Varchi,  XII,  ii,  pp.  531-533. 

20  It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  the  ' '  Sacrifice  of  Isaac ' '  by  Andrea,  now  in  Dresden, 
was  ordered  by  Delia  Palla  for  the  King  of  France,  but  that  this  panel,  which  dates  from 
1528-1530,  never  came  into  the  possession  of  Francis  I.    It  was  sold  to  Filippo  Strozzi  and 
was  later  in  the  collection  of  the  Marchese  del  Vasto.    In  1529,  therefore,  Delia  Palla  had 
in  all  probability  ceased  to  act  as  agent  of  the  French  King.     He  died,  as  is  well  known, 
in  the  fortress  of  Pisa  where  he  was  imprisoned  after  the  siege.     The  Marchese  del  Vasto 
mentioned  is  the  Alfonso  Davolo  for  whom  Pontormo  painted  his  "Noli  me  tangere. "    He 
had  a  house  in  the  island  of  Isehia  to  which  he  took  the  pictures  that  he  had  acquired  in 
Florence.    Cf.  Vasari,  V,  51. 

21  Uffizi  6723.    Cf .  Dessins,  p.  257. 

22  Vasari,  VI,  275. 

23  No.  83. 

56 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

attribute  to  Mm  the  whole  work.  The  " Portrait  of  a  Youth," 
now  in  Bergamo  (fig.  116),  the  firm  but  dry  "Portrait  of 'a 
Man,"  in  the  Uffizi  Gallery  (fig.  118),  the  gracious  " Portrait 
of  a  Youth,"  at  Lucca  (fig.  115),  as  well  as  two  birth-plates, 
one  in  the  Uffizi  (fig.  114)  and  the  other  in  the  Palazzo  Davan- 
zati,  date  from  these  years.  Many  drawings  also  testify  to  his 
unceasing  curiosity  during  this  epoch  and  leave  a  record  of 
strange  excursions  into  a  dim  marginal  world  beyond  which 
draughtsmanship  can  hardly  penetrate.  Of  these,  one  of 
ghastly  force  and  incisive  promptitude  of  vision  (fig.  117), 
another  of  precise  and  fastidious  dexterity  of  touch  (fig.  120), 
and  still  another  (fig.  121)  haunted  by  some  wistful  uncanni- 
ness  —  unfaltering  jotting  of  a  surprised  and  cringing  half- 
human,  half-spectral  thing  that  was  probably  drawn  a  few 
years  later  —  will  serve  us  as  illuminating  examples. 

From  1520  to  1530  Pontormo's  inspiration  was  varied  and 
his  activity  great.  In  spite  of  adverse  criticism  of  the  Certosa 
frescoes,  his  position  in  the  artistic  world  had  become  steadily 
more  important.  In  1525  his  name  was  inscribed  in  the  book 
of  the  Company  of  San  Luca  ;24  on  June  5, 1526,  he  was  enrolled 
among  the  painters  in  the  Guild  of  the  Medici  e  Speziali.25  Up 
to  this  time  he  had  lived  in  lodgings  in  the  parish  of  San 
Giovanni,26  but,  on  March  15,  1529,  he  purchased  from  the 
Hospital  of  "the  Innocents  two  lots  on  the  Via  Laura,  now  Via 
della  Colonna,27  on  which  he  proposed  to  build  a  house  and  a 
"bottega"  for  his  own  use  —  an  intention  that  he  was  not  to 
carry  out  until  about  1534. 

24  A.  S.  F.,  Aeeademia  del  Disegno,  No.  1,  Begistro  contenente  Capitoli  e  ordinamenti 
della  Compagnia  di  S.  Luca  e  dell'arte,  e  1'Elenco  del  Pittori  Ascritti  a  quella  compagnia 
(1340-1550),  p.  10  v.    See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  18. 

25  A.  S.  F.,  Medici  e  Speziali,  No.  11,  Libro  Verde,  Matricola  per  la  Citta,  p.  27  left. 
See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  19. 

2«  A.  S.  F.,  Catasto,  Estimo  del  Contado,  No.  5,  Quartiere  S.  Giovanni,  1520,  Popoli 
1-95,  No.  128,  p.  57  left.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  20. 

27  A.  S.  F.,  Catasto,  Libro  a  parte  1534,  Cittadini  a  parte,  Q.  S.  M.  N.  e  S.  G., 
1534,  No.  11,  Qre.  Sto.  Gni.  Chiave,  p.  448  left.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  21.  Of.  Vasari, 
VI,  279. 


57 


CHAPTER  VII 

1530  TO  1545  AND  LATER 

Our  study  of  Pontormo's  art  encounters  more  formidable 
difficulties  of  chronology  between  1530  and  1540  than  at  any 
other  period.  After  1530  Pontormo  no  longer  worked  for 
convents  or  religious  companies,  and  rarely  even  for  private 
persons,  but,  like  many  other  artists  in  Florence,  he  depended 
for  his  commissions  almost  entirely  upon  Alessandro  or  Cosimo 
de'  Medici.  The  archives  of  the  first  ten  years  of  the  ducal 
government  are  hopelessly  incomplete,  and  no  written  docu- 
ments exist  for  pictures  executed  during  that  time.  It  is  also 
a  curious  fact,  due  apparently  to  the  political  disorder  following 
the  siege,  that  from  this  period  few  paintings  by  Jacopo  have 
come  down  to  us.  Nevertheless,  the  dates  of  certain  of 
his  undertakings  are  delimited  by  well-known  events,  so 
that  by  a  close  study  of  these  we  may  establish  a  correct,  if 
undocumented,  chronology  for  these  years. 

After  the  triumph  of  the  Medici,  Clement  VII  wished  to 
carry  out  the  decoration  of  the  Great  Hall  at  Poggio.  Andrea 
del  Sarto1  and  Franciabigio2  were  dead,  and  to  Pontormo, 
therefore,  the  whole  commission  was  entrusted.  No  higher 
tribute  could  have  been  paid  to  his  ability.  He  was  the  greatest 
painter  in  Florence  at  that  moment.  The  scaffolding  was 
erected,  and  all  preparations  for  the  work  were  made,  but 
Jacopo  delayed.  Neither  Alessandro  nor  Ottaviano  de'  Medici 
could  get  him  to  proceed  with  decision.3  Vasari  would  have 
us  believe  that  his  dilatoriness  was  due  to  illness  and  to  the 

1  January  22,  1531. 

2  January  24,  1525. 
s  Vasari,  VI,  276. 

58 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

fact  that  Bronzino  was  not  in  Florence  to  help  him.4  The  real 
causes  unquestionably  lay  deeper.  Jacopo  had  struggled,  with 
an  open  mind,  through  a  maze  of  complex  tradition,  he  had 
tried  many  canons,  and  with  each  he  had  endeavoured,  some- 
times as  at  Poggio  with  wonderful  insight,  to  illustrate  the 
fundamental  laws  of  decoration.  He  had  seen  that  to  be 
beautifully  effective  a  wall-painting  should  contain  no  element 
that  makes  a  special  appeal  of  its  own ;  that  it  should  be  neither 
narrative  nor  epic  nor  dramatic,  but  just  pictorial,  a  rest  to 
our  eye,  a  subtle  stimulation  to  our  sense  of  harmonious  fitness ; 
that  the  figures  should  be  convincing  enough  to  soothe  our 
unwordable  instinct  for  form,  our  thoughtless  curiosity  for  the 
sensation  of  substance,  but  that  they  should  never  be  insistent ; 
that  the  composition  should  fit  the  space  available  with  a  kind 
of  fine  levity  without  calling  attention  either  to  the  problem 
or  to  its  solution ;  and  that  the  colour  should  be  pale  and  light, 
a  few  bright  tones  carried  through  the  whole,  leaving  the 
surface  unified,  the  expanse  of  the  wall  unbroken. 

But  his  very  sincerity,  his  very  insight  into  his  art's 
underlying  principles  diminished  his  self-confidence.  He  could 
not  stupidly  repeat  himself,  and  a  method,  a  manner  once 
found,  once  tried,  immediately  lost  for  him  its  interest.  His 
keen  sense  of  the  vast  problems  involved  in  mural  painting 
forced  hinrto  try  a  new  and  serious  solution  of  at  least  one 
of  these  problems  in  each  new  fresco.  One  cannot  wonder,  then, 
that  before  the  unfinished  spaces  of  the  Great  Hall  he  felt  a 
terrible  hesitation,  a  hesitation  all  the  more  paralysing  because 
he  was  ill,  and  overstrained  by  the  arduous  years  just  passed. 

On  the  other  hand,  this  period  of  unproductive  delay  was 
not  an  evidence  of  diminished  creativeness.  Intellectually, 
Pontormo  was  hard  at  work ;  he  was  reconsidering  the  meaning 
of  that  canon  of  form  which,  in  the  San  Lorenzo  tombs  (1526- 
1531),  Michelangelo  had  given  to  an  astonished  world.  What 

*  Bronzino  was  in  Pesaro  at  work  on  his  frescoes  in  Villa  Monte  Imperiale  and  on 
other  undertakings  for  Guidobaldo  della  Eovere,  among  them  the  portrait  now  in  the  Pitti 
(No.  149)  and  long  ascribed  to  Pontormo.  Cf.  the  Catalogue  Baisonn6,  under  Florence, 
Pitti  Palace,  and  Thode,  Ein  furstlicher  Sommeraufenthalt  in  der  Zeit  der  Hochrenaissancc, 
Jahrbuch  d.  Tconigl.  preuss.  Kunstsamml.,  IX  (1888),  pp.  163,  171,  179. 

59 


PONTOKMO 

his  contemporaries  imitated  superficially,  he  now  strove  to 
comprehend  profoundly.  And  to  do  so  he  put  his  past  again 
behind  him  and  with  a  fresh  eye  faced  the  problem.  Knowing 
his  keen  intellectual  sincerity,  we  will  not  be  surprised  to  find 
him,  now  and  then,  in  his  next  phase,  more  Michelangelesque 
than  even  Michelangelo  himself.8 

What  arrested  Pontormo's  natural  development,  as  painter 
and  draughtsman,  was  not  his  apparently  great  susceptibility 
to  influence  of  every  kind,  but  personal  contact  with  Michel- 
angelo while  the  latter  was  at  work  in  Florence.6  That  contact 
and  the  overwhelming  wave  of  Michelangelo 's  popularity  turned 
Jacopo's  receptive  curiosity  and  interest  in  other  craftsmen's 
ideas  —  interest  and  curiosity  that  he  inherited  from  Florentine 
tradition  —  into  downright  captivation.  We  may  believe  that 
he  now  sought  the  great  master's  society  and  became  his  friend, 
so  that  to  the  influence  of  Michelangelo's  art  was  added  the 
magnetism  of  a  presence7  to  which  Jacopo's  sensitive  nature 
instantly  responded.  From  1530  on,  for  more  than  ten  years, 
we  watch  him  stagger  under  an  ever  increasing  burden  —  the 
obsession  of  Michelangelo's  types  and  poses. 

The  San  Lorenzo  tombs8  and  the  Cavalieri  drawings9  played 
a  great  part  in  his  temporary  undoing.  The  former  he  must 
have  seen  only  too  frequently,  both  before  they  were  finished, 
and  after  they  had  been  placed  in  the  chapel;  the  latter  he 
constantly  studied,  and  they  were  too  magnificently  rich  in 
ideas  not  to  enthrall  him. 

BVasari,  VI,  278. 

«!&»&,  277;  VII,  273. 

'  It  was  on  April  11,  1531,  that  the  Archbishop  of  Capua  first  asked  Michelangelo 
to  design  a  "Noli  me  tangere"  for  Alfonso  Davolo,  but  it  was  not  until  October  of  the 
same  year  that  it  was  agreed  that  Pontonno  should  paint  the  picture  from  Michelangelo's 
cartoon.  Cf.  Frey,  Dichtungen,  327,  509;  Brief  e,  309;  Thode,  Michelangelo,  I,  411;  III, 
554.  Figiovanni's  letter  to  Michelangelo  from  the  days  immediately  following  October  27, 
1531  (Frey,  Dichtungen,  509,  Beg.  28)  seems  to  indicate  that  it  was  actually  in  Michel- 
angelo's house  that  Pontonno  put  into  oils  the  former's  cartoon.  In  a  letter  to  Febo  (di 
Poggio?)  of  December,  1534,  Michelangelo  states  that  he  intended  to  leave  Florence  the 
next  day  never  to  return. 

*  1526-1534. 

9  1532-1534.  Vasari,  VII,  271  f.  Cf.  a  letter  of  Cavalieri 's,  dated  January  1,  1533, 
to  Michelangelo  thanking  him  for  the  drawing  of  tlie  "Tityrus,"  and  another,  dated 
September  5,  1533,  thanking  him  for  the  ' '  Phaethon. ' ' 

60 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

At  all  events,  little  figures  derived  from  the  Medici  tombs 
are  sketched,  with  increasing  frequency,  on  the  sheets  belonging 
to  these  years.  He  even  seems  to  have  reconsidered  such  early 
studies  for  Dead  Christs  as  Uffizi  6687  and  6690,10  drawing 
below  each,  in  minute  black  chalk,  more  twisted,  muscular 
versions  of  the  same  pose,  which  have  for  parent  the  "Night" 
or  the  "Day,"  and  that  are  comments  upon  the  work  of  his 
youth,  made  by  a  man  dazed  by  a  greater  vision.  In  the  same 
spirit  he  tried,  over  and  over  again,  to  solve  the  secret  of 
Michelangelo's  magic,  drawing  shape  after  shape  reminiscent 
of  that  master's  inventions. 

Several  designs  (fig.  121  and  122),  mannered  but  delightful, 
survive  from  this  period  of  renewed  research.  One  of  these 
(Uffizi  6748) "  is  a  drawing  for  "The  Three  Graces,"  in  which 
the  pose  of  the  left-hand  figure  has  in  it  something  suggestive 
still  of  the  woman  to  the  left  of  the  Carmignano  "Visitation." 
From  1531-1534  we  have  a  magnificent,  but  ruined,  cartoon 
(Uffizi  13861) 12  for  "Nudes  Playing  at  Calcio,"  undoubtedly 
one  of  the  drawings  that  Vasari  says  were  made  for  the  second 
series  of  frescoes  at  Poggio,  which  were  never  executed.13  The 
composition  is  splendid,  strange  in  its  equilibrium,  spacious 
and  full  of  movement.  In  spirit  and  form  this  design  differs 
totally  from  the  lunette  at  Poggio  that  Pontormo  finished 
eleven  years  earlier,  and  had  it  been  executed,  its  strenuous 
playfulness  of  mighty  nudes  would  have  made  the  existing 

10  For  these  drawings,  see  my  Dessins. 

11  The  composition  of  this  drawing  goes  back  to  classic  examples  of  the  subject  of 
which  a  number,  in  various  materials,  survive.    Most  important  of  these  for  its  influence 
on  the  Eenaissance  is  the  small  marble  group,  now  in  the  Library  of  the  Cathedral  of  Siena, 
which  inspired  Eaphael's  "The  Three  Graces"  of  the  Musle  de  Chantilly,  and  Marcan- 
tonio's  engraving;  B.  340.  —  Pass.  188.  —  Ottl.  262;  reproduced,  Delaborde,  Marc-Antoine 
Raimondi,  p.  169.     It  is  perhaps  to  the  latter  that  Pontormo 's  drawing  owes,  in  a  more 
precise  sense,  its  general  arrangement,  although  he  has,  of  course,  introduced  into  his 
treatment  a  subtle,  mannered,  self-conscious   exaggeration  of  line  and   gesture.     Vasari 
shows   in   his    "Three    Graces,"    now   in    the    Museum    of    Budapest,    that    he    was   not 
unacquainted  with  Jacopo's  drawing. 

12  Vasari,  VI,  276:  "in  uno  de'  quali  cartoni,  che  sono  oggi  per  la  maggior  parte 
in  casa  di  Lodovico  Capponi,  e  un  Ercole  che  fa  scoppiare  Anteo;  in  un  altro  una  Venere 
e  Adone ;  ed  in  una  carta,  una  storia  d '  ignudi  che  giocano  al  calcio. ' ' 

is  The  project  was  abandoned  after  the  death  of  Clement  VII,  on  September  25, 
1534  (Vasari,  VI,  276,  278). 

61 


PONTORMO 

fresco  seem  trivial  and  aimless.  It  belongs,  one  might  almost 
say,  to  a  different  world,  for  by  the  time  it  was  designed 
Pontormo  had  already  read  himself  deep  into  the  meaning 
of  Michelangelo's  art.  He  understood  not  only  Michelangelo's 
conception  of  pose  and  structure  but  his  theory  of  spacing  and 
movement  as  well.  Some  of  the  drawings  (Uffizi  6616,  6738) 14 
for  single  figures  of  this  composition,  are  still,  in  spite  of  their 
mannerism,  of  considerable  vitality. 

But  close  as  is  Pontormo 's  rendering  of  the  Michel- 
angelesque  canon  in  the  "  Nudes  Playing  at  Calcio,"  the  malady 
of  imitation  was  to  go  deeper  still,  and  yet  another  circumstance 
was  to  contribute  to  the  crushing  of  Jacopo's  personality. 
For  both  the  "Noli  me  tangere,"  which  he  was  now  commis- 
sioned to  paint  for  Alfonso  Davolo15  and  the  "  Venus  and 
Cupid,"  executed  for  Bartolomeo  Bettini,  Michelangelo  himself 
not  only  furnished  the  cartoons,  but  expressed  the  desire  that 
Pontormo  be  chosen  as  the  artist  best  able  to  translate  into 
paint  the  cartoon  of  the  former  picture.16  The  address 
displayed  by  Jacopo  led  to  an  order  from  the  condottiere 
Alessandro  Vitelli  for  a  replica  of  the  "Noli  me  tangere,"17 
and  to  the  commission  for  the  "Venus"  from  Bettini.18  An 
artist  of  Pontormo 's  alertness  of  mind  could  not,  without  the 
most  serious  consequences,  fulfil  tasks  such  as  these  at  the 
moment  when  of  his  own  accord  he  was  devoting  himself  to 
a  profound  study  of  the  works  of  his  great  contemporary. 
These  commissions  reacted  upon  Jacopo's  style  in  a  way  that 
was  much  talked  about  in  Florence,  and  Vasari  condenses  for 
us  the  gossip  of  the  time.19 

i*  On  Certain  Drawings,  p.  15.    Cf.  also  Dessins,  pp.  188  f.,  267. 

is  Vasari,  VI,  276.  Since  Michelangelo  furnished  the  cartoon  for  this  picture  late 
in  1531,  Pontormo  probably  finished  it  in  the  spring  of  1532. 

is  Vasari,  VI,  277. 

i7  The  panel  for  Davolo  and  its  replica  have  disappeared.  The  cartoon  also  has 
been  lost.  We  may  however  form  an  idea  of  the  composition  from  a  copy,  perhaps  the 
work  of  Battista  Franco,  that  is  now  in  the  store-rooms  of  the  Uffizi.  See  Carlo  Gamba, 
Una  copia  del  "Noli  Me  Tangere"  di  Michelangelo,  Bollettino  d'arte,  III  (1909),  fase. 
iv,  pp.  148-151,  and  Vasari,  VI,  575. 

is  Vasari,  VI,  277. 

i»  Ibid. 

62 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

But,  even  if  we  did  not  have  Vasari 's  testimony,  no  one 
could  have  the  slightest  doubt  that  Jacopo  was  deeply  impressed 
by  Michelangelo's  cartoons.  After  he  had  undertaken  the 
" Venus,"  he  brooded  over  the  conception  of  that  picture, 
rehandling  the  motive  twice  in  little  sketches  (Uffizi  444,  446), 
which  are  Michelangelesque  in  arrangement  only;  once  with 
magnificent  great  freedom  (Uffizi  6534)  beyond  even  his 
master's  power  at  that  moment;  and  once  again  later  (fig.  133; 
Uffizi  6586)  ,20  with  tight  distortion  and  strange  exaggeration, 
in  what  is  probably  a  study  for  one  of  the  allegorical  figures 
for  the  Medicean  villa  at  Castello. 

The  composition  of  the  "  Venus  and  Cupid"21  is  well  known 
(fig.  123).  During  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries  this 
picture  enjoyed  a  great  reputation.22  It  was  copied  many 
times,23  and  we  still  have  several  ancient  adaptations,  by  various 
hands.  In  the  opinion  of  many  critics,  including  Berenson,2* 
the  original  is  now  in  the  Uffizi,  where  it  was  found  in  1850  in 
the  Guardaroba  and  rescued  from  a  long  neglect.25  The  panel 
has  undergone  an  elaborate  restoration  and  the  position  in 
which  it  now  hangs  makes  impossible  a  critical  study  of  the 
original  touch.  Such  examination,  however,  as  I  have  been 
able  to  give  it  has  by  no  means  convinced  me  that  we  are  not 
in  the  presence  of  a  genuine  work  of  Jacopo 's.  The  feet  are 
those  we  find  in  the  drawing,  Uffizi  6586  (fig.  133),  and  the  ear 
and  the  contour  of  the  legs  are  characteristic,  but  the  hand  has 
been  horribly  repainted,  as  also  has  the  drapery.  We  need 
not  be  surprised  that  in  the  colour  little  remains  that  is 
suggestive  of  Pontormo,  for  Michelangelo  was,  in  all  likelihood, 
responsible  not  only  for  the  cartoon  but  for  the  original  colour- 
scheme  as  well. 

One    can   easily   determine    the    date   of   the    "Venus." 

20  For  a  discussion  of  these  drawings,  see  my  Dessins. 

21  Vasari,  VI,  277.     Thode,  Michelangelo,  III,  487. 

22  Vasari,  VI,  277  f.    Varchi,  Due  Lezeioni,  p.  104.    Borghini,  p.  395. 

23  For  a  list  of  these  copies,  see  the  Catalogue  Kaisonne',  under  Florence,  Uffizi. 
2*  Florentine  Painters,  p.  175. 

25  See  Milanesi's  note,  Vasari,  VT,  291-295,  also  the  Catalogue  Raisonne",  loc.  tit. 
and  Appendix  II,  Doc.  33  and  34. 

63 


PONTORMO 

Vasari's  narrative26  is  quite  exact  at  this  point :  "  Allora  (after 
lie  had  begun  the  *  Venus')  conobbe  lacopo  quanto  avesse  mal 
fatto  a  lasciarsi  uscir  di  mano  1'  opera  del  Poggio."  We  know 
that  the  second  commission  for  the  frescoes  at  Poggio  was 
cancelled  by  the  death  of  Clement  and  that  Bettini  could  not, 
therefore,  have  ordered  the  " Venus"  much  before  1533.  It 
was  finished,  it  would  seem,  about  1535,  for  Vasari's  observa- 
tions imply  that  its  execution  extended  over  part  of  the  time 
during  which  Jacopo  was  at  work  on  his  portrait  of  Alessandro.27 
Happily  this  portrait,28  which  I  have  identified  with  a 
portrait  in  the  Johnson  Collection  (fig.  124),  is  fully  docu- 
mented.29 It  was  painted  while,  to  the  great  scandal  of  Florence, 
Alessandro  was  frequenting  the  society  of  Taddea  Malespina 
and  her  sister.  According  to  Vasari,30  Pontormo  made  first, 
"per  piu  commodita,"  a  miniature  of  the  Duke,  which  has 
been  lost.  The  biographer  then  describes  the  portrait,  adding 
that  the  Duke  was  represented  with  a  stylus  in  his  hand  in  the 
act  of  drawing  the  head  of  a  woman31  —  a  detail  which  is  one  of 
the  most  striking  features  of  the  Johnson  picture.  Moreover, 
Vasari's  portrait  of  the  Duke,32  painted  in  1532-1533,  as  well 
as  a  portrait  from  the  workshop  of  Bronzino33  labelled  in  letter- 
ing of  the  seventeenth  century,  ALEX  •  MED  •  FLOR  •  DUX  • 
I  •  LAURENS  •  F  •  ,  together  with  the  latter 's  prototype  in 
Bergamo,34  and  its  replica  at  Heidelberg,35  all  reveal  the 
presence  of  the  same  sitter.  Further  evidence  of  the  authen- 
ticity of  the  Johnson  portrait  is  supplied  by  a  letter  that  a 
certain  Costantino  Ansaldo  wrote  to  Ferdinand  I,  in  1571." 

2«VT,  277. 

2f  Ibid.,  278. 

28  Vasari  (VI,  278)  says  that  the  commission  was  given  to  Pontormo  on  account 
of  the  success  of  his  now  lost  portrait  of  Amerigo  Antinori. 

29 P.  M.  Clapp,  Un  ritratto  d' Alessandro  de'  Medici,  Eassegna  d'arte,  XIII  (1913), 
pp.  63-66. 

so  VI,  278. 

si  Ibid. 

32  Uffizi,  No.  1281. 

83  Now  in  the  corridor  between  the  Uffizi  and  the  Pitti,  No.  20. 

s*  Morelli  Collection,  No.  65. 

35  Thode  Collection. 

se  A.  S.  F.,  Carteggio  mediceo  del  Principato,  Filza  567,  c.  187  and  225.  Of.  Carlo 
Carnesecchi,  Sul  ritratto  d' Alessandro  de'  Medici  dipinto  dal  Pontormo,  Bivista  d'arte, 

64 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WOEK 

He  describes  the  portrait,  states  that  the  Duke,  dressed  in 
mourning,  was  seen  full  face  seated  at  a  table,  and  adds  that 
the  panel  was  painted  in  the  Pazzi  palace  "nel  tempo  che  morse 
la  buona  memoria  di  Papa  Clemente,"  that  it  was  given  to  him 
by  the  Duke  in  reward  for  his  faithful  service,  and  that,  after 
Alessandro 's  death,  it  had  been  presented  by  him  to  Taddea 
Malespina,  one  of  the  Duke's  mistresses.87  Our  identification 
of  this  portrait  rests,  then,  on  the  solidest  foundation.  There 
was  no  one  but  Clement,  his  father,  for  whom  Alessandro  would 
have  put  on  mourning  during  the  early  years  of  the  thirties. 
The  Pope  died,  September  25,  1534,  and  the  portrait  must 
accordingly  date  from  the  end  of  1534  or  the  beginning  of  1535. 
The  fact  that  its  date  can  be  determined  with  such  comparative 
accuracy  helps  us  to  define  also,  to  a  certain  degree,  the  date 
of  other  portraits  that  must  have  been  painted  during  the  ten 
years  immediately  following  the  siege.  These  will  be  discussed, 
in  some  detail,  in  the  chapter  devoted  entirely  to  Pontormo's 
work  in  portraiture. 

After  the  " Venus"  and  the  " Portrait  of  Alessandro"  were 
finished,  the  Duke  commissioned  Pontormo  to  paint  two 
"loggie"  in  the  Medicean  villa  at  Careggi,  with  the  help  of 
assistants,  and  with  the  utmost  dispatch.  Vasari38  writes  that 
the  decoration  consisted  of  six  allegorical  figures  —  Fortune, 
Justice,  Victory,  Peace,  Fame,  and  Love39  —  which,  in  one  of 
the  " loggie,"  occupied  the  lower  part  of  the  vaulting.  Jacopo 
designed  them  all,  but  the  execution  of  the  first  five  was 
Bronzino's,  and  only  the  last  was  painted  by  Pontormo.  In 
the  hollow  of  the  vaulting,  there  were  flying  "putti"  designed 

VI  (1909),  No.  1,  and  Gualandi,  Baccolta  di  lettere,  III,  62-70,  where  the  number  of  the 
original  document  is  given  as:  Archivio  mediceo:  Carteggio  Universale,  Filza  237,  c.  187. 
See  Appendix  II,  Doe.  22. 

37  For    further    details    contained    in    this    letter,    see    Catalogue    EaisonnS,    under 
Philadelphia,  Johnson  Collection. 

38  VI,  280. 

3»  The  subjects  were  characteristic  of  the  time.  Annibal  Caro,  secretary  of  Cardinal 
Alessandro  Farnese,  selected  similar  subjects  —  Eeligion,  Virtue,  Fame,  Charity,  Peace, 
Abundance,  and  Justice  —  for  the  frescoes  executed  in  the  Villa  Caprarola,  on  the  flanks 
of  Monte  Cimino,  by  Taddeo  and  Federigo  Zuccaro  and  their  assistants  between  1534  and 
1546.  Both  these  and  Pontormo's  decorations  were  far-off  reflections  of  the  "Arts  and 
Virtues"  of  the  Middle  Ages.  The  Zuccaro  frescoes  still  survive. 

65 


PONTORMO 

by  our  master  and  coloured  by  Bronzino.  The  grotesques  and 
the  ornamental  part  of  the  work  were  confided  to  Jacone,40 
Pierfrancesco  di  Jacopo  and  others.41  When  Yasari  wrote, 
these  paintings  were  already  ruined. 

No  document  for  the  date  of  this  undertaking  survives. 
Vasari  implies  that  it  was  begun  soon  after  the  portrait  of  the 
Duke  was  finished,  and  he  explicitly  states  that  the  "loggia" 
itself  was  finished  on  December  13, 1536.42  Taking  into  account 
the  unusual  speed  with  which  the  work  was  done,  we  may 
conjecture  that  it  was  begun  sometime  between  the  summer 
of  1535  and  the  spring  of  1536.  Alessandro  was  assassinated 
on  January  6,  1537  (New  Style),  and  the  second  "loggia"  was 
never  decorated. 

Of  the  preparatory  work  only  one  sheet  is  known  to  me  — 
Uffizi  458,43  on  which  there  are  three  studies  of  "putti"  flying 
upward  with  birds  in  their  hands,  the  identification  of  which 
with  Careggi  is  made  possible  by  Vasari 's  accurate  description 
of  the  figures  of  the  vaulting.  The  cartouche  on  the  same  sheet 
represents  Pontormo's  first  idea  for  the  general  arrangement 
of  these  figures.  They  are  all  of  great  charm  and  drawn  with 
joyous  promptitude. 

After  the  battle  of  Montemurlo  (August  2, 1537)  had  ended 
the  last  flutter  of  resistance  to  Medicean  domination,44  Cosimo 
was  in  a  position  to  proceed  with  the  embellishment  of  his 
villas.45  Tribolo's  plan  for  the  garden  and  fountain  of  Castello46 
is  well  known,  and  the  commission  given  to  Pontormo  for  the 
"loggia"  to  the  left  of  the  courtyard47  was  only  part  of  a  great 
scheme  of  reconstruction,  which  included  the  whole  property. 

40  Vasari,  VI,  452. 

41  Ibid.,  p.  281.    For  Jacone  who  painted  on  the  facade  of  the  Palazzo  Buondelmonti, 
in  monochrome,  "The  Life  of  Pippo  Spano"  of  which  no  trace  remains,  see  Vasari,  V,  58; 
VI,  281,  450,  453  f.     For  Pierfrancesco,  see  ibid.,  V,  58. 

42  VI,  281. 

43 Dessins,  p.  101.  Bronzino  imitated  these  "putti"  in  the  choir  of  flying  angels 
in  the  "Adoration  of  the  Divine  Child,"  now  in  Santo  Stefano,  Pisa. 

44  Nardi,  X,  ii,  pp.  358-377. 

45  Vasari,  VI,  281-283. 
"Ibid.,  71-85. 

47  Ibid.,  p.  282. 

66 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

Jacopo  seems  to  have  gone  to  Castello  in  the  spring  of  1538. 
He  designed  all  the  ornaments  first  and  had  them  executed  by 
Bronzino  and  the  journeymen  who  had  worked  at  Careggi.48 
Then  he  shut  himself  up  in  the  "loggia"  with  the  intention  of 
painting,  entirely  with  his  own  hands,  the  figures  of  the 
decoration.  Since  he  had  just  had  at  Careggi  his  first  real 
experience  with  assistants,  his  desire  to  work  out,  in  solitude 
and  without  help  of  any  kind,  the  decorations  at  Castello 
throws  a  significant  sidelight  on  his  innate  dislike  of  collabo- 
ration. He  received  from  Cosimo  a  stipend  of  eight  "scudi"  a 
month,  and  he  kept  the  " loggia"  closed  with  a  hoarding"  for 
five  years  until  weary  with  waiting,  Maria  Salviati,  the  mother 
of  Cosimo,  ordered  the  scaffolding  thrown  down.50  Jacopo 
obtained  a  brief  delay,  and  then,  amid  universal  expectation, 
the  work  was  uncovered.  It  was  not  a  success.  The  critics 
found  in  the  figures  a  lack  of  proportion51  and  "certi  stravol- 
gimenti  ed  attitudini  molto  strane."  By  way  of  excuse,  accord- 
ing to  Vasari,  Pontormo  merely  said  that  he  had  never  had  his 
heart  in  the  work  because  the  place  was  exposed  to  the  fury  of 
marauding  soldiers.  Like  the  "loggia"  of  Careggi,  the  decora- 
tion was  painted  in  oil  upon  dry  plaster,52  and  in  ten  years'  time 
it  was  a  mere  ruin  of  which  no  trace  remains  today. 

The  general  arrangement  must  have  resembled  that  of 
the  "loggia""  at  Careggi.  In  the  pendentives  there  were  alle- 
gorical nude  figures,  which  represented  Philosophy,  Astrology, 
Geometry,  Music,  Arithmetic,  and  a  Ceres;  in  the  medallions, 
little  stories  appropriate  to  each  figure;  in  the  vaulting,  a 
"Saturn  with  Sign  of  Capricorn,"  a  "Mars  Hermaphrodite 
with  Sign  of  Leo  and  Virgo,"  and  flying  "putti"  as  at  Careggi.58 

Little  remains  of  Jacopo 's  preparatory  studies.5*    I  believe 

**  Ibid.  Jacone  helped  Pontormo  with  the  greater  part  of  the  "grotteschi"  both  in 
the  loggia  at  Careggi  and  at  Castello  (Vasari,  VI,  452). 

49  Hid. 

50  Ibid. 

61  Ibid. 

62  Ibid. 

63  Ibid.,  p.  283. 

64  For  these  drawings,  see  my  Dessins. 

67 


PONTORMO 

that  Uffizi  6584  (fig.  132),  a  great  woman  in  a  pose  clearly 
derived  from  the  San  Lorenzo  tombs,  gives  us,  in  all  likelihood, 
a  hint  of  the  pose  of  one  of  the  principal  figures.  We  have,  in 
Uffizi  6630,  almost  certainly  a  design,  in  itself  extremely 
interesting,  for  the  "Mars  Hermaphrodite."  Uffizi  6510  is,  it 
would  seem,  a  first  thought  for  the  "Saturn,"  while  another 
design  (fig.  133;  Uffizi  6586),  which  is  closely  related  to  the 
"Venus"  painted  for  Bettini  and  to  which  we  have  already 
referred,  is  perhaps  a  finished  study  for  the  "Astrology"  or 
the  "Geometry."  The  technique  of  this  drawing  manifestly 
indicates  that  it  dates  from  these  years,  and  in  it  the  type  of 
figure  that  Michelangelo  had  evolved  —  huge  thighs  and  abdo- 
men, small  head,  breasts  and  arms  —  is  rendered  with  exag- 
geration and  distortion.  All  these  drawings  are  painfully 
laboured  and  over-modelled. 

Toward  the  end  of  the  thirties  we  must  also  place,  on 
Vasari 's  evidence,55  a  portrait  of  Maria  Salviati,  lost  or  as  yet 
unidentified,  and  a  lost  portrait  of  the  young  Cosimo  for  which, 
on  the  other  hand,  we  have  a  drawing  (Uffizi  6528  verso)  and 
a  first  sketch  in  oils.56 

Two  details  of  Pontormo's  private  life  during  this  decade 
are  now  known.  With  the  hundred  ' '  scudi ' '  that  he  received  for 
his  "Portrait  of  Alessandro"  and  the  "Venus"  Jacopo  finished 
his  house.57  From  the  Catasto  of  1545  it  is  evident  that  it  was 
built  sometime  before  1536.58  It  was  small,  "non  cosa  di  molta 
importanza,"  as  befitted  a  solitary  craftsman,  and  its  chief 
peculiarity  was  a  room  that  Pontormo  made  his  workshop,  to 
which  the  sole  entrance  was  by  a  ladder  that  he  was  in  the 
habit  of  pulling  up  after  him  to  fortify  himself  against  all 
interruptions. 

Travel  could  have  had  little  attraction  for  so  retiring  a 
spirit,  although  certain  drawings59  that  reflect  the  glories  of 

55  VI,  282. 

6«  Article  by  Carlo  Gamba,  Bivista  d'arte,  1910,  pp.  125-127. 
57  Vasari,  VI,  279. 

68  A.  S.  F.,  Catasto,  Libro  a  Parte,  No.  11,  p.  448  left ;  Libro  S.  Gio.  a  Parte  1549, 
No.  16,  p.  349  left.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  23.  Cf.  Vasari,  VI,  279. 

so  Benvenuto  Cellini  brought  to  Florence  from  France  certain  cartoons,  drawings  and 

68 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

the  Sixtine  Chapel  tempt  one  to  think  that  Jacopo  had  visited 
Eome  before  1520.  But  deductions  based  upon  drawings  are, 
in  such  a  case,  inconclusive.  Jacopo  may  have  merely  seen 
in  Florence  various  studies  of  Michelangelo's  for  the  Sixtine 
or  fragments  of  his  cartoons  that  had  found  their  way  into 
Tuscany.  We  have  no  hint  of  any  other  journey  until  long 
afterwards,  in  1539,  in  October  of  which  year  Milanesi'0 
believes  —  correctly  as  it  happens  —  that  Jacopo  was  in  the 
Eternal  City.  The  evidence  that  Milanesi  brings  forward  is, 
nevertheless,  completely  unconvincing  and  rests  entirely  upon 
a  letter  quoted  by  Visconti  in  the  Giornale  arcadico.01  This 
letter  was  written  by  Annibal  Caro  to  Monsignore  Giovanni 
Guidiccioni,  and  may  be  read  in  full  in  the  collected  edition 
of  Caro's  letters,  edited  by  Tomitano.  There  the  name  of  the 
artist  mentioned  is  Pastermo.  An  earlier  edition  by  Volpi  gives 
the  same  spelling.  But  in  the  fragment  of  the  letter  that 
Visconti  printed  he  arbitrarily  changed  Pastermo  to  Pontormo. 
What  Caro  really  wrote  cannot  be  determined  without  refer- 
ence to  the  manuscript  of  this  letter,  the  whereabouts  of  which 
is  unknown  to  me.  We  have,  however,  definite  and  conclusive 
proof  that  Jacopo  did  visit  Rome  between  1535  and  1543.  In 
the  Louvre,  among  the  authentic  Pontormo  drawings  preserved 
there,  more  than  eighty-five  are  consecrated  entirely  to  motives 
of  architecfure  and  decoration.  They  are  all  in  the  same 
technique  —  pen  and  bistre  —  and  all  of  the  same  date.  On 
ten  of  these  one  finds  notes  in  Pontormo 's  own  handwriting 
which  indicate  that  the  detail  in  question  was  to  be  found  in 
one  of  the  churches  or  among  the  antiquities  of  Rome  or  its 
environs.62  How  long  he  stayed  away  from  Florence  we  have 

models  by  Michelangelo.  They  had  been  successively  in  the  hands  of  Antonio  Mini  and 
Giovan  Francesco  Kustici  (Vasari,  VI,  620),  but  in  any  case  they  would  have  reached 
Florence  too  late  to  account  for  any  influence  of  Michelangelo  upon  Pontormo  before  1530. 

«o  Vasari,  VI,  274,  note. 

«iLXXX,  93.  For  the  text  of  this  letter  as  well  as  for  Visconti 's  citation  from  it, 
see  Appendix  II,  Doc.  24. 

62  See  Dessins,  pp.  305-325.  Baldinucci,  of  whose  collection  these  sketches  once 
formed  part,  noted  on  the  mount  of  No.  954  that  they  were  taken  "per  lo  piu  da  pitture 
e  Anticaglie  di  Eoma."  The  "Portrait  of  Cardinal  Spannocchi  Cervini"  (Borghese, 
No.  408)  was  probably  painted  in  Eome  and  it  must  date  from  between  October,  1540 

69 


PONTORMO 

no  means  of  knowing,  but  this  journey  will  naturally  count  for 
much  in  explaining  his  use  of  Michelangelesque  forms  later  on 
in  San  Lorenzo. 

Last  in  this  period  of  Pontormo's  work  I  place  his  cartoons98 
for  certain  tapestries  that  formed  part  of  the  first  series  of 
"arazzi"  executed  by  Flemish  workmen  of  the  weaving  industry 
that  was  inaugurated  in  Florence  by  Cosimo  I.  They  portrayed 
"The  History  of  Joseph"  and  once  adorned  the  Sala  de' 
Dugento,  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio.  To  Pontormo  Vasari  assigns 
two  cartoons,  the  subjects  of  which  were  "The  Lamentation 
of  Jacob"  (Pianto  di  Jacob)  and  "Joseph  and  Potiphar's 
Wife"  (Fuga  di  Joseph;  fig.  136).  These,  he  says,  pleased 
neither  Cosimo  nor  the  Flemish  workmen.  To  the  latter  they 
seemed  strange  in  composition  and  unsuitable  as  designs  for 
tapestries.  The  cartoons  have  perished  but  the  tapestries  still 
exist  in  the  Palazzo  del  Quirinale,  in  Rome,  together  with  others 
woven,  according  to  Vasari  and  the  books  of  the  Guardaroba,64 
from  cartoons  by  Bronzino  and  Salviati,  among  them,  a 
"Benjamin  at  the  Court  of  Pharaoh"  (fig.  134).  I  am  inclined 
to  believe,  however,  that  the  latter  tapestry  may  well  have  been 
none  other  than  the  "Coppa  di  Joseph"  that  is  given  to 
Pontormo  in  the  Inventory  of  July  15, 1549,  while  the  "Cattura 
di  Benjamin,"  cited  in  the  same  document  and  ascribed  to 
Bronzino,  would  appear  to  have  been  in  reality  the  "Cattura 
di  Simeone,"  correctly  attributed  to  Bronzino  in  the  complete 
list  of  all  the  hangings  drawn  up  in  1553.  In  any  case,  our 
"Benjamin  at  the  Court  of  Pharaoh"  is  identical,  in  size,  shape, 
and  spirit,  with  the  two  "arazzi"  for  which  Pontormo  is  known 
to  have  furnished  the  designs  and  the  structure  and  arrange- 
ment of  the  figures  are  his.  The  composition  too  is  informed 
with  qualities  quite  foreign  to  those  that  distinguish  the 
"Burying  of  the  Bones  of  Jacob,"  for  which  it  is  certain  that 
Bronzino  drew  the  cartoon.  And  I  am  the  more  inclined  to 

and  1545.  Cervini  was  not  created  cardinal  until  shortly  after  the  former  date  and  after 
the  later  date  he  was  one  of  the  presidents  of  the  Council  of  Trent. 

as  Vasari,  VI,  283. 

«  Guardaroba,  F.  15,  pp.  91  v.,  94  v.    Of.  Dessins,  pp.  172  f. 

70 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

attribute  our  "Benjamin"  to  Jacopo  because  we  still  have  a 
study  (fig.  135 ;  Uffizi  6593),  for  the  figure  to  the  right  and  seen 
from  behind  (reversed),  which  displays  all  the  characteristics 
of  Pontormo's  draughtsmanship  about  1545.  It  is,  of  course, 
not  impossible  that  Jacopo  merely  gave  certain  ideas  and 
suggestions  to  Bronzino  who  had  actually  received  the  com- 
mission for  the  cartoon.  All  three  compositions  are  narrow 
vertical  panels.  They  resemble  in  shape  the  frescoes  that 
Pontormo  executed  later  in  the  upper  part  of  the  choir  of  San 
Lorenzo  —  notably  the  "Sacrifice  of  Cain"  and  the  "Four 
Evangelists"  —  and  between  these  and  the  frescoes  of  the 
"loggia"  at  Castello  they  form,  as  it  were,  a  link. 

The  first  important  reference  to  the  weaving  industry, 
fostered  by  Cosimo  I  in  Florence,  is  to  be  found  in  a  letter  of 
his  written,  in  September,  1545,  to  Don  Francesco  da  Toledo 
who  was  then  residing  in  Brussels.65  In  the  passage  in  question 
the  Grand  Duke  speaks  of  his  determination  to  establish  looms 
in  Tuscany  in  the  hope  that  the  Florentines  and  their  neighbours 
might  be  led  to  prefer  Italian  tapestries  to  those  made  in 
Flanders,  and  we  may  conjecture  from  the  form  of  this  state- 
ment that  the  enterprise  had  already  passed  the  experimental 
stage.  Payments  made  to  the  Flemish  weavers,  Giovanni  Host 
and  Nicholas  Karcher,  that  one  finds  recorded  in  the  Libro 
Creditor!  e"  Debitori  della  Guardaroba  (1544-1553)  confirm 
our  surmise.  Nevertheless,  the  exact  date  at  which  the 
great  set  of  hangings  for  the  Sala  de'  Dugento  was  begun 
cannot  now  be  determined.  A  letter  of  the  Maggiordomo  to 
Cristiano  Pagni,  in  December,  1545,  is,  I  think,  the  earliest 
mention  that  we  have  of  the  project.66  But  the  "arazzieri," 
Eost  and  Karcher,  did  not  sign  a  contract  to  undertake  the  work 
until  October  26, 1546.  Pontormo's  "Fuga  di  Joseph"  (fig.  136) 
is  spoken  of  as  finished  in  the  Inventory  of  August  3,  1549, 
while  still  another  document  seems  to  imply  that  the  three 
tapestries  we  have  been  discussing  had  been  delivered  to  the 
Grand  Duke  before  October  1,  1548.  The  first  was  woven  by 

«B  Geisenheimer,  Gli  arazzi  nella  sola  dei  Dugento,  Boll,  d' arte,  III  (1909),  137-147. 
ee  Conti,  Eicerche  storiche,  pp.  12,  48,  97,  99  f.    Geisenheimer,  loc.  cit, 

71 


PONTORMO 

Rost,  the  other  two  by  Karcher.  Pontormo  must  have  worked 
upon  his  cartoons  sometime  between  1545  and  1547. 

These  tapestries67  are  interesting  chiefly  as  a  tentative 
prelude  to  the  designs  for  the  San  Lorenzo  choir.  They  show 
an  evident  fatigue,  and  the  "Lamentation  of  Jacob"  is  little 
more  than  a  "rechauffe"  of  motives  taken  from  the  "Doni 
Madonna"  of  Michelangelo,  from  Jacopo's  own  "Adoration 
of  the  Magi"  and  from  his  "Pieta"  of  the  Capponi  Chapel. 
The  pose  of  one  of  the  figures  recalls  the  pose  of  Abel  in  the 
drawing  (Uffizi  6739)  of  the  "Death  of  Abel"  for  San 
Lorenzo  —  a  design  that  may  well  have  been  one  of  the  first  that 
Pontormo  made  for  the  choir  frescoes  and,  therefore,  practi- 
cally contemporaneous  with  the  first  cartoon  for  the  tapestries. 
In  the  "Benjamin  at  the  Court  of  Pharaoh"  the  figure  of 
Joseph  seems  to  be  a  rehandling  of  the  Maximianus  of  Jacopo's 
"Martyrdom  of  the  Theban  Legion,"  which  was  painted  more 
than  fifteen  years  earlier. 

A  curious  glimpse  of  Jacopo's  private  life  reaches  us  from 
the  end  of  the  forties.  On  August  20,  1549,  he  became  a 
"coTrrmesso"  of  the  Hospital  of  the  Innocents.68  He  paid  to 
that  pious  foundation  one  hundred  florins,  and  the  Hospital 
promised  to  send  him  every  year,  for  the  rest  of  his  life, 
twenty-four  "staia"  of  grain,  six  barrels  of  wine  and  one 
barrel  of  oil. 

67  See  Catalogue  Raisonne,  under  Eome,  Quirinal. 

68  Archivio  degl'  Innocenti,  Libro  di  Commessi,  B,  1528-1549,  p.  319.     See  Appendix 
II,  Doc.  25  and  26. 


72 


CHAPTER    VIII 


1545-1557 

Prom  1535  to  1545  Pontormo  was  undisguisedly  Michel- 
angelesque.  Nothing  but  the  solution  of  Michelangelo's  formu- 
las interested  him,  and  the  passionate  concentration  with  which 
he  worked  is  visible  in  the  few  drawings  that  survive  from  these 
years.  They  bear  witness  to  the  marvellous  penetration  of  his 
spirit,  as  well  as  to  the  perseverance  with  which  he  tried  to 
broaden  his  understanding  of  plastic  form.  By  1540  he 
thoroughly  comprehended  the  mechanism,  so  to  speak,  of 
Michelangelo's  art,  and  had  explored  the  hollow  shell  to  its 
last  secret  recess.  The  very  principle  of  the  master's  work, 
the  life-enhancing  accent  laid  upon  restrained  but  untamed 
strength,  the  implication  of  elemental  grandeur  in  the  forces 
against  which  his  giant  race  struggles  in  vain,  was  clear  to 
Jacopo.  But  into  his  cleverly  mimicked  shapes  he  was  power- 
less to  strike  the  colossal  pulse  which  alone  could  make  them 
live.  He  was  not  so  much  a  creator,  in  the  old  poetic  sense,  as 
an  artist  in  the  most  modern  interpretation  of  the  term,  a 
detached  visionary  craftsman  interested  only  in  the  hidden 
problems  of  his  art. 

For  that  reason,  if  for  no  other  —  like  the  manner  he  had 
evolved  at  the  Annunziata,  or  in  the  Visdomini  panel,  at  Poggio, 
or  the  Certosa,  or  Santa  Felicita  —  the  allegorical  nudes  that 
he  had  created  at  Carregi  and  Castello  no  longer  satisfied 
Pontormo.  Mere  Michelangelesque  form,  once  achieved,  no 
longer  interested  him,  mere  scientific  compactness  of  compo- 
sition no  longer  attracted.  Neither  was  he  to  be  led  away  into 
by-ways  of  scholastic  formulas,  or  into  the  worship,  for  its  own 
sake,  of  the  muscular  or  the  heroic.  To  communicate  an 

73 


PONTORMO 

impression  of  force,  of  "terribilita"  alone,  he  soon  perceived 
was  not  art.  To  Bronzino,  Vasari,  Bandinelli,  and  Tribolo,  the 
imitation  of  Michelangelo's  canon  was  an  end  in  itself.  To 
Pontormo  that  canon,  once  thoroughly  studied,  became  what 
all  other  canons  had  been  to  him  —  the  crude  material  of  a  new 
form  of  decoration. 

The  final  phase,  therefore,  of  his  development  was  the  most 
misunderstood  of  his  entire  career,  for  he  proposed  nothing 
less  than  to  use  Michelangelo's  superhuman  giant  as  a  mere 
element  in  a  new  scheme  of  mural  painting,  in  which  he  would 
audaciously  employ  that  monstrous  nude  to  create  a  novel  and 
more  fantastic  beauty. 

The  opportunity  to  express  himself  in  terms  of  this  newly 
conquered  material  came  when  Cosimo  commissioned  him  to 
paint  the  choir  of  San  Lorenzo.1  The  Medici  had  been  the 
" padroni"  of  this  chapel  for  generations  and  that  Pontormo 
was  chosen  for  the  great  task  of  decorating  it  was  the  most 
signal  tribute  that  could  have  been  paid,  at  that  moment,  to 
his  genius.  The  solemnity  of  the  place  and  the  importance 
of  the  undertaking  stirred  Jacopo  to  even  more  than  his  usual 
earnestness.2 

We  can  only  imperfectly  appreciate  to  what  degree  he 
succeeded  in  approaching  his  ideal.  The  frescoes  were  destroyed 
in  1742  by  a  generation  quite  incompetent  to  understand  them,8 
when,  because  of  the  sinking  of  the  foundation  arches,  a  com- 
plete rebuilding  of  the  choir  became  imperative.* 

We  do  not  wonder  that,  to  men  idolatrous  of  mere  repre- 
sentation, these  frescoes  had  been  from  the  beginning  incom- 
prehensible and  a  failure.  Vasari5  gave  expression  to  the  trite 
criticism  of  his  time,  and  his  last  word  was:  "onde  si  vede  che 
chi  vuol  strafare  e  quasi  sforzare  la  natura,  rovina  il  buono 
che  da  quella  gli  era  stato  largamente  donato."  This  somewhat 
smug  and  academic  verdict  is  stupidly  repeated  by  such  writers 

1  Vasari,  "VT,  284. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  285. 

s  Domenico  Moreni,  Continuasione  delle  memorie,  III,  115. 
*  Ibid.,  p.  112. 
s  VI,  287. 

74 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

as  Borghini,6  Moreni7  and  Richa.8  Even  today,  in  certain  circles, 
a  judgment  quite  in  the  spirit  of  Vasari's  would  probably  be 
passed  upon  the  frescoes,  were  they  still  in  existence,  but  the 
younger  generation  of  modern  painters,  who  have  broken  with 
a  paralysing  conservatism,  would  unquestionably  hail  Pontormo 
as  one  of  their  earliest  and  most  gifted  forerunners. 

The  present  arrangement  of  the  organ  and  of  the  archi- 
tectural mouldings  of  the  chapel  differs  somewhat  from  that  of 
the  primitive  plan.  An  exhaustive  comparison  of  drawings  that 
survive  with  Vasari's  and  Bocchi's  descriptions  of  the  choir 
leads  me  to  believe  that  on  entering  it  one  saw:  on  the  upper 
left-hand  side-wall,  to  the  left,  "The  Creation  of  Adam," 
between  the  windows,  "The  Temptation, "  to  the  right,  "The 
Expulsion  from  Paradise";  on  the  upper  end-wall,  to  the  left, 
"Moses  Receiving  the  Law  and  the  Sacrifice  of  Isaac,"9  in  the 
centre,  "Christ  in  Glory  as  Judge,"  to  the  right,  "The  Four 
Evangelists";  on  the  upper  right  side- wall,  beginning  with  the 
space  next  to  the  end- wall,  "The  Tilling  of  the  Soil,"  between 
the  windows,  "The  Sacrifice  of  Cain  and  the  Death  of  Abel," 
in  the  last  space  to  the  right,  "The  Benediction  of  the  Seed  of 
Noah  and  the  Building  of  the  Ark";  on  the  lower  left  wall, 
"The  Resurrection";  on  the  lower  end-wall,  on  either  side  of 
the  window,  "The  Ascent  into  Heaven"  and  "The  Descent  of 
the  Damned";  on  the  lower  right  wall,  "The  Deluge." 

The  chief  difficulty  that  we  encounter  with  this  arrange- 
ment is  that  Vasari10  speaks  of  two  Creations  of  Adam  and  Eve, 
one  in  the  upper  series  of  frescoes,  one  at  the  foot  of  "Christ 
in  Glory,"  of  which  it  formed  an  integral  part.  The  finished 
drawing  (fig.  138)  for  the  "Christ  in  Glory"  exists,  and  it  is 
evident  that  here  Vasari's  description  is  incorrect,  for  the  lower 
part  of  the  composition  is  a  "Creation  of  Eve."  In  all  likeli- 

«  71  Riposo,  p.  396. 

i  Op.  cit.,  p.  115. 

8  Op.  cit.,  V,  28.  Even  the  editors  of  the  Milan  edition  of  Vasari  (XII,  59,  note) 
regret  that  Salviati  was  not  given  the  commission,  although  they  could  never  have  seen 
Pontormo 's  frescoes,  which  were  destroyed  seventy  years  before  their  time. 

»Bocchi  especially  praises  these  figures  (Bellesee,  ed.  Cinelli,  p.  515). 

10  VI,  285  f . 

75 


PONTORMO 

hood,  then,  the  first  fresco  on  the  upper  side-walls  dealt  with 
the  Creation  of  Adam,  not  as  Vasari  says  with  that  of  Adam 
and  Eve.  To  place  "The  Creation  of  Eve"  at  the  foot  of 
" Christ  in  Glory"  seemed  to  Vasari  and  to  most  of  Pontormo 's 
contemporaries,  whose  opinion  Giorgio  perpetuates,  a  gross 
violation  of  orthodox  doctrine.11 

The  drawings12  for  San  Lorenzo  are  very  numerous;  we 
have  the  finished  study  (fig.  138)  for  the  " Christ  in  Glory,"  the 
" Moses  Receiving  the  Law"  (fig.  139),  the  "Four  Evangelists" 
(fig.  140),  the  "Sacrifice  of  Cain  and  Death  of  Abel"  (fig.  141 
and  142),  and  I  have  identified  sketches  for  the  "Descent  of 
the  Damned,"  for  the  "Tilling  of  the  Soil"  (fig.  143),  for  parts 
of  the  "Deluge"  (fig.  144,  145  and  146),  and  for  figures  in  the 
"Ascent  into  Heaven"  (fig.  147),  and  in  the  "Expulsion  from 
Paradise"  (fig.  137). 

In  these  Pontormo  is  a  creator  of  simple  and  majestic 
patterns.  Here  the  masses  of  his  composition  are  deployed  in 
a  new  rhythm,  and  to  that  end  he  avoids  in  his  unearthly  nudes 
realism  and  any  mere  anatomical  correctness  of  proportion, 
as  well  as  all  the  scientific  solutions  of  difficulties  of  pose  with 
which  naturalism  had  laboured  to  endow  art,  and  all  mathe- 
matical analysis  of  perspective.  The  gesture  and  the  movement 
of  these  figures  have  in  them  no  accepted  beauty. 

But  in  drawings  for  the  "Deluge"  and  the  "Resurrection" 
he  goes  still  further,  casting  to  the  winds  all  canons  of  artistic 
propriety.  The  poses  are  extravagantly  strange,  the  contours 
distorted,  the  structure  of  the  nude  impossible.  Vasari13  felt 
that  Judgment  Day  itself  would  not  be  more  terribly  confused 
than  these  last  two  frescoes.  Longer  study,  however,  reveals  to 
us  Pontormo 's  intention.  We  cannot  dismiss  these  drawings  as 
an  aberration,  and  the  eleven  years  of  patient,  solitary  devotion 
that  Jacopo  gave  to  this  new  expression  of  his  artistic  vision, 
as  years  of  pitiable  feebleness.  Indeed,  we  may  be  sure  that  in 
these  studies  Pontormo  drew  no  nudes  out  of  all  proportion 

11  Ibid.,  p.  286. 

12  For  these  drawings,  see  my  Dessins. 
is  VI,  286. 

76 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

because  lie  could  no  longer  draw  correctly.  His  serious  and 
searching  nature  was  never  more  touchingly  consecrated  to  the 
problem  before  him  than  at  San  Lorenzo.  He  had,  in  all  that 
he  did  there,  a  definite  purpose.  That  purpose  was  not  unlike 
the  aim  of  certain  painters  of  today.  He  perceived,  dimly 
perhaps,  but  still  more  clearly  than  any  Italian  of  his  time, 
that  in  every  work  of  art  there  is  an  element  of  decoration, 
source  of  our  pleasure,  and  an  element  of  representation,  source 
of  our  sense  of  reality  — an  emotional  and  a  scientific  side. 
And  he  also  perceived,  I  think,  that  the  Florentine  Renaissance 
had  been  naturalistic,  that  its  best  ardour  had  been  spent  in 
solving  problems  of  representation  —  anatomy,  movement, 
perspective,  contour,  light  and  shade  — in  a  word,  in  the 
evocation  through  the  figure  arts  of  sensations  allied  to  those 
that  are  awakened  by  the  visible  world,  and  that  by  1540  all 
the  discoveries  of  the  school,  from  Masaccio  to  Michelangelo, 
had  been  condensed  into  elaborate  formulas. 

Against  this  tendency  he  revolted.  He  tossed  and  twisted 
the  vast  nudes  that  he  had  inherited  from  Michelangelo  to  fit 
strange  combinations  of  shape  that  haunted  him.  Emotional 
design,  that  was  his  aim  —  arrangements  of  lines  and  masses 
that  stir  our  sensation  of  form  without  the  intervention  of  the 
mind.  Obviously,  such  compositions  could  give  no  pleasure  to 
a  generation  which  had  lost,  and  not  yet  re-acquired,  the  art  of 
looking  at  pictures  for  their  own  sake.  On  one  sheet  (fig.  146 ; 
Umzi  6528) 14  there  is  a  swaying  and  falling  rhythm  of  great 
sea-waves,  which  the  tremendous  nudes  of  the  sketch  swing  to 
and  obey.  Surely  no  more  fitting  drawing  for  a  "Deluge"  was 
ever  made.  In  it,  as  in  other  drawings  for  San  Lorenzo,  we 
divine  a  symbolism  at  once  incomprehensible  and  attractive, 
a  fascination,  a  quality  untranslatable  into  terms  of  intellectual 
reflexion.  This  emotion  sometimes  permeates  studies  for 
individual  figures;  it  lives  in  the  gesture  of  the  nude  that  we 
find  on  Uffizi  6679  (fig.  149). 

In  unskilful  hands  such  a  method  would  naturally  be 
dangerous.  But,  by  his  contact  with  Andrea  and  the  early 

14  Dessins,  pp.  132  f. 

77 


PONTORMO 

work  of  Michelangelo,  Pontormo  was  more  thoroughly  versed 
in  the  study  of  form  for  its  own  sake  than  any  artist  working 
in  Florence  in  1550.  He  had  therefore  a  right  to  his  experiment, 
and  we  cannot  but  admire  his  disregard  of  adverse  criticism. 
In  these  drawings  there  is  no  tawdry  glitter,  no  laziness  of  the 
mind;  the  emphasis  of  his  research  is  merely  carried  from 
the  figure  into  the  design. 

Vasari  and  his  friends,  who  had  never  sought  vitality  in 
form,  were  of  course  the  first  to  find  Pontormo 's  figures  in 
the  choir  of  San  Lorenzo  incorrect.  Jacopo  sought  a  broad 
decorative  effect,  and  they,  perversely  enough,  found  only  here 
and  there  bits  of  torse  rendered  with  great  skill.15  They  mis- 
understood his  intention  because  they  had  no  conception  of  that 
ceaseless  renovation  of  ideals  which  is  the  well-spring  of  an 
artist's  life. 

In  no  account-book  of  the  Medici  for  this  period  (1548- 
1556)  is  there  any  mention  of  payments  made  to  Pontormo.16 
But  the  Medici  owned  the  chapel,  and  Vasari17  definitely  states 
that  it  was  Cosimo  who  ordered  the  frescoes  and  paid  for  them. 
Neither  have  I  found  any  payment  made  to  our  painter  by  the 
Canons  of  San  Lorenzo,  although  the  books  of  the  Chapter  are, 
for  these  years,  quite  complete.  In  the  Medicean  Libro  di 
Salariati  for  1556  there  are,  however,  two  entries  of  eleven 
payments  made  to  "Bastiano  del  gostra  pittore  con  M°  Jac° 
dapontormo."  On  March  1,  1554,  this  Bastiano  was  given  a 
salary  of  two  ducats  a  month,18  and  it  is  curious  that  we  find 
payments  made  to  him  and  none  made  to  Pontormo. 

The  baffling  silence  of  the  documents  makes  it  impossible 
to  state  when  the  decoration  of  the  choir  was  undertaken. 
Vasari18  says  that  Jacopo  laboured  on  it  eleven  years,  which 

is  Vasari,  VI,  287. 

i«  See  Catalogue  BaisonnS,  under  Lost  Pictures,  San  Lorenzo.  One  finds  in  the  books 
of  the  Medici  for  these  years  numerous  references  to  Cellini,  Bronzino,  Salviati,  Bacchiacca 
and  the  ' '  Arazzieri. " 

«  VI,  284. 

i«A.  S.  F.,  Depositeria  Generale,  No.  394,  Libro  di  Salariati  (1555-1556),  pp.  42 
and  101  right  and  left.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  27. 

i»VI,  287.  Lapini,  in  his  Diario  fiorentino  (ed.  Corazzini,  Firenze,  1900),  states 
that  Jacopo  worked  ten  years  on  these  frescoes. 

78 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

would  mean  that  he  began  the  work  in  1545.  That  is  not  incon- 
ceivable, for  it  is  evident  from  his  diary  that,  between  1554  and 
1556,  he  was  ill  much  of  the  time,  and  we  may  surmise  that  for 
some  years  his  health  had  been  failing.  In  those  casual  pages 
he  does  not  perhaps  record  all  the  days  that  he  spent  at  San 
Lorenzo,  but  even  if  we  add  several  days  in  each  month,  to  those 
he  specifically  mentions,  we  discover  that  he  can  hardly  have 
worked  there  more  than  thirteen  days  out  of  every  thirty.  At 
that  rate  eleven  years  would  have  been  none  too  long  for  such 
a  task.  Moreover,  he  seems  to  have  laboured  most  of  the  time 
in  perfect  solitude,  and  we  know  that  on  certain  occasions  he 
even  prepared  the  plaster  with  his  own  hands.  At  his  death 
parts  of  the  great  lower  frescoes  were  still  incomplete  and  in 
the  following  year  were  finished  by  Bronzino.  The  choir  was 
not  uncovered  until  July  23,  1558.20 

Pontormo  died,  according  to  Vasari,21  of  dropsy  brought 
on  by  overwork.  He  was  buried  on  January  2, 155722  and,  since 
in  Italy  burial  often  takes  place  the  day  after  death,  it  is 
probable  that  his  death  occurred  on  the  first.  All  the  painters, 
sculptors,  and  architects  of  Florence  were  present  at  his 
funeral,  and  he  was  buried  in  the  courtyard  of  the  Servites 
under  his  fresco  of  the  "Visitation."23  This,  however,  was  only 
a  temporary  interment.  His  body  was  afterwards  transported 
in  pomp  to"  the  Chapel  of  San  Luca,24  which  was  originally  the 
chapter-house  of  the  Annunziata  and  which  was  ceded  by  the 
Servites,  sometime  not  long  after  1562,  to  Montorsoli  as 
sepulchre  of  the  Compagnia  del  Disegno.  Pontormo  was  the 
first  artist  to  be  buried  there.  On  the  round  stone  in  the 
floor,  which  covers  the  vault,  is  the  inscription:  FLOREAT 

20  Vasari,  loc.  cit.  and  VII,  602.  Bronzino  finished  many  nudes  in  the  lower  part  of 
the  "Deluge,"  and  in  the  ' ' Kesurrection "  a  strip  about  a  "braccio"  wide  for  the  entire 
length  of  the  fresco.  Cf.  Moreni,  op.  cit.,  II,  119;  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  396;  Richa,  V,  29; 
Bocchi,  op.  cit.,  p.  515  ff.  See  also  for  the  lower  part  of  the  "Deluge,"  a  drawing  ascribed 
to  Bronzino,  Louvre,  No.  1026. 

21 VI,  288. 

22  A.  S.  F.,  Medici  e  Speziali,  No.  251,  Libro  dei  Morti  (1544-1560),  p.  92  r.;  Libro 
dei  Morti  (1506-1560),  Serie  della  Grascia,  p.  524  v.    See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  28  and  29. 

23  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  396.    Vasari,  VI,  288. 
2*  Vasari,  VI,  656. 

79 


PONTORMO 

SEMPER  VELIM  VITA  MORTE.  The  young  poet  Cosimo 
Gael  wrote  for  Jacopo  the  following  epitaph : 

In  mille  f  ronti,  a  cui  die  vita  e  moto 
Lo  mio  nobil  color,  legger  potrai, 
Viator,  chi  son  io :  qui  troverai 
Eotto  il  career  terren  di  spirto  voto.23 

In  the  choir  of  San  Lorenzo,  a  year  or  two  later,  a  marble  slab 
was  placed  which  seems  to  have  existed  in  Moreni's  time26  and 
on  which  one  read:  "lacobus  Puntormius  Florentinus,  qui, 
antequam  tantum  opus  absolveret  de  medio  in  Coelum  sublatus 
est,  et  vixit  annos  LXII  menses  VII  dies  VI.  A.  S.  MDLVI." 
After  his  death,  cartoons  and  models  in  clay  were  found  in  his 
house,  as  well  as  a  fine  "Madonna"  in  his  earlier  manner,  which 
his  heirs  sold  to  Piero  Salviati.27 

Pontormo  died  intestate.  The  right  to  his  property  was 
contested  by  Bronzino  and  Andrea  d'  Antonio  Chiazzella,  the 
weaver,  and  the  case  was  won  by  Andrea  as  nearest  of  kin.28 
I  believe  Milanesi  was  wrong  in  identifying  this  Andrea 
Chiazzella,29  distinctly  described  by  Ser  Giovanni  Giordano  as 
"tessor  drapporum,"  with  the  Sguazzella,  a  pupil  of  Andrea 
del  Sarto,  who  executed  between  1516  and  1524,  in  an  unnamed 
chateau  in  France,  various  pictures  that  were  destroyed  during 
the  Revolution.30 

What  was  perhaps  the  best  likeness  of  Pontormo  has 
perished.  It  was  painted  by  Bronzino  in  a  corner  of  the  choir 
of  San  Lorenzo  to  the  right  of  a  figure  of  St.  Lawrence31  and 
disappeared  when  Jacopo 's  frescoes  were  destroyed.  But  one 
may  still  see  a  portrait  of  Pontormo  by  his  pupil  in  Bronzino 's 

25  Borghini,  p.  396.    For  sonnets  on  the  death  of  Pontormo  by  Bronzino  and  others, 
see  Appendix  II,  Doc.  36. 

26  Moreni,  op.  cit.,  p.  115.    Vasari,  VI,  288,  note. 

27  Vasari,  VT,  288. 

28  A.  S.  F.,  Eogiti  di  Ser  Giov.  Battista  di  Lorenzo  Giordani,  G.  300,  p.  399.     See 
Appendix  II,  Doc.  30. 

2»  In  a  document  from  the  Catasto,  which  I  have  discovered,  Chiazzella  is  again 
called  a  weaver.  In  1561  he  is  cited  as  owner  of  a  house  in  the  Via  della  Colonna  which 
was  probably  the  house  that  Pontonno  himself  had  built.  See  Appendix  II,  Doe.  31. 

so  Vasari,  V,  57,  note  2;  VI,  289,  note. 

si  Vasari,  VII,  602. 

80 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

"Descent  into  Hell,"  now  in  the  Uffizi.32  The  woodcut  that 
appears  in  the  second  edition  of  Vasari  is  of  less  interest, 
although  it  is  evidently  not  apochryphal,  and  Baldinucci" 
states  that  Allori  painted  a  portrait  of  Jacopo  in  the  Montanti 
Chapel  of  the  Annunziata.  Waetzoldt34  believed  the  figure  to 
the  extreme  left  in  the  Pitti  " Adoration  of  the  Magi"  to  be  a 
likeness  of  our  painter  when  he  was  a  young  man,  and  others 
have  seen,  in  a  Pontormo  drawing35  in  the  Uffizi,  Jacopo 's  own 
features.  Both  conjectures  are  without  foundation. 

32J6td.,  VI,  289,  note;  VII,  599.  The  "Descent  into  Hell"  was  painted  in  1552 
for  the  Zanchini  Chapel  in  Santa  Croce;  the  portrait  of  Pontormo  is  mentioned  by  Vasari 
(VII,  599).  Jacopo 's  is  the  face  turned  slightly  to  the  right  and  seen  just  over  the 
Saviour 's  right  shoulder,  that  is  to  say,  immediately  to  the  left  of  the  figure  of  Christ. 

s&Notieie,  ed.  1812,  IX,  521:  "vedesi  nella  piu  alta  parte  dell'  Istoria  della  disputa, 
presso  al  eapitello  della  colonna,  che  fa  fronte  alia  grossezza  del  muro,  in  persona  d'un 
vecchio  Jacopo  da  Pontormo."  At  the  Reiset  sale  in  1870,  a  picture  was  sold  which  the 
catalogue  describes  as  a  "Portrait  of  Carucei  by  Himself,"  and  a  portrait,  said  to  be  of 
Pontormo  by  himself,  was  sent  to  the  Royal  Academy  Loan  Exhibition  of  1877  by  Lord 
Methuen.  I  am  unacquainted  with  both  these  pictures.  The  woodcut  from  Vasari 's  second 
edition  of  the  "Lives"  was  reprinted  in  the  Milan  edition  of  the  same  (1811,  XII,  2), 
and  by  Miintz  in  his  "Renaissance"  (III,  499).  Cf.  also  Dezallier  d '  Argenville,  Vie  des 
plits  fameux  peintres  (1762),  I,  49,  eng.,  and  Vasari  (1760),  pi.  135,  eng.  The  right-hand 
figure  in  the  double  portrait,  Louvre,  No.  1508,  commonly  known  as  "Raphael  et  son  maitre 
d'armes,"  was  believed  in  the  seventeenth  century  to  be  a  likeness  of  Pontormo.  The 
identification  is  without  foundation.  The  canvas,  once  given  to  Raphael  himself,  is  ascribed 
to  Giulio  Romano  by  Berenson,  to  Sebastiano  del  Piombo  by  Waagen,  to  Polidoro  da 
Caravaggio  by  Cavalcaselle.  Cf.  Duranty,  Gazette  des  "beaux-arts,  XV  (1877),  pp.  32,  34; 
Rosenberg  and  Gronau,  Eaffael,  4th  ed.,  pp.  211,  252;  Berenson,  Central  Italian  Painters, 
2d  ed.,  p.  185;  "Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  Baffaello,  ed.  Le  Monnier,  III,  414  f.;  Passavant, 
EaptM'el  d'UrUn,  II,  355-357,  note;  294.  For  the  provenance  of  the  picture,  see  Engerand, 
Inventaire,  Paris,  1899,  pp.  20  ff. 

s*  Die  Kunst  des  Portrdts,  1908,  p.  345,  fig.  (photo.  Reali). 

35  Dessins,  p.  244.    B.  F.  D.,  pi.  CLXXIV.    D.  G.  U.,  pi.  XVIII. 


81 


CHAPTER    IX 

PORTRAITS 

The  various  influences  that  reacted  upon  Pontormo 's 
personality  and  combined,  at  times  strangely,  with  successive 
phases  of  his  creative  instinct  may  also  be  traced  in  his  por- 
traits, for  happily  portraiture  was  with  him,  even  in  his  youth, 
a  favorite  medium  of  expression.  By  its  limitations  and  its 
possibilities  it  implied  an  art  admirably  suited  to  his  peculiar 
temperament.  But  it  would  be  idle  to  analyse  his  portraits 
separately,  while  to  establish  for  them  an  exact  chronology  is 
practically  impossible.  In  portraiture  progressive  variations 
of  touch  are  always  difficult  to  distinguish,  and  Pontormo's 
fidelity  to  the  character  of  his  sitter  complicates  the  problem. 
Moreover,  of  the  forty-seven  portraits,  paintings  or  drawings, 
that  have  come  down  to  us  only  one  is  documented  and  dated: 
the  "Portrait  of  Alessandro"  in  the  Johnson  Collection.  And 
only  this  and  the  "  Portrait  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio"  have  even 
been  identified.1  To  determine  whether  other  portraits,  ascribed 
or  ascribable  to  Pontormo,  are  authentic  or  not  requires  that 
intimate  knowledge  of  his  touch  and  of  his  development  which 
alone  can  help  us  to  make  an  intelligible  pattern  out  of  what 
ignorance  and  the  years  have  jumbled  and  in  part  destroyed. 
Here  his  portrait-drawings  render  an  especial  service.  They 
betray  their  date  by  disclosing  their  relationship  to  other 
drawings,  the  date  of  which  is  known,  and  with  their  help  we 
may  thread  the  mazes  of  a  difficult  chronology. 

The  earliest  portrait  we  possess  is  perhaps  the  "  Engraver 
of  Precious  Stones"  (fig.  10),  once  part  of  the  collection  of 

i  The  ' '  Portrait  of  Bartolommeo  di  Lorenzo  Gualteretti, ' '  in  the  Johnson  Collection, 
which  is  ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Berenson,  is  dated  1550.  I  am  not,  however,  of  the 
opinion  that  it  is  an  authentic  Pontormo.  . 

82 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

Louis  XIV  and  now  in  the  Louvre.2  The  drawing  of  the  mouth, 
the  nose,  and  the  chin,  the  facial  oval,  and  the  heavy  colour, 
obviously  recall  Andrea's  " Portrait  of  Himself,"  which  is  now 
in  the  Uffizi.3  But  Pontormo's  portrait  is  troubled  and  intro- 
spective; from  it  a  personality  looks  out  at  us  mysteriously, 
as  from  no  portrait  by  Del  Sarto.  Although,  like  the  "Portrait 
of  a  Man"  now  in  Bonn,4  which  appears  to  have  followed  it  at 
a  short  interval,  it  cannot  have  been  painted  later  than  in  1516, 
it  demonstrates  that  Jacopo  had  even  then  the  secret  of  laying 
bare  his  sitter's  soul. 

Within  the  next  two  years  he  painted  the  "  Portrait  of  a 
Young  Man"  (fig.  41)  of  the  Palazzo  Bianco,5  which  catches 
so  delightfully  the  self-conscious  stiffness  of  a  fashionable 
youth,  and  but  a  little  later,  the  well-known  "Portrait  of 
Cosimo  il  Vecchio"  (fig.  42 ).6  This  I  place  somewhat  before 
the  summer  of  1518.  It  is  an  evident  masterpiece,  of  powerful 
arrangement,  beautiful  colour,  and  intense  interpretation. 
Iconographically  it  derived  from  one  of  the  medals  struck  not 
long  after  Cosimo 's  death,  and  since  it  was  painted  for  a 
secretary  of  Lorenzino's,  Pontormo  had  of  course  to  represent 
Cosimo  in  the  guise  of  the  great  and  saintly  ancestor  of  the 
Medici.  But  how  intimately  and  imaginatively  Jacopo,  with  his 
subtle  incisiveness  of  spirit,  understood  the  fine  craftiness,  the 
pitiless  penetration,  and  cunning  self-satisfaction  of  the  ailing 
old  banker !  What  hands !  How  grasping,  how  alive !  Cosimo 
seems  to  hold  them  tightly  clasped  before  him  for  fear  some 
violent  animation  in  them  betray  his  stealthy  calm.  He  lives 
more  vividly  here  than  in  any  portrait  painted  during  his 
lifetime. 

The  treatment  of  the  features  and  of  the  spacing  in  these 
last  two  portraits  owes  something  to  such  works  of  Piero  di 
Cosimo  as  his  "Portrait  of  a  Warrior,"  of  the  National  Gallery 
or  his  "Francesco  Giamberti,"  now  in  The  Hague. 

2  No.  1241. 

3  No.  1176. 

*  Provincial  Museum,  No.  214. 

5  No.  6. 

«  Now  in  the  Uffizi. 

83 


PONTORMO 

We  have  one  other  portrait  that  was  painted  before  1520  — 
the  " Unknown  Boy"  (fig.  48)  of  Prince  Trivulzio's  collection. 
There  are  two  portrait-drawings  of  the  same  period,  a 
melancholy  youth  wrapped  in  a  mantle  (fig.  49;  Uffizi  6682), 
to  which  we  have  referred  elsewhere,  and  a  strong  study  of  a 
young  artisan  (fig.  38;  Uflizi  452  F).  The  latter  recalls  the 
"Portrait  of  a  Youth,"  now  in  Lucca,  but  was  not  drawn  for 
it.  To  the  years  1520-1525  no  portrait  can  be  assigned  with 
certainty.  The  black-chalk  sketch  of  an  old  woman  in  a  mantle 
(Uffizi  6573)  recalls  the  draped  women  of  the  frescoes  at  the 
Certosa  but,  like  Uffizi  451  F,  it  can  hardly  be  earlier  than  1525. 

While  Jacopo  was  painting  the  Capponi  Chapel  and  the 
works  that  immediately  followed  it  (1525-1530),  he  executed 
several  portraits  that  survive,  among  them  the  flower-like 
portrait-drawing  of  a  young  girl  (fig.  101 ;  Uffizi  449 ),7  in  which 
the  line  has  qualities  that  characterize  the  best  studies  for  Santa 
Felicita.  One  might  assign  to  the  same  period  a  wistful  drawing 
of  a  young  boy  (fig.  102;  Uffizi  6667), 8  which  discloses  a  rare 
understanding  of  child-life,  but  in  which  there  is  a  certain 
serene  transliteration  of  fact  that  sometimes  tempts  me  to  place 
it  nearer  to  Poggio. 

Sometime  about  1528  Jacopo  painted  the  beautiful  "Por- 
trait of  a  Youth"  (fig.  115),  now  in  Lucca.9  This  is  one  of  his 
most  characteristic  and  charming  pictures.  The  long,  upgrow- 
ing  neck,  the  delicate  oval  of  the  face,  the  full,  fine,  bushy  hair, 
the  slightly  turned,  sidelong  glance,  the  slim  body  delicately 
suggested  in  its  great  robe  of  silk,  the  simple  but  striking 
adjustment  of  the  figure  to  the  space,  the  clarity  and  ring  of 
the  colour,  all  are  but  elements  of  the  finer  art  with  which 
Pontormo  felt  the  essential  character,  the  sweet  frankness  of 
a  fresh,  young  spirit. 

The  Bergamo  portrait  (fig.  116)  ,10  falsely  called  "Baccio 
Bandinelli,"  and  the  Uffizi11  "Portrait  of  a  Man"  (fig.  118), 

7  Dessins,  pp.  96  f . 

s  Ibid.,  p.  218. 

oPinacoteca,  No.  75  (Sala  I,  No.  5). 

10  Morelli  Collection,  No.  59. 

11  No.  1220. 

84 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WOEK 

though  dry  in  colour,  are  both  of  a  Holbeinesque  purity  of 
drawing  and  of  a  fine  severity.  Like  the  exquisite  "  Portrait  of 
a  Girl  as  Lucretia"  (fig.  119),  now  in  the  Borghese,12  they  date 
from  just  before  1530.  With  them  belongs  the  "Portrait  of 
a  Man,"  in  the  Corsini13  at  Eome,  which  has  completely  lost 
by  retouching  its  distinction  and  decision. 

From  the  period  of  the  siege  and  immediately  thereafter, 
we  have:  the  portrait-drawing  of  a  young  soldier  (fig.  120), 
of  rare  economy  of  touch  and  of  a  clarity  of  interpretation 
recalling  Ingres  (Uffizi  463  F) ;  an  elaborate  but  tame  three- 
quarters  portrait-drawing  of  an  artisan  (Uffizi  6698)  ,14  which 
inspired  Bronzino's  "  Portrait  of  Bartolommeo  Panciatichi"; 
the  "  Portrait  of  Alessandro,"  now  in  Philadelphia  (1534- 
1535)  ;15  the  tense,  clean-cut  profile16  that  is  now  called  "The 
Canon  Castiglione"  (fig.  125). 

Between  1534  and  1540  I  place  a  group  of  fair  women, 
panels  that  are  among  the  highest  achievements  of  the  Floren- 
tine School  in  portraiture.  No  other  Tuscan  attained  such  rare, 
light  harmony  of  tone,  such  graciously  ample  arrangement  of 
space,  such  dignity  and  simplicity  and  ease,  together  with  such 
subtlety,  breadth,  and  wealth  of  suggestion  of  the  sitter's  social 
sphere,  her  inheritance,  and  her  intelligence.  Most  of  all  no 
Florentine,  except  Leonardo,  so  drew  up  the  yearning,  unquiet 
spirit  to  the  eyes  and  made  an  unmistakable,  but  almost  unseiz- 
able,  vibration  of  personality  play  about  the  mouth.  These  are 
women  of  proud  family  and  of  long  lineage.  Yet,  in  their 
lovely  but  simple  dresses,  with  their  gold  chains,  their  rings, 
their  embossed  books,  their  little  dogs,  how  human  they  seem 
to  us,  how  frank  and  secretly  confiding !  Here  must  be  placed 
such  masterpieces  as  the  "Portrait  of  a  Young  Woman" 
(fig.  128),  in  the  Dirksen  Collection,  in  Berlin,  the  alert  and 
speaking  "Portrait  of  a  Girl"  (fig.  127),  in  Frankfort,17  the 

"No.  75. 

is  No.  577. 

i*  Dessins,  pp.  106,  244. 

is  Johnson  Collection,  No.  83. 

ie  Pitti,  No.  249. 

"  Stadel  Institute,  No.  14  a. 

85 


PONTORMO 

"Portrait  of  a  Lady  with  a  Volume  of  Verse"  (fig.  131),  once 
in  the  Yerkes  Collection  and  erroneously  ascribed  to  Bronzino. 
To  these  years  also  belong  the  "Young  Girl  with  a  Carnation 
Hung  over  Her  Ear"  of  the  Widener  Collection,  a  portrait 
that  resembles  those  just  mentioned  but  which  from  repainting 
has  become  stiff  and  blank,  as  well  as  two  fine  portrait-drawings : 
the  one  (Uffizi  17769 ),18  aristocratic,  though  a  trifle  hard  in  its 
refinement;  the  other  (Uffizi  414) ,19  which  was  long  ascribed  to 
Leonardo,  big,  broad,  and  full  of  good-humoured  complacency. 

These  panels  and  drawings  were  closely  followed  by  the 
oval  "Portrait  of  a  Woman  in  Green"  (fig.  129),  in  the  Grand- 
ducal  Gallery  of  Oldenburg,20  skilfully  arranged,  magnificently 
large,  and  of  broad  spiritual  insight.  Of  the  same  date  are  the 
dry  but  firm  study,  Uffizi  6680  ;21  the  badly  proportioned 
drawing  of  a  bishop  (Uffizi  443  verso),  perhaps  for  the  now 
lost  portrait  of  Ardinghelli;  the  somewhat  dull,  though  quite 
correct,  red-chalk  study  of  a  boy  in  a  mantle  with  a  flute 
(Uffizi  443 ).22  Here  one  should  place  the  "Portrait  of  Cardinal 
Spannocchi  Cervini"  (fig.  130),  the  Sienese  prelate  who  was 
afterwards  Pope  Marcellus  —  a  panel  which,  before  Morelli's 
time,  was  held  to  be  by  Raphael.23  And  here,  too,  belongs  the 
grave  and  penetrating  "Portrait  of  Bartolomeo  Compagni" 
(fig.  126),  now  in  the  Stirling  Collection.  In  it  the  accessories 
are  of  an  almost  painfully  scrupulous  naturalism.  The  effect 
of  the  whole,  however,  with  its  broad  distribution  of  masses 
is  of  a  dignity,  a  quietness,  quite  undeniably  Pontormo's  own. 

Even  during  the  last  years  of  his  life,  while  he  slaved  in 
the  solitude  of  the  San  Lorenzo  choir,  his  mind  all  preoccupied 
with  a  new  idealism,  Pontormo  had,  when  he  faced  a  definite 
model,  an  eye  unswervingly  loyal  to  the  essentially  significant 
in  character.  A  masterful  and  uncompromising  human  docu- 
ment, raised  above  mere  stupid  transcription  into  that  realm  of 

is  Dessins,  pp.  288  f . 
i»  Ibid.,  p.  89. 

20  No.  19. 

21  Dessins,  p.  230. 

22  Idem,  pp.  93  f . 

23  Borghese  Gallery,  No.  408. 

86 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

intellectual  clarity  in  which  the  best  of  Pontormo's  art  moves, 
is  the  "Portrait  of  an  Old  Lady"  (fig.  150),  now  in  Vienna.24 
Here,  as  in  the  severely  simple  "Portrait  of  a  Lady"  (fig.  151), 
in  the  Jacquemart- Andre  Collection,  Jacopo's  study  of  his 
sitter's  personality  is  still  indefatigable  and  searching.  Pon- 
tormo  could  never  have  painted  the  "Mona  Lisa."  His 
limitations  and  inequalities  become  only  too  obvious  when  his 
achievement,  even  in  portraiture,  is  compared  with  a  work  upon 
which  a  mind  as  unparalleled  in  depth  and  scope  as  Leonardo's 
has  left  a  record  of  its  own  unique  experience.  He  had  neither 
the  supreme  quality  of  accumulated  vision  necessary  for  such 
an  understanding,  nor  the  unapproachable  cunning  of  hand. 
His  was  an  intuitive  intelligence,  an  instinctive  penetration, 
which,  at  its  best,  leaves  upon  the  faces  of  his  people  an  inde- 
finable and  appealing  wistfulness  that  makes  Bronzino's 
portraits  seem  hollow  and  uncommunicative,  Andrea's  monoto- 
nously literal,  Ghirlandaio 's  wooden,  and  even  the  greater 
portraits  of  the  Quattrocento  lacking  in  all  inner  animation. 
But  quite  apart  from  any  limitations  that  one  may  feel  in 
Pontormo's  portraits,  when  one  compares  them  with  the 
greatest  masterpieces,  and  quite  apart  too  from  any  artistic 
superiority  that  they  may  claim  when  one  sets  them  beside  the 
works  of  his  predecessors  or  contemporaries,  they  have,  in  the 
history  of "*  this  province  of  painting,  an  importance  that  has 
been  hitherto  unrecognized.  It  cannot,  however,  be  long  before 
it  will  be  clear  to  all  students  of  Florentine  civilization  that  one 
legacy,  in  the  long  inheritance  left  by  those  minds  that  have 
re-created  the  visible  world  in  the  plastic  arts,  one  aspect  of 
our  present  vision  of  ourselves,  has  undoubtedly  its  source  in 
him.  This  contribution  to  our  visual  memory  passed  from 
Jacopo  to  Bronzino  and,  popularized  by  him,  found  its  way 
through  certain  Italians  who  worked  in  Spain,  and  through 
Flemish  artists  like  Antonio  Moro25  who  worked  in  Italy,  into 

24  Gemaldegalerie,  No.  48. 

25  For  the  influence  of  Pontormo,  through  Bronzino,  upon  Antonio  Moro,  cf.  the 
"Portrait  of  William  of  Orange"  (Cassel,  No.  37)  which  Antonio  painted  in  1555-1556; 
the  "Portrait  of  a  Youth  in  Armour,"   dating  from  about   3560,  lately  in  the   Ehrich 
Galleries,  New  York,  and  now  in  the  St.  Louis  Museum;  and  the  "Portrait  of  a  Princess," 

87 


PONTOKMO 

our  general  tradition  of  form.  It  was  Jacopo  who  first  trans- 
formed portraiture  by  seeing  it  in  terms  of  Michelangelo's 
heroic  vision  and  it  was  Jacopo  who,  in  recording  the  appear- 
ance of  his  sitters,  first  sought  to  combine  a  massive  imaginative 
simplicity  and  dignity  of  presentation  with  an  intangible 

evocation  of  individual  character. 

» 

painted  in  1577,  which  was  once  in  the  collection  of  the  Baron  de  Beurnonville  (1881), 
and  later  in  that  of  la  Baronne  de  H***,  for  a  reproduction  of  which,  see  Catalogue  de  la 
Collection  de  la  feue  Baronne  de  H***,  Georges  Petit,  June,  1904,  p.  28. 


88 


CHAPTER    X 

LAST  YEARS:  HIS  LIFE  FEOM  DAY  TO  DAY 

Numerous  passages1  in  Vasari 's  "Life  of  Pontonno"  give 
us  an  idea  of  Ms  personal  appreciation  of  Jacopo  as  an  artist 
and  as  a  man.  The  clever  Aretine,  who  was  a  favourite  of 
princes  and  by  nature  a  courtier,  was  hardly  the  person  to  under- 
stand Pontormo's  shrinking  and  detached  spirit.  For  all  his 
kindly  sympathy,  he  could  not  but  deplore  Jacopo 's  aloofness, 
his  indifference  to  the  patronage  of  the  great,  his  waywardness, 
and  his  hesitations.  It  was  a  pity,  he  thought,  to  let  slip  heed- 
lessly a  chance  to  finish  the  Great  Hall  at  Poggio.2  Vasari  did 
not  understand  Jacopo 's  whole-hearted  devotion  to  his  art. 
Even  though  he  admits  it  was  no  lack  of  ability  that  made 
Pontormo  procrastinate,3  and  that  once  decided  how  a  thing 
should  be  done  his  manner  of  working  showed  no  vacillation, 
it  is  quite  apparent  Vasari  did  not  realize  that  Jacopo  never 
put  his  hand  to  an  undertaking  without  first  solving  the  problem 
of  its  conception  and  execution. 

In  a  letter  to  Varchi  Pontormo  himself  gives  us  a  whimsical 
account  of  his  attitude  towards  painting.  This  letter4  explains 
much.  Jacopo  felt  the  underlying  principle  of  sculpture  and 
painting  to  be  design  —  a  term  that  he  uses  in  its  widest  sense, 
and  that  for  him  includes  invention,  composition,  and  the 
rendering  of  the  figure.  Sculpture,  he  thought,  is  eternal; 
painting,  transitory.  And  he  wittily  compares  the  former  to 
"panno  fine,"  the  latter  to  "panno  accotonato  delP  inferno." 
On  the  other  hand,  the  mere  durability  of  the  stuff  of  sculpture, 

1  VI,  249,  271,  285,  287. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  277. 

3  Hid.,  p.  289. 

*  Bottari,  Eaccolta  di  lettere,  Milan,  1822,  I,  20-25.    See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  32. 

89 


PONTORMO 

the  time-resisting  bronze  or  stone,  is  after  all  a  quality  that 
even  unquarried  rocks  have,  while  the  eternity  to  which  genius 
attains  resides  in  a  profound  creative  impulse  and  in  the 
conquest  of  inert  material.  He  keenly  felt  the  mere  physical 
difficulties  of  the  practice  of  sculpture  or  painting,  and  from 
this  point  of  view,  painting  is  for  him  the  more  marvellous  art. 
Does  it  not,  with  slighter  means,  attempt  a  larger  task  ?  With 
mere  colours  and  a  flat  surface,  does  the  painter  not  realize, 
by  an  artifice,  nature,  its  colours,  lights,  shadows,  diversities  — 
air,  cloud,  landscape,  houses,  men,  and  animals  —  everything 
various,  harmonious,  and  graceful,  in  the  multitudinous  appear- 
ances of  things'?  This  vying  with  nature  Jacopo  felt  to  be  a 
fine  audacity.  Still  finer,  the  daring  that,  by  arranging  and 
harmonizing  images  taken  from  nature,  transfigures  and  makes 
them  more  beautiful  than  nature  is  herself ! 

The  playful,  philosophic  aloofness  of  this  letter  manifested 
itself  in  Jacopo 's  daily  life.  He  was  an  unworldly  and  solitary 
spirit.  Vasari  hints  that  some  of  his  contemporaries  even 
found  him  unsociable  and  mean.  Certainly  he  cultivated  no 
luxuries  of  dress  or  food  or  change.  His  little  house  was 
without  extravagance  or  pretence,  and  it  had,  to  use  Vasari 's5 
expression,  "cera  di  casamento  da  uomo  fantastico  e  solitario." 

Like  Michelangelo  and  Leonardo,  he  never  married.  His 
work  he  loved,  not  what  it  brought  him.  Poor  as  he  was,  he 
sought  no  commissions  from  the  rich.6  And  when  he  had  work 
to  do,  he  closed  his  door  even  to  his  intimates.  This  we  know 
from  his  diary,  for  one  day  he  writes:  "Domenica  fu  pichiato 
da  Bronzino  e  poi  il  di  da  Daniello.  Non  so  quello  che  si 
volessino." 

Vasari  appreciated  his  rectitude  of  spirit  and  defends  him 
against  the  accusation  that,  in  allowing  the  "Venus"  to  be  sold 
to  Alessandro,  he  did  not  treat  Bettini  fairly.  He  protests 
against  gossip,  once  current  in  Florence,  that  Jacopo  was  vain 
and  proud  because  he  had  been  chosen  to  paint  the  choir  of 
San  Lorenzo.7  Vasari  knew  that  nothing  was  more  foreign  to 

B  VI,  279. 

e  Ibid. 

f  Ibid.,  p.  285. 

90 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

the  modest  spirit  of  his  friend  than  insolent  words  or  a  high- 
handed manner. 

We  owe  much  of  our  knowledge  of  Pontormo's  personality 
to  Vasari's  kindly  interest,  but  for  a  profounder  insight  into 
his  peculiar  character  we  must  turn  to  his  diary  (fig.  152 ).8 
Of  this  precious  document  we  have  only  a  fragment  that  begins 
with  the  year  1554,  when  the  entries  are  few,  and  continues  at 
irregular  intervals  to  within  a  month  and  a  half  of  his  death. 

Nothing  could  be  more  direct,  more  completely  without 
pose,  than  these  pages,  which  sound  as  if  in  them  he  communed 
with  his  own  memory.  They  evoke  an  image  of  his  life  from 
day  to  solitary  day,  with  its  labour,  its  illnesses,  its  isolation, 
and  its  simple  pleasures  —  the  humble  life  of  an  artist  and  a 
workman,  "costumato  e  virtuoso."  Here  is  the  naked  psy- 
chology of  the  man,  parsimoniously  traced,  naive,  concise,  and 
never  distorted  even  by  a  desire  to  define  his  own  states  of  mind. 
As  a  record  it  is  therefore  of  unique  value.  It  has  no  literary 
flavour  and  betrays  no  preoccupation  except  that  of  setting 
down  for  himself,  and  for  their  own  sake,  his  daily  experiences. 

Sometimes  he  merely  names  the  days  as  they  pass,  days 
perhaps  when  he  pondered  over  the  frescoes  in  San  Lorenzo, 
or  mute  pointless  days  of  inertia  and  lassitude.  Frequently 
he  mentions  what  he  accomplished:  " Today  I  worked  on  the 
death's  Head  with  a  beard";  or  " Today  I  finished  the  arm  of 
the  figure  that  stands  like  this."  And  in  the  margin  he  draws 
a  little  sketch,  the  shorthand  of  the  image  in  his  mind.  These 
marginal  sketches  (fig.  152)  correspond  to  drawings  of  his,  now 
in  the  Uffizi  (fig.  153),  and  we  can  state  —  curious  fact  in  the 
life  of  a  painter  dead  three  hundred  and  fifty  years  —  that  on 

8  See  Appendix  III.  Cf .  Colasanti,  Bull.  soc.  filol.  rom.,  II,  35-59.  Fabriczy,  Daa 
Tagebuch  Jacopos  da  Pontormo,  Eepertorium,  XXVI  (1903),  95  f.  Apropos  of  a  letter 
from  Cosimo  I  to  Bronzino  (Pisa,  February  11,  1565),  in  regard  to  the  latter 's  frescoes 
in  San  Lorenzo,  of  which  only  the  "Martyrdom  of  San  Lorenzo"  was  finished,  Gaye 
(III,  166-169)  quotes  a  fragment  of  Pontormo's  Diary  from  an  incomplete  sixteenth 
century  copy  in  the  Biblioteca  Nazionale,  Florence  (No.  621  [331-E,  5,  6,  32]).  His 
excerpt  begins:  "addi  11  di  Marzo  1554,"  and  ends:  "Sabato  quella  testa  della  figura 
che  e  sotto  ch'  sta  cosi."  The  original  of  the  Diary  is  in  the  same  library,  Miscellanea 
magliabecchiana,  Catalogo  VIII,  1490. 

91 


PONTORMO 

such  and  such  a  day  Pontormo  frescoed  a  given  figure  on  the 
walls  of  San  Lorenzo. 

We  see  him  going  to  work  before  dawn ;  we  see  him  apply- 
ing with  his  own  hands  the  plaster  to  the  walls;  we  see  him 
struggling  with  the  material  difficulties  of  the  work.  Once  he 
writes  when  he  comes  home  tired:  "Tonight  my  back  aches 
from  standing  bent  backwards  all  day  long. ' '  Or  again :  i '  Today 
I  did  again  the  head  of  the  figure  below  the  windows  —  that 
was  a  piece  of  work  to  remember!"  Sometimes  he  speaks  of 
drawings  that  he  has  made  or  colours  that  he  has  prepared. 
And  in  reading  we  get  a  strangely  lucid  image  of  how  day 
succeeded  day  and,  bit  by  bit,  the  long  solitary  work  went 
forward. 

He  notes  his  troubles  with  his  "fattore."  Too  ill  to  go  out 
himself,  Jacopo  sends  him  for  a ' ' fiasco ' '  of  wine.  The  wretched 
man  tells  him  that  hereafter  he  can  do  his  own  errands !  And 
that  evening  he  supped  on  a  bunch  of  grapes.  Again  he 
remarks:  "My  Battista  has  gone  off  for  the  day  and  has  not 
come  back  though  he  knows  I  am  ill  and  will  have  to  keep  him 
in  mind  all  the  time."  Battista  was  his  pupil  Naldini,  who 
was  a  foundling  of  the  Hospital  of  the  Innocents  and  who  was, 
it  would  seem,  adopted  by  Pontormo  sometime  late  in  the 
forties.  We  watch  the  heartless  boy  tease  the  old  man  for  two 
long  days,  saying  he  will  go  away  and  never  come  back  again. 
Once  Jacopo  pathetically  remarks:  "Thursday,  that  was  the 
day  when  Battista  locked  himself  in  his  room  and  refused  to 
eat."  One  evening  (March,  1556)  Bronzino  asked  his  old 
master  to  dinner  and  he  refused  to  go.  They  quarrelled,  and 
that  night  Jacopo  wrote  bitter  things  in  his  diary,  but  after- 
wards crossed  them  out. 

He  notices  the  changes  of  the  weather  —  bright  days  or 
bleak  rainy  days  when  he  suffered  from  the  cold.  He  speaks 
of  his  dinners  and  suppers  with  Bronzino  or  '  i  Daniello. ' '  These 
were  chiefly  on  Sundays.  Sometimes  for  long  periods  he  saw 
no  one.  Then  again,  day  in  and  day  out,  he  took  his  meals  with 
one  of  his  friends,  and  they  were,  we  may  believe,  kind  to  the 
caprices  of  the  solitary,  morose  old  man.  We  learn  of  his  rare 

92 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

days  of  recreation  —  holidays  when  he  went  to  walk  with  Piero 
or  Angelo  or  with  all  their  little  circle,  at  Monte  Oliveto  or 
San  Miniato  or  San  Domenico.  We  learn  of  still  rarer  nights 
at  the  tavern  or  the  theatre.  We  hear  of  visits  to  the  friars  on 
business,  of  the  gift  of  game  that  he  promised  to  his  friends, 
the  "pane  di  ramerino"  and  the  fifty  figs  that  they  gave  him, 
the  wine  that  he  bottled,  the  peaches  he  planted,  the  chair  and 
the  coverlet  he  bought. 

Frequently  we  read  of  his  illnesses,  particularly  of  one 
long  illness  during  which  Bronzino  took  hi™  in  and  nursed 
him,  and  of  the  accident  that  befell  him  of  being  struck  by  a 
cart.  When  ill  he  records  naively  all  his  symptoms  —  his  colds, 
his  fevers,  his  indigestions  and  nauseas,  his  frequent  fasts.  He 
sets  down  rules  for  right  living,  especially  in  the  spring,  and 
promises  himself  not  to  overeat. 

Most  of  all  he  notes  what  he  eats,  even  the  precise  number 
of  ounces  of  bread,  the  exact  number  of  figs.  His  food  was  of 
a  touching  simplicity,  and  he  prepared  it  himself.  It  was  the 
food  of  the  Italian  artisan:  eggs,  bread,  cheese,  wine,  salad, 
fruit,  "pesce  d'  uovo,"  "pasta."  Now  and  then,  he  has  a  little 
mutton,  once  some  that  Battista  buys  for  him  and  of  which  he 
remarks,  "one  wouldn't  have  given  it  to  the  dogs."  At  long 
intervals  Jie  speaks  of  rarer  things,  "ucellini"  or  "crespelli 
mirabili,"  which  he  remembers  with  enjoyment.  But  generally 
he  was  extraordinarily  frugal  and  abstemious. 

These  pages  are  full  of  the  flavour  of  solitude,  simple 
living,  and  arduous  labour.  To  what  went  on  around  him 
Jacopo  pays  little  attention.  Twice  he  mentions  that  the  Duke 
came  to  San  Lorenzo,  and  that  once  the  Duchess  also  came. 
He  speaks  of  the  feast9  of  the  "Tregua,"  of  the  picture  Bronzino 
sent  to  Pisa,  of  a  head  of  Sandrino's  that  he  went  to  see,  visits 
from  Luca  Martini,  a  sonnet  that  Varchi  sent  him. 

We  know  his  friends,  the  little  circle  of  men  who  spent 
their  leisure  together,  Bronzino,  Piero,  Daniello,  Luca  Martini, 

»  The  famous  truce  between  the  Emperor  and  the  King  of  France  that  was  published 
in  Siena,  March  26,  1556. 

93 


PONTORMO 

Varchi,  Ottaviano,10  and,  more  rarely,  Pucci  and  Strozzi. 
With  them  we  see  two  women,  Alessandra  and  Maria.  Once 
too  he  mentions  dining  alone  with  Borghini,11  the  "priore 
dell'Ospedale." 

In  so  solitary  a  life,  to  a  nature  so  intense  and  lonely  as 
his,12  the  training  of  pupils  was  impossible.  What  was  best  in 
his  art  was  too  personal  to  be  easily  imitated,  too  subtle  and  too 
various  to  become  a  canon  to  young  artists.  On  the  other  hand, 
no  artist,  no  matter  how  talented,  could  have  formed  a  school 
in  Florence  at  a  moment  when  all  art  had  become  Michel- 
angelesque.  As  far  as  their  influence  on  others  went,  Pon- 
tormo's  rare  gifts  were  largely  wasted.  The  decadence  had 
begun.  It  was  almost  in  vain  he  gave  to  the  world  scores  of 
drawings,  the  best  of  which  must  finally  rank  with  Michel- 
angelo's and  Leonardo's,  a  whole  gallery  of  splendid  portraits, 
a  perfect  specimen  of  decoration  at  Poggio,  a  lyric  altar-piece 
at  Santa  Felicita.  The  decorative  beauty  that  these  last  two 
works  reveal,  their  lightness,  their  freshness,  left  his  contem- 
poraries only  half  convinced.  Still  less  convinced  were  they 
by  the  heroic  and  mysterious  symbolism  of  the  San  Lorenzo 
choir. 

An  artist  of  his  genius  could  not,  of  course,  even  in  the 
later  Renaissance,  escape  having  imitators.  To  his  early  work 
Rosso  owed  much  in  the  " Marriage  of  St.  Catherine,"  in  San 
Lorenzo  (1523),  the  " Deposition,"  at  Volterra  (1521),  the 
"Doni  Altar-piece"  (1522),  now  in  the  Pitti,  the  "St.  John," 
now  at  Dijon.  Rosso 's  draughtsmanship  is  merely  a  hard, 
extravagant  variant  of  our  master's  first  manner.  Andrea  also, 
to  whom  Pontormo's  debt  was  great,  shows  here  and  there  as 

10  Not,  of  course,  Ottaviano  de '  Medici,  the  patron  of  the  arts  to  whom  Vasari 
frequently  alludes  and  who  died  in  1546  and  was  buried  in  San  Lorenzo. 

11  Cf .  Vasari,  VI,  289. 

12  Bocchi   (op.  cit.,  pp.  18  f.)   says  that  Pontormo  was  excessively  melancholy  and 
that  in  order  to  attain  a  greater  realism  for  his  "Deluge"  in  San  Lorenzo  he  kept  dead 
bodies  in  troughs  of  water  to  make  them  swell,  the  stench  of  which  troubled  the  whole 
neighbourhood.     The  latter  part  of  this  story  is  a  direct  contradiction  of  Vasari 's  state- 
ment  (VI,  289)  that  Jacopo  was  inordinately  afraid  of  death  and  would  not  let  anyone 
mention  it  in  his  presence:  "fu  tan  to  pauroso  della  morte,  che  non  voleva,  non  che  altro, 
udirne  ragionare,  e  fuggiva  1'avere  a  incontrare  morti. " 

94 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

in  the  "putti"  of  the  two  "Assumptions"  in  the  Pitti,  faint 
traces  of  the  counter-influence  of  Jacopo's  art.  Granacci 
liberally  borrowed  form  and  colour  from  our  painter  in  such 
pictures  as  his  "Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Joseph."  Bacchiacca 
pieced  out  his  patchwork  with  many  a  shape  of  Jacopo's 
invention,  and  Bugiardini  had  in  mind  a  Pontormo  drawing 
(the  meaning  of  which  he  was  too  dull  to  understand),  when 
he  executed  the  "Young  St.  John,"  now  in  Bologna.  Vasari 
made  drawings  of  the  Certosa  frescoes,13  consulted  Jacopo14 
about  his  own  "Portrait  of  Alessandro, "15  and  had  our  master 
help  him  with  the  cartoons16  for  the  "Battle  of  Val  di  Chiana." 
In  his  full-length  portraits  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio  and  Cosimo  I," 
he  imitated  Pontormo  so  closely  that  they  were  long  considered 
to  be  the  latter 's  work.  With  lesser  men,  like  Lappoli18  and 
Pichi,19  Jacopo's  pupils  for  a  time,  we  are  hardly  concerned. 
They  were  crass  imitators  of  whatever  creative  instinct  they 
came  in  contact  with  momentarily.  Neither  is  it  worth  while 
to  study  here  Cristofano  dell'  Altissimo20  who  belongs  to  a  later 
generation  and  owed  more  to  Bronzino  than  to  our  painter. 
The  feeble  journeyman  who  painted  the  "Madonna  and  Saints," 
in  the  Municipio  at  Citta  di  Castello,21  or  the  painter  of  the 
"Presentation  in  the  Temple,"  now  in  Dijon,  we  leave  in  their 
obscurity. 

Bronzino  (1503-1572) 22  was  really  Pontormo 's  only  pupil. 
And  it  is  one  of  fate's  strange  extravagances  that  for  centuries 

is  VII,  605. 

« Ibid.,  p.  657. 

is  Uffizi,  No.  1281. 

i«  Vasari,  VII,  716. 

IT  See  the  Catalogue  Kaisonng,  under  Palazzo  Vecchio,  Florence.  The  influence  of 
Pontormo 's  work  at  San  Lorenzo  may  be  seen  in  the  figure  of  a  bald,  bearded  saint  in  hia 
"Coronation  of  the  Virgin,"  in  Citta  di  Castello  (photo.  Alinari). 

is  Vasari,  VI,  7. 

i»76td.,  5-16,  259.  Milanesi  mistakes  Pichi  for  Giovanmaria  Butteri  (1550-1606) 
who  was  a  pupil  of  Bronzino  (VI,  6,  note).  Cf.  Baldinucci,  X,  144. 

20  Vasari  says  (VII,  608)  that  Cristofano  was  a  pupil  first  of  Pontormo  and  then 
of  Bronzino. 

21  Catalogo  della  pinacoteca  comunale  di  Cittd  di  Castello,  p.  7. 

22  Vasari,  VI,  6,  289;  VII,  593  f.     Bronzino  was,  according  to  Vasari  (IV,  241), 
originally  a  pupil  of  Eaffaellino  del  Garbo. 

95 


PONTORMO 

he  has  been  by  far  the  more  famous  of  the  two,  although  he  was 
infinitely  less  gifted  than  his  master.  But,  as  court  painter  he 
was  much  employed  by  the  Medici,  and  numerous  copies  of  his 
portraits  of  Cosimo  I,  of  Eleonora,  and  of  their  children, 
produced  in  his  "bottega,"  and  as  gifts  scattered  by  the  Grand 
Duke  and  his  descendants  all  over  Europe,  served  to  give 
Jacopo's  conscientious  disciple  a  renown  out  of  all  proportion 
to  his  merits.  His  reliable,  pedestrian  character  made  him  a 
favourite  with  Cosimo  and  his  satellites  who  preferred  to 
capricious  creativeness,  work  finished  with  diligence  and  dis- 
patch. But  every  fine  quality  —  dignity,  repose,  spaciousness, 
impressiveness,  and  simplicity  —  that  one  finds  in  the  best  of 
Bronzino 's  portraits  is  derived  directly  from  his  master's  art. 
In  the  "Portrait  of  Ugolino  Martelli,"  and  in  the  Panciatichi 
portraits,  our  contention  is  made  clear.  These,  by  their  elegance, 
by  their  intense  grasp  of  the  sitter's  psychology,  by  the  charm 
with  which  they  are  posed,  by  the  modelling  of  the  cheeks  and 
the  eyes,  and  by  the  large- jointed  bony  character  of  the  hands, 
owe  their  inspiration  to  Pontormo's  work  in  portraiture 
between  1518  and  1534.  A  glance  at  Pontormo's  "Portrait 
of  a  Lady  with  a  Volume  of  Verse,"  once  in  the  Yerkes 
Collection,  his  "Alessandro,"  in  Philadelphia,  the  "Portrait 
of  Youth,"  in  Genoa,23  his  drawing  of  an  artisan  in  the  Uffizi,24 
suffices  to  prove  our  point. 

After  1540  Bronzino  got  nothing  new  from  Jacopo.  He 
merely  hardened  the  formula  that  he  had  learned  between  1530 
and  1540  and  chilled  its  colour.  He  lost,  as  he  lost  touch  with 
Pontormo's  work,  the  insight  into  his  sitter's  character  he 
had  once  had.  Even  in  his  delightful  portraits  of  the  Medici 
children,  he  had  already  substituted  expression  for  interpre- 

23  How    closely    Bronzino 's    early    work    in    portraiture    resembled    Pontormo  'a    is 
strikingly  exemplified  by  his  portrait,  said  to  represent  the  Duchess  Anna  Strozzi   (wood, 
.73  x  .57,  with  the  inscription  A|LWI  above  and  to  the  right),  which  was  once  in  the 
Dollfus  Collection   (No.  46),  and  which  was  sold  in  1912  to  M.  du  Bonneval.     A  repro- 
duction of  this  panel  may  be  seen  in  the  Catalogue  des  tableaux  anciens;  Collections  de  M. 
Jean  Dollfus,  Paris,  1912,  p.  58.     The  same  intimate  relation  between  master  and  pupil 
may  be  observed  in  Bronzino 's  ' '  Portrait  of  a  Young  Woman, ' '  sold  at  the  Ehrich  Galleries, 
New  York,  on  March  21,  1906. 

24  Uffizi  6698.    Cf .  Dessins,  pp.  243  f . 

96 


HIS  LIFE  AND  WORK 

tation.  These  date  from  the  end  of  the  forties  and  the  beginning 
of  the  fifties.  By  1555  he  had  arrived  at  the  unresponsive 
stiffness  of  "Eleonora  and  Her  Son,"  now  in  the  Uffizi.  Out 
of  the  great  qualities  once  reflected  upon  him  he  had  evolved 
for  himself  a  permanent  manner. 

Bronzino's  early  religious  pictures  are  rare.  Like  his  early 
portraits  they  owe  all  their  interest  to  our  master.  His  later 
mythological  and  religious  paintings  are  quite  crassly  and 
confusedly  Michelangelesque. 

His  drawings  also  are  of  an  extreme  rarity.  In  addition 
to  those  pointed  out  by  Berenson,  I  have  identified  two  others, 
one25  for  the  " Deluge,"  in  the  Chapel  of  Eleonora,  in  the  Palazzo 
Vecchio,  the  other26  for  the  Infant  Jesus  of  the  Pitti  "Holy 
Family."  Both  date  from  after  1550.  They  are  dry,  tame, 
uncertain  variants  of  drawings  that  Jacopo  made  between  1535 
and  1545."  Even  Vasari  realized  how  poor  a  draughtsman 
Bronzino  was. 

Quite  other  was  Pontormo's  influence  upon  his  adopted 
son,  Battista  Naldini.  This  brilliant  young  draughtsman 
imitated  chiefly,  and  with  extraordinary  ease  and  bravura,  his 
master's  early  manner,  the  manner  which  sketches  for  the 
Visdomini  altar-piece  and  for  the  Borgherini  panels  illustrate 
most  decisively.  It  is  not  surprising,  then,  that  Pontormo's 
early  drawings  have  at  times28  been  confused  with  Naldini 's, 
or  that,  still  more  frequently,  Naldini 's29  have  been  catalogued 
as  Jacopo 's.  Other  sketches  of  Battista 's  have,  as  Berenson 
has  observed,  long  passed  as  Andrea's,  while  some  of  his 
red-chalk  studies  have  borne  even  Michelangelo's  name. 
After  1557,  when  Pontormo  was  no  longer  alive  to  counsel 
him,  Naldini 's  draughtsmanship  became  hideously  academic. 
His  paintings  are  painfully  feeble,  and  in  them  only  figures 

26  Uffizi  6704.    Cf.  Dessins,  pp.  248  f . 
2«  Uffizi  6639.    Cf .  Dessins,  p.  199. 

27  ma.,  pp.  49  f . 

28  Uffizi  7452.    Cf .  Dessins,  p.  281. 

2»  Uffizi  6524;  6566;  Louvre  1019 (?).  Cf.  Dessins,  pp.  130,  157,  328.  Naldini 
worked  at  one  time  with  Vasari  on  the  frescoes  of  the  Great  Hall  of  the  Palazzo  Vecchio. 
Cf .  Vasari,  VII,  99. 

97 


PONTORMO 

borrowed  here  and  there  from  Pontormo  indicate  attenuated 
traces  of  our  master's  practice. 

More  than  twenty-five  years  after  his  death,  Pontormo 's 
influence  was  also  felt  by  Empoli.  This  facile  workman  made 
various  copies  of  Jacopo's  pictures,  notably  of  the  Certosa 
frescoes  and  of  the  "Supper  at  Emmaus."  Still  later,  towards 
the  end  of  the  century,  Cigoli  now  and  then  imitated  our  painter, 
and  Andrea  Boscoli30  drew  inspiration  from  his  drawings  for 
many  a  sketch  of  his  own.31 

so  Two  drawings  (Uffizi  457  and  464)  by  Boscoli  have  been  falsely  attributed  to 
Pontormo.  Cf.  Dessins,  pp.  101,  106. 

31  Giovanni  Stradano  imitated  Pontormo  in  the  ' '  Nativity  of  the  Virgin, ' '  which 
he  painted  in  1583  in  the  chapel  of  the  Villa  Pazzi  at  Perugiano,  near  Montemurlo.  Cf.  a 
cut  in  the  Eassegna  d'  arte,  XIV  (1914),  p.  254.  Zacchia  of  Lucca  (d.  1561),  although 
generally  a  late  imitator  of  Fra  Bartolommeo,  shows  at  times,  as  in  his  ' '  Portrait  of  a 
Man, ' '  in  the  Louvre,  that  he  was  not  without  knowledge  of  Pontormo 's  work  in  portraiture. 


98 


PAINTINGS  AND  DRAWINGS  BY 
PONTORMO 


FIG.  1.    "THE   HOSPITAL  OF   SAN  MATTEO' 

ACADEMY,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  2.    MADONNA  AND  SAINTS 

CHAPEL  OF  SAN   LUCA,   SS.   ANNUNZIATA.    FLORENCE 


FIG.  5.    THE   VISITATION 

SS.  ANNUNZIATA,   FLORENCE 


H 


fe  rt 

<?  s 

^  h 

^  § 


FIG.  8.     STUDY  FOR  THE  BAPTIST  OF   THE  CARRO 
DELL  A  ZECCA 

UFFIZI    6581    VERSO,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  9.    STUDY  FOR  A  LOST  PIETA 

UFFIZI   6690  VERSO,    FLORENCE 


FIG.   10.    PORTRAIT   OF  AN   ENGRAVER  OF   PRECIOUS  STONES 

LOUVRE   1241,    PARIS 


FIG.   11.    STUDY  FOR  THE   LOST  SANTA  CECILIA  OF  THE   ORATORY  OF 
SANTA  CECILIA  IN  FIESOLE 

CORSINI    124161,    KOMK 


FIG.  12.    SKETCH   FOR  THE   LOST  SANTA  CECILIA  OF  THE  ORATORY  OF 
SANTA  CECILIA  IN  FIESOLE 

UFFIZI  6694,   FLORENCE 


FIG.  13.    MADONNA  AND  SAINTS 

SAN   MICHELK   VIBDOMINI,    FLORENCE 


*  £ 

2s 
so 

§8 
^> 

S  H 

W  ?J 
ffi  ffi 

^  o 

rt  s 
o 

fr  55 

M    < 

A  yi 

O 

b 

w 
M 


. 

ii 


FIG.  20.    STUDY   FOR  THE   MADONNA  AND   SAINTS  OF  SAX  MICHELE  VISDOMIM 

UFFIZI  654,   FLORENCE 


FIG.  21.    STUDY  FOR  THE  MADONNA  AND   SAINTS  OF  SAN  MICHELE  VISDOMINI 

UFFIZI  6662,     FLORENCE 


FIG.  22.    STUDY  FOR  THE  MADONNA  AND  SAINTS  OF 
SAN  MICHELE  VISDOMINI 

UFFIZI  6581,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  23.    STUDY  FOR  THE   MADONNA  AND   SAINTS  OF 
SAN  MICHELE  VISDOMINI 

UFFIZI   6744,    FLORENCE 


FIG.   24.     STUDY   FOR   A   LOST  MADONNA   AND   CHILD 

UFFIZI   6729,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  25.    STUDY  FOR  THE  JOSEPH   DISCOVERING 
HIMSELF  TO  HIS   BRETHREN 

IN   THE  COLLECTION   OF  LADY   DESBOROUGH,    PANSHANGER 
UFFIZI   6692,    FLORENCE 


FIG.   26.    JOSEPH   DISCOVERING   HIMSELF   TO   HIS    BRETHREN 

COLLECTION   OF   LADY   DKSBOROUGH,    PANSHANGKR 


FIG.  27.    THE   BAKER  LED  OUT  TO   EXECUTION- 
COLLECTION  OF  LADY  DESBOROUGH.    PANSHANGER 


'/_ 


DC  ;- 

SS 

g 


FIG.  30.  JOSEPH  SOLD  TO  POT1PHAR 

COLLECTION  OF  LADY  DESBOROUGH.  PANSHANGER 


FIG.  31.  STUDY  FOR  THE  JOSEPH  SOLD 
TO  POTIPHAR 


FIG.  32.  STUDY  FOR  THE  JOSEPH 
SOLD  TO  POTIPHAR 


L'FFIZI   6556,    FLORENCE 


t'HFIZI   6692   VERSO.    FLORENCE 


FIG  34.    STUDY  FOR  THE  ADORATION  OF   THK   MAGI 

UFFIZI   6722,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  35.    ST.  JOHN  THE   EVANGELIST 

SAN   MICHELE  IN   PONTORMO 


FIG.   36.    ST.   MICHAEL 

SAN   MICHELE  IN    PONTORMO 


FIG.  39.    STUDY  FOR  A   LOST  PIETA 

I'FFIZI   300   F,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  40.    STUDY  FOR   ST.   MICHAEL  OF  SAN   MICHELE 
IN  PONTORMO 

UFFIZI   6506,    FLORENCE 


FIG.   41.     PORTRAIT    OF   A   YOUTH 

PALAZZO    BIANCO   6.    GENOA 


FIG.  42.    PORTRAIT  OF  COSIMO   IL  VECCHIO 

UFFIZI,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  43.    STUDY  OF  THREE  NUDES 

UFFIZI  672,   FLORENCE 


,**** 


FIG.   46.     STUDY   OF  A   NUDE 

UFFm   6504.    FLORENCE 


FIG.  47.    THREE   SKETCHES  OF   A  NUDE 

UFFIZI   6516  VERSO.    FLORENCE 


FIG.   48.     PORTRAIT  OF  A   BOY 

TR1VULZIO   COLLKCTIOX,    MILAN 


FIG.  49.    STUDY  OF  A  YOUTH 

UFFIZI   6682.    FLORENCE 


FIG.  51.    RIGHT  HALF  OF  THE   LUNETTE 

IN    THE    MEDICEAN    VILLA    AT     POGGIO    A    CAJANO 


FIG.   52.     LEFT   HALF   OF   THE    LUNETTE 

IN  THE   MEDICEAN  VILLA  AT    POGGIO  A  CAJANO 


FIG.  53.  SKETCHES  FOR  THE  LUNETTE  AT  POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

UFFIEI   6660   VERSO,    FLORENCK 


FIG.  54.  SKETCHES  FOR  THE  LUNETTE  AT  POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

UFFIZI  6557,    FLORENCE 


I  i 

M 
S5 


FIG.  56.  SKETCH  FOR  THE  LUNETTE  AT  POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

UFFIZI   6514,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  57.  SKETCH  KOR  THE  LUNETTE  AT  POGGJO  A  CAJANO 

UFFI7.I   6515   VERSO,    FI-ORKNCE 


FIG.  59.    STUDY  FOR  THE   LUNETTE  AT  POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

UFFIZI  6544.    FLORENCE 


; '  u.  ~X_ 


i         *r 

^^y  w  } 

7 

*&Epr- 

* 


FIG.  60.    STUDY  FOR  THE   LUNETTE   AT  I'OGGIO  A  CAJANC 

UFFIZI    6555,    FLORENCE 


T!  r 


FIG.  63.  STUDY  FOR  THE  LUNETTE  AT  POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

UFFIZI    6531.    FLORENCE 


FIG.  64.    STUDY  FOR   THE   LUNETTE  AT   POGGIO 
A  CAJANO 

UFFIZI   6547,    FLORENCE 


,<•  -%*:.:• 


% 

;*•**, 


<    z 

^  M 


FIG.   69.     STUDY   FOR   THE    LUNETTE   AT   POGGIO   A   CAJANO 

UFFIZI   6651,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  70.    STUDY  FOR  THE   LUNETTE  AT  POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

UFFIZI   6559,    FLORENCE 


\v , 


~ 


FIG.    71.     STUDY   FOR   THE    LUNETTE   AT   I'OGGIO  A   CAJAXO 

ri--FI7.I    6685    RECTO,    FLOKKNtK 


.•»•. 


FIG.  72.    STUDY  FOR  THE  LUNETTE  AT  POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

UFFIZI  6579,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  75.    STUDY  OF  A  NUDE 

UFFIZI  6727   RECTO,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  76.    STUDY  FOR  A  YOUNG  BAPTIST  IN  THE   WILDERNESS 

UFFIZI  6597,     FLORENCE 


FIG.   77.     STUDY    OF   THREE    NUDES 

STAEDEL   INSTITUTE  4288.    FRANKFORT 


«    E 


~    - 


S    S 


FIG.  85.  SKETCH  FOR  A  PROJECTED  NAILING  TO  THE  CROSS  IN  THE  CLOISTER 
OF  THE  CERTOSA,  NEAR  FLORENCE 

UFFIZI    6671.    FLOREXCi: 


STUDY   FOR   A   PROJECTED   NAILING   TO   THE   CROSS   IX   THE   CLOISTER 
OF  THE   CERTOSA.    NEAR    FLORENCE 

UFFIZI    6665,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  87.  STUDY  FOR  THE  ANGEL  OF  THE 

ANNUNCIATION  IN  THE  CAPPONI  CHAPEL 

OF  SANTA  FELICITA,  FLORENCE 

UFFIZI    6653.    FLORENCE 


FIG.  92.    THE   DEPOSITION 

CAPPONI  CHAPEL,    SANTA   FELICITA,    FLORENCE 


O 
H 

H 
H 

fo     w 
0    g 


Q         N 


~  a, 

5  ^ 
"  B 

S°     « 
55 1-1     u 

^ 


O  t-1 
S  oo 


FIG.   99.     STUDY   FOR   THE    DEPOSITION   OF  THE   CAPPONI 
CHAPEL 

UFFIZI   6619,    FLORENCE 


FIG.    100.     STUDY   FOR   THE    DEPOSITION   OF   THE 
CAPPONI  CHAPEL 

UFFIZI   6576   RECTO,    FLORENCE 


;  -'' 


FIG.  101.    STUDY  FOR  A  PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUNG  GIRL 

UFFIZI  449.  FLORENCE 


FIG.  102.    STUDIES  FOR  A  PORTRAIT   OF  A   BOY 

UFFIXI   6667.  FLORENCE 


FIG.  103.    THE  MADONNA.   CHILD  AND  LITTLE   ST.  JOHN 

PALAZZO   CORSINI    141.  FLORENCE 


FIG.  104.    THE   MADONNA,  ST.  ANNE  AND   FOUR   SAINTS 

LOUVRE   1240,  PARIS 


FIG.  105.    STUDY  FOR  THE  MADONNA,  ST.  ANNE  AND  FOUR  SAINTS,  IN  THK  LOUVRE 

UFFI/.I  460,    I-'I.ORKNCE 


FIG.  106.    THE   MARTYRDOM  OF  ST.  MAURICE 

PALAZZO   PITTI   182,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  107.    THE  MARTYRDOM  OF  ST.  MAURICE 

UFFIZI     1187,    FLORENCE 


FIG.  108.    STUDY  FOR  A  VARIANT  OF  THE  MARTYRDOM  OF  ST.  MAURICE 

MUSEUM  21253,  HAMBURG 


FIG.  109.    STUDY   FOR  A   ST.  JEROME 

UFFIZI  441,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  110.    STUDY  OF  A  NUDE  WOMAN 

UFFIZI  441    VERSO.  FLORENCE 


2  o 

2  fc 

EH  O 

"«  5 

E"1  S 


FIG.  115.    PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH 

PINACOTECA  75,  LUCCA 


Or 


Q 

5 

6  8 

M 
N 


. 
£       D 


FIG.  120.     STUDY  FOR  A  PORTRAIT  OF  A  SOLDIER 

UFFIZI   463  F,  FLORENCE 


a 
Q 
p 

Z       w 
<       % 

i 

§     8 


«     S 


-:    fe 

M         p 


FIG.  123.    VENUS   AND   CUPID 

UFFIZI    1284,  FLORENCK 


FIG.  124.     PORTRAIT   OF  ALESSANDRO   DE'  MEDICI 

JOHNSON    COLLECTION    83,  PHILADELPHIA 


FIG.  125.    PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

PALA7.ZO   PITTI   249,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  126.  PORTRAIT  OF  BARTOLOMEO  COMPAGNI 

STIRLING    COLLECTION,  KEIR,  DUNBLANE.  SCOTLAND 


FIG.  127.    PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUNG  WOMAN 

STAKDEL    INSTITUTE    14  A,  FRANKFORT 


FIG.  128.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUNG  WOMAN 

VON    DIKKSKX   COLLECTION,  BERLIN 


FIG.  129.  PORTRAIT  OF  A  WOMAN  IN  GREEN 

AUGUSTEUM  19,  OLDENBURG 


FIG.  130.    PORTRAIT  OF  THE  CARDINAL    SPANNOCCHI  CERVINI 

BORGHESE   GALLERY   408,  ROMIJ 


FIG.  131.  PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY  WITH  A  VOLUME  OF  VERSE 

FORMER    YERKES  COLLECTION 


FIG.  132.    PROBABLE   STUDY  FOR  ONE   OF  THE   LOST 

ALLEGORICAL    FIGURES    IN    THE     LOGGIA    OF    THE 

MEDICEAN  VILLA  AT  CASTELLO 

UFFIZI   6584,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  133.     PROBABLE    STUDY    FOR    ONE    OF   THE    LOST    ALLEGORICAL 
FIGURES  IN  THE   LOGGIA  OF  THE    MEDICEAN    VILLA  AT   CASTELLO 

UFFIZI   6586,  FLORENCE 


ft*    03 


Q    fa  O 

<  £ 

Z,  o 

K  w  a. 


FIG.  138.    STUDY  FOR  THE  LOST  CHRIST  IN   GLORY  IN  SAN  LORENZO, 

FLORENCE 

UFFIZI  6609,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  139.    STUDY  FOR  THE  LOST  MOSES  RECEIV 
ING  THE  LAW  IN  SAN  LORENZO,  FLORENCE 

UFFIZI  6749,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  140.  STUDY  FOR  THE  LOST  FOUR  EVAN- 
GELISTS IN  SAN  LORENZO,  FLORENCE 

UFFIZI  6750,  FLORENCE 


i 


F1G    141.    STUDY  FOR  THE  LOST  SACRIFICE  OF  CAIN  AND  DEATI 
OF  ABEL  IN  SAN  LORENZO,  FLORENCE 


UFF1ZI  6739,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  144.  STUDY  FOR  THE  LOST  DELUGE  IN  SAN  LORENZO,  FLORENCE 

UFFIZI   6753,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  145.  STUDY  FOR  THE  LOST  DELUGE  IN  SAN  LORENZO,  FLORENCE 

UFFIZI  6752,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  146.  STUDY  FOR  THE  LOST  DELUGE  IN  SAN  LORENZO,  FLORENCE 

UFFIZI   6528.  FLORENCE 


FIG.  147.    STUDY   FOR  THE    LOST  ASCENT  INTO 
HEAVEN   IN   SAN  LORENZO,  FLORENCE 

ACADEMY,  VENICE 


FIG.  149.     STUDY    FOR    A    FIGURE    IN    ONE    OF    THE    LOST    FRESCOES    IN 
SAN  LORENZO,  FLORENCE 

UFFIZI   6679,  FLORENCE 


FIG.  150.    PORTRAIT  OF  AN  OLD  LADY 

BELVEDERE    48,    VIENNA 


FIG.  151.    PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

JACQUEMART-ANDRK   COLLECTION.    PARIS 


FIG.  152.    PAGE  4  OF  PONTORMO'S  DIARY 

BIBLIOTECA   NAZIONALE.   FLORENCE 


FIG.  153.     STUDY    FOR    THE     FIGURE    IN    THE     LOST    FRESCOES    OF 

SAN   LORENZO  MENTIONED   IN   THE   LAST   LINE   OF 

PAGE  4  OF  PONTORMO'S   DIARY 

UFFIZI   6760,  FLORENCE 


CATALOGUE  RAISONNE 

OF 
AUTHENTIC  FRESCOES  AND  PICTURES 


CATALOGUE  RAISONNE 

OF 
AUTHENTIC  FRESCOES  AND  PICTURES 

ASHBOURNE  NEAR  PHILADELPHIA 

Widener  Collection 

172.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

Half-length;  turned  slightly  to  the  left.  She  has  a  fair  complexion, 
dark  brown  eyes  that  look  at  the  spectator ;  her  yellowish  brown  hair  is  rolled 
up  in  a  black  net  with  pearl  ornaments.  She  wears  a  bottle-green  dress  cut 
low  with  puffed  sleeves  and  a  muslin  fichu.  A  necklace  of  black  stones  and  a 
gold  chain  hang  round  her  shoulders;  over  her  left  ear  she  has  placed  a 
carnation ;  in  her  lap  sits  a  small  greyish  white  terrier.  The  background  is  a 
shallow  niche,  grey  to  the  left  and  behind  her  left  shoulder,  and  black  over  her 
right  shoulder  and  to  the  extreme  right. 

Oil  on  wood  (heavily  cradled).    H.  .56,  w.  44. 

From  the  collection  of  the  Duke  Sigismund  Frantz,  Castle 
Ambras  (Austria)  ;  acquired  as  a  Bronzino ;  first  correctly 
ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Berenson.  The  modelling  of  the  eye, 
the  nostrils  and  the  mouth,  as  well  as  the  very  characteristic 
shape  of  the  ear,  vividly  recall  the  " Portrait  of  a  Lady,"  in  the 
Jacquemart-Andre  Collection.  The  little  dogs  of  these  two 
pictures  resemble  one  another  closely.  A  portrait  having 
certain  affinities  with  the  present  panel  and  ascribed  correctly 
to  Bronzino  formed  part  of  the  Fischhof  Collection  (Catalogue 
de  Tableaux  composant  la  Collection  de  M.  Eugene  Fischhof, 
Georges  Petit,  1913,  p.  124;  fig.,  p.  125). 

Condition :  repainted  on  the  face,  neck,  and  shoulders. 
Date:  1534-1545. 

101 


PONTORMO 

Reprod.    Photo,  for  the  collector;  catalogue  cited  below,  pi.  facing  p.  172. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  of  Paintings  Forming  the  Private  Collection  of 
P.  A.  B.  Widener,  Ashbourne,  Near  Philadelphia,  Paris :  Manzi,  Joyant  &  Co., 
1900,  II,  172. 

BERGAMO 

Morelli  Collection 

59.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH 

Bust  figure  turned  three-quarters  left.  He  is  beardless  and  has  brown 
curly  hair,  thin  arched  eyebrows,  wide-set  hazel  eyes,  the  right  slightly  smaller 
than  the  left,  thickish  nose  and  pouting  lips,  and  a  large-lobed  ear.  He  wears 
a  black  velvet  cap,  doublet  and  embroidered  linen  collar.  Background, 
greenish  grey. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .46,  w.  .37. 

Provenance  unknown.  Morelli  believed  it  to  be  a  portrait 
of  Baccio  Bandinelli  because  of  its  resemblance  to  a  print  said 
to  represent  the  sculptor.  His  identification  seems  to  be 
unfounded.  Bandinelli  was  born,  according  to  the  Libro  de' 
Battezzati,  on  October  7,  1488,  or,  according  to  Libro  III 
deir  Eta,  on  November  12,  1493.  Therefore,  if  the  panel  is  a 
likeness  of  Bandinelli  it  must  have  been  executed  between  1506 
and  1511,  since  the  person  it  represents  can  hardly  have  been 
more  than  eighteen  when  it  was  painted.  The  picture  is,  how- 
ever, a  strikingly  characteristic  example  of  Jacopo's  work  in 
portraiture  between  1528  and  1532.  Bandinelli  was  then  at  least 
thirty-five  or  at  most  forty-four  years  of  age. 

Condition :  excellent ;  slightly  retouched  about  the  forehead  and  the  hair. 

Date:  1528-1532. 

Eeprod.  Fig.  116;  photo.  Taramelli  305;  photo.  Istituto  d'Arti 
Grafiche;  fig.,  Frizzoni,  Gallerie  dell'  Accademia  Carrara,  Bergamo,  1907, 
p.  67 ;  small  cut,  Reinach,  Reper.,  Ill,  756. 

Bibl.  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  174;  Frizzoni,  La  Galleria  Morelli  in  Bergamo, 
Bergamo,  1892,  p.  18 ;  idem,  catalogue  cited  above. 


102 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

BERLIN 

Von  Dirksen  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

Three-quarter  length.  She  is  seated  on  a  marble  seat  against  a  wall; 
the  torse  and  legs  turned  three-quarters  left,  the  head  three-quarters  right; 
the  knees  crossed.  Her  left  elbow  rests  on  a  raised  ledge,  her  left  hand 
touching  the  elaborately  woven  cord  of  her  belt  that  lies  across  her  lap ;  her 
right  hand  rests  upon  her  knees  and  holds  a  small  book,  the  index  finger 
between  the  leaves.  Her  hair  is  parted  in  the  middle  and,  brushed  back 
smoothly  from  the  forehead,  is  wound  around  the  back  of  the  head  in  a  thick 
roll  covered  with  a  jewelled  net  ornamented  with  a  small  brooch  at  the  centre. 
In  front  of  this  net  a  chased  gold  fillet  encircles  the  head.  She  wears  a  gown 
cut  square  at  the  neck,  with  large  puffed  sleeves.  These  are  of  velvet  from 
elbow  to  wrist,  close-fitting  and  trimmed  with  two  bands  of  fur ;  a  little  ruche 
at  the  wrist.  The  bodice  is  trimmed  with  velvet  bands.  The  neck  and 
shoulders  are  covered  by  a  white  chemisette  with  an  embroidered  collar  tied 
with  a  small  black  ribbon.  Around  her  neck,  a  knotted  chain  from  which 
hangs  a  little  cross.  Around  her  waist,  and  falling  across  her  lap,  a  girdle 
with  intricate  knots  and  tassel.  The  book  has  ribbon  clasps.  On  the  lower 
ledge  of  the  bench  to  the  right,  a  pair  of  gloves  decorated  with  little  bows. 
The  background,  a  shallow  niche  with  a  pilaster  on  either  side. 

This  portrait  is  closely  related,  in  general  conception, 
composition  and  modelling,  to  the  "Portrait  of  a  Young  Woman 
with  a  Dog,"  in  the  Stadel  Institute,  in  Frankfort,  but  in  spirit 
it  is  graciously  wistful  while  the  latter  is  robustly  frank. 

Date :  1534-1545. 
Reprod.    Fig.  128. 
Bibl.    B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  174. 


BOLDRONE 


WAY-SIDE  SHRINE 


In  the  centre,  raised  above  the  other  figures,  the  Christ  crucified.  His 
hair  is  auburn,  his  loin-cloth,  purple,  the  cross,  bright  yellow.  To  the  right 
of  the  cross  stands  St.  John  turned  three-quarters  left,  his  head  nearly  full 
face,  his  right  arm  extended  downward  at  his  side,  his  left  slightly  raised; 
weight  on  the  right  leg,  the  left  leg  bent.  He  wears  a  full  purple  mantle. 
To  his  right,  St.  Augustine,  torse  full  face,  his  head  turned  three-quarters 
left;  in  his  right  hand,  a  red  crosier;  in  his  left,  a  red  book.  He  wears  a 
voluminous  light  green  vestment  with  purple  tunic.  To  the  left  Mary  stands, 

103 


PONTORMO 

turned  three-quarters  right,  her  hands  clasped.  Her  robe  is  light  purple. 
To  her  left,  St.  Julian,  torse  nearly  full  face,  his  head  in  profile  looking  up 
at  the  Crucified.  He  holds  in  his  right  hand  a  great  sword  the  point  of  which 
rests  on  the  ground.  His  hair  is  brown,  his  ample  mantle,  red  with  yellow 
sleeves. 

Fresco.  The  altar  wall  is  1.70  wide,  the  side-walls,  which  meet  it  at  an 
angle  of  about  30°,  are  1.18  wide.  The  Christ,  Mary  and  St.  John  occupy 
the  altar  wall,  the  other  two  saints,  a  side-wall  each. 

Near  Florence,  above  Quarto,  at  the  corner  of  Via  dell'Os- 
servatorio,  Via  Andrea  del  Sarto  and  Via  Domenico  Cirillo. 
Mentioned  by  Vasari  who  implies  that  this  shrine  was  under- 
taken shortly  after  Pontormo  finished  the  Capponi  Chapel.  In 
the  figures  he  finds  a  trace  of  Jacopo's  German  manner.  The 
composition  is  however  of  a  simplicity  quite  unlike  the  Passion 
frescoes,  although  the  types  recall  those  of  the  Certosa. 

Condition :  ruined  in  Milanesi  's  time ;  broken  open  and  uncared  for  now ; 
in  a  few  years  no  trace  of  it  will  be  left. 

Date :  1526-1527. 

Drawing:  possible  sketch  (reversed)  for  the  Madonna,  Uffizi  459  verso. 

Documents :  We  do  not  know  who  paid  for  this  work.  It  is,  of  course, 
not  impossible  that  the  neighbouring  Benedictine  nuns  may  have  given  Jacopo 
the  commission,  but  I  have  examined  the  following  records  of  their  monastery 
(San  Giovanni  Evangelista  di  Boldrone)  without  finding  any  reference  to 
this  fresco :  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  32,  Giornale  2, 1513-1526 ;  3,  1523-1554;  4, 1535- 
1542 ;  Entrata  e  Uscita,  20,  1503-1513 ;  21,  1526-1534 ;  Debitori  e  Creditori,  47, 
1528-1548;  Contratti,  60,  1502-1774;  61,  1529-1665;  Ricordi,  76,  1528-1564. 

Reprod.  Photo.  F.  M.  C. ;  the  San  Giuliano  is  reproduced  in  Gold- 
schmidt's  Pontormo,  Rosso  und  Bronzino. 

Bibl.    Vasari,  VI,  272;  Dessins,  pp.  35,  70,  103. 


BONN 

Provinzial  Museum 
University  Collection 

214.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUNG  MAN 

A  little  less  than  life-size;  nearly  half-length;  turned  three-quarters 
left.  He  is  beardless  with  traces  of  a  moustache  and  wears  a  four-cornered 
brown-black  hat  and  a  greyish  black  coat.  Behind  him  hangs  a  green  curtain 
looped  up  on  the  right.  The  background,  a  warm  dark  grey. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .61,  w.  .43  (catalogue,  h.  .63,  w.  .44). 

104 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Provenance  unknown;  bequeathed  with  the  Solly  Collec- 
tion (1821)  to  the  University;  once  exhibited  in  Berlin  (No. 
239) .  The  colour  should  be  compared  with  that  of  the  ' '  Portrait 
of  a  Precious-Stone  Engraver,"  in  the  Louvre.  The  present 
panel  is  considered  by  Berenson  and  Bryan  to  be  a  portrait 
of  Andrea  del  Sarto  but  there  is  no  ground  for  such  an  identi- 
fication. Andrea's  features  are  well  known  from  his  numerous 
portraits  of  himself.  This  portrait  can  not  have  been  painted 
earlier  than  1517  and  the  personage  represented  does  not  appear 
to  be  more  than  twenty  years  old.  Andrea  was  twenty  in  1506. 

Condition :  darkened  by  successive  varnishings  but  otherwise  undamaged. 

Date:  about  1517. 

Bibl.  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  174  (under  Berlin) ;  Fuhrer  durch  das  Provin- 
zialmuseum  in  Bonn,  Bonn,  1913,  II,  71 ;  Katalog  der  Gemaldegalerie,  Bonn, 
1914,  pp.  102  f. ;  P.  Knapp,  Das  Florentiner  Cinquecento,  p.  8;  Waagen, 
Verzeichnis  der  Gemalde-Sammlung  des  koniglichen  Museums  zu  Berlin, 
1841,  p.  101 ;  cf.  also  the  Berlin  catalogues  of  1883  and  1898. 


BORGO  SAN  SEPOLCRO 
Municipio 

ST.  QUENTIN 

Nude  figure  turned  slightly  to  the  left.  His  arms  are  raised ;  his  haloed 
head  gazes  up ;  his  hands  and  feet  are  fixed  in  a  pillory  and  a  long  spike  is 
driven  through  his  body  from  the  right  side  of  the  neck;  spikes  are  also 
driven  under  the  nails  of  each  hand.  His  loin-cloth  is  red.  The  standards 
of  the  pillory  are  brown  and  are  locked  with  hinges  to  the  base.  On  the 
crosspiece  that  holds  his  feet  is  inscribed :  S.  QVINTINVS.  The  background 
is  a  landscape  of  trees  and  hills.  To  the  extreme  right  a  tiny  figure,  in  red 
tights  and  red  hat,  climbs  a  hill.  He  holds  a  spear  and  points  at  the  spectator. 
To  the  left  an  old  man,  who  leans  upon  a  cross,  walks  away  towards  the  right. 

Oil  on  coarse  canvas.    H.  1.63,  w.  1.03. 

Mentioned  by  Vasari.  This  picture,  which  was  begun  by 
Giovanmaria  Pichi  for  the  OsservamM.  of  Borgo  San  Sepolcro, 
was  so  completely  rehandled  by  Pontormo  that,  except  in  the 
painting  of  the  scaffold  and  the  loin-cloth,  we  can  hardly 
distinguish  any  other  touch  than  his.  It  was  originally  hung 
in  the  church  of  San  Francesco  in  Borgo  San  Sepolcro  but, 

105 


PONTOEMO 

when  the   Osservanza  was  suppressed  in  1880-1882,   it  was 
transported  to  the  Municipio. 

Condition:  stretched  somewhat  out  of  shape;  torn  across  the  top  and 
sewn  together;  badly  cracked  under  the  saint's  arm;  the  surface  chipped  off 
here  and  there. 

Date :  about  1526. 

Drawing:  for  the  head  of  the  saint,  a  pen  and  bistre  sketch  of  great 
promptitude  of  hand,  Uffizi  6647  verso  (fig.  91;  photo.  Houghton),  which 
Berenson  thinks  was  drawn  for  the  Madonna  of  the  "Deposition"  at  Santa 
Felicita. 

Documents:  The  earliest  books  of  the  convent,  still  preserved,  date 
from  1797. 

Reprod.    Fig.  90  (detail) ;  photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  259;  B.  F.  D.,  II,  148;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  174;  Dessins, 
p.  203 ;  On  Certain  Drawings,  p.  13. 


CARMIGNANO 

Parish  Church 


VISITATION 


On  the  right:  Elizabeth,  profile  to  left,  in  light  green  dress,  orange 
mantle  verging  on  pink  in  the  shadow,  head-dress  cream-colour  with  green 
lights.  Next  to  Elizabeth  and  to  the  left :  the  head  of  a  woman  seen  facing ; 
drapery,  olive-green.  Facing  Elizabeth,  and  profile  to  right:  the  Virgin; 
reddish  hair,  mantle  blue-green,  head-dress  and  sleeve  light  pink  passing  over 
into  purple.  Behind  the  Virgin  and  to  the  left:  a  woman  facing;  light  red 
hair,  pinkish  purple  mantle,  dark  green  scarf  on  head  and  right  shoulder, 
sleeve  a  lighter  green.  Background:  a  street  with  palaces;  on  the  right, 
slate-colour  below,  pinkish  grey  above.  On  the  left :  palaces  of  purplish  grey, 
on  a  bench  in  front  of  which  two  tiny  figures  seated. 
Oil  on  wood.  H.  2.02,  w.  1.56. 

On  the  second  altar,  to  the  right  on  entering  the  church. 
This  panel  is  not  mentioned  by  Vasari.  It  was  painted  in  all 
probability  for  the  Pinadori  who  had  great  estates  around 
Cannignano  and  who  are  frequently  cited  in  the  account-books 
of  the  Medici  and  in  those  of  the  Hospital  of  the  Innocents. 
It  formerly  hung,  it  would  seem,  in  their  villa  (Bocchi,  ed. 
Cinelli,  p.  286).  The  composition  was  perhaps  suggested  by 
Diirer's  "Die  Vier  Nackten  Frauen"  (1497)  ;  the  St.  Eliza- 
beth, by  his  "Nemesis"  reversed.  The  features  of  the  woman 

106 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

whose  head  we  see  between  the  Virgin  and  St.  Elizabeth  recalls 
Pontormo's  "Portrait  of  an  Old  Lady,"  now  in  Vienna  (No. 
48)  —  a  portrait  which  is  however  later  than  the  present  panel. 

Condition:  excellent;  practically  untouched,  although  slightly  dimmed 
with  altar-smoke. 

Date:  1528-1530. 

Drawing:  finished  study  for  the  whole  composition,  Uffizi  461  (fig.  112; 
photo.  Philpots  1391;  Alinari  687;  F.  M.  C. ;  fig.,  article  cited  below,  p.  15). 

Reprod.  Fig.  Ill;  photo.  Reali;  fig.,  article  cited  below;  fig.,  Gold- 
schmidt,  op.  cit. 

Bibl.  Bocchi,  p.  286;  Gamba,  Rivista  d'arte,  II  (1904),  13-18;  B.  F. 
P.  R.,  p.  174;  Dessins,  pp.  1041 


CERTOSA 

San  Lorenzo  al  Monte 

THE  AGONY  IN  THE  GARDEN 

On  the  left  Christ  kneels,  seen  from  behind,  dressed  in  a  reddish  purple 
mantle.  To  the  left  and  right  of  him,  St.  James  and  St.  John;  in  the  fore- 
ground, St.  Peter.  Peter  wears  a  pale  blue  shirt,  John,  a  yellowish  green 
shirt  and  wine-coloured  mantle,  James,  a  yellow  shirt  and  Venetian  red 
mantle.  To  the  right,  a  group  of  soldiers  led  by  Judas  who  has  red  hair  and 
wears  a  Venetian  red  mantle.  The  crowd,  which  is  made  up  of  white,  red, 
and  purple  helmets  and  caps,  is  brought  out  by  touches  of  the  same  purple 
as  Christ's  robe.  The  background  is  a  pale  yellow-green  hilly  country 
crowned,  on  the  left  by  a  castle  which  is  yellow  catching  the  light,  on  the 
right  by  towers,  battlements,  houses,  and  walls  of  a  drab-grey  colour. 

Fresco.    Arched,  h.  3.00,  w.  2.90. 

In  the  large  cloister,  at  the  near  end  (on  entering)  of  the 
left  side-wall  and  next  to  the  "Christ  before  Pilate."  Vasari 
says  that  the  present  fresco  was  the  first  that  Pontormo  painted 
at  Certosa  and  that  in  it  he  attempted  an  effect  of  moonlight 
with  excellent  results.  Vasari  found,  however,  that  in  the 
figures  Jacopo's  earlier  manner  was  obscured  by  his  imitation 
of  Diirer.  Closer  study  does,  in  fact,  reveal  that  the  composition 
is  practically  identical  with  that  of  Diirer 's  woodcut  "Christus 
am  Oelberg"  (1509-1511).  The  background  is  perhaps  an 
idealized  view  of  the  Porta  Romana  of  Florence. 

107 


PONTORMO 

Condition:  Even  by  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century  (Borghini, 
ed.  1730,  p.  394,  n.  2)  all  of  Pontormo's  work  in  the  cloister  of  the  Certosa 
had  already  suffered  much  from  the  weather.  The  present  composition  is 
now  more  deplorably  ruined  and  repainted  than  any  of  the  other  frescoes. 
The  plaster  has  fallen  in  a  number  of  places. 

Date :  1522-1523. 

Documents :  According  to  Giornale  L.  payments  were  made  to  Pontormo 
by  the  monks  of  the  Certosa  on  the  following  dates:  February  28,  1524; 
April  16,  1524;  September  20,  1524;  December  3,  1524;  October  30,  1525; 
June  4,  1525 ;  August  12,  1525 ;  November  15,  1526 ;  January  4,  1526 ;  April 
15,  1526;  July  3,  1526;  November  14,  1526;  December  5,  1527.  These  pay- 
ments are  noted  in  Debitori  e  Creditori  and  in  Quaderno  F.  under  other  dates. 
See  Appendix  II,  Docs.  14,  15  and  16. 

Reprod.  Small  copy  (oil  on  canvas)  by  Empoli,  Ufficio  delle  Belle  Arti, 
Florence ;  photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  266-269;  VII,  594,  605;  Moreni,  Notizie  Istoriche, 
parte  seconda,  p.  153;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  394;  Cruttwell, 
Florentine  Churches,  p.  77 ;  Dessins,  pp.  20,  33,  35,  38,  50,  52,  69,  91,  96,  97, 
105,  134,  135,  140,  145,  154,  165,  187,  192,  198,  201,  204,  207,  209,  210,  216, 
223,  246,  247,  328,  333. 

CHRIST  BEFORE  PILATE 

In  the  centre  Christ  stands  almost  profile  left,  his  hands  bound  behind 
him.  He  has  red  hair  and  wears  a  light  violet  mantle.  To  the  left,  Pilate 
seated,  turned  three-quarters  right,  his  right  arm  on  the  arm  of  his  chair, 
his  left  hand  outstretched  towards  the  Christ;  he  wears  a  dark  yellow  robe, 
with  a  Veronese  green  band  and  a  white  turban ;  a  red  mantle  is  thrown  over 
the  chair.  Behind  him,  his  wife,  almost  facing,  her  head  almost  profile  left, 
her  right  hand  raised,  pointing  to  Christ ;  she  wears  a  Veronese  green  dress, 
a  white  head-dress  and  scarf  over  the  shoulders.  On  her  right  and  behind 
Pilate,  the  head  and  shoulders  of  a  man  dressed  in  a  red  jacket  and  violet 
cap.  On  her  left  stands  a  man  also  pointing  to  Christ;  he  is  dressed  in  a 
purple  mantle  with  lighter  purple  collar  and  linings,  red  sleeves  and  red 
cap.  Behind  Christ  on  the  right,  a  man  facing,  his  right  arm  stretched  out 
towards  Pilate ;  he  wears  a  Veronese  green  cloak,  yellow  vest  and  hat.  Farther 
to  the  right,  two  soldiers  in  white  armour  with  golden  weapons.  Behind  these, 
two  men,  one  to  the  left  wears  a  pale  violet  hat,  reddish  purple  cloak  and 
sleeve  with  yellow  undersleeve,  one  to  the  right  a  red  mantle,  purple  vest 
and  light  violet  turban.  At  the  feet  of  the  latter,  at  the  extreme  right,  a 
soldier  crouching  with  a  shield.  In  the  foreground,  seen  from  behind  and 
to  the  waist,  two  soldiers  in  white  armour,  carrying  halberds.  The  back- 
ground is  a  stone  staircase  ending  in  a  balustrade;  there  are  parapets  on 
either  side  of  pale  yellowish  green.  At  the  top  of  the  stairs  a  man  descends 
bearing  a  golden  ewer  and  basin;  he  is  dressed  in  a  yellow  jerkin,  violet 
breeches,  Veronese  green  cap  and  white  scarf.  Behind  the  balustrade  to  the 
right,  a  man  and  woman,  the  former  dressed  in  a  reddish  brown  cloak  and 
blue-grey  jacket,  the  latter  in  a  green  dress  and  white  head-dress.  The  sky 
is  a  grey-blue.  All  the  flesh  tones,  a  warm  brown. 

Fresco.    Arched,  h.  3.00,  w.  2.90. 

108 


AUTHENTIC  PICTUKES 

At  the  extreme  left  end  (on  entering)  of  the  entrance  wall. 
This  is  the  best  preserved  of  the  Passion  frescoes  and  it  is  the 
only  one  mentioned  by  Berenson.  It  was,  according  to  Vasari, 
the  second  that  Pontormo  painted  in  the  cloister.  In  the  cup- 
bearer Vasari  saw  something  of  Jacopo's  old  manner.  We 
might  notice  that  the  soldiers  at  the  extreme  left  are  very  like 
the  "St.  Quentin"  of  Borgo  San  Sepolcro.  The  following 
figures  are  derived  from  Diirer :  the  soldiers  in  the  foreground, 
from  "Die  Badstube"  (c.  1496)  ;  Pilate,  from  the  King  in  "Die 
Marter  des  Evangelisten  Johannes"  (1498)  ;  for  the  figures  on 
the  steps,  cf.  "Marias  Erster  Tempelgang"  (1506). 

Condition:  repainted.  The  white  colour  of  the  armour  may  be  due  to 
an  old  scaling  of  the  surface. 

Date :  1523-1524. 

Documents:  cf.  the  preceding. 

Reprod.  Fig.  79;  small  copy  (oil  on  canvas)  by  Empoli,  Ufficio  delle 
Belle  Arti,  Florence ;  photo.  F.  M.  C. ;  fig.,  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit. 

Bibl.    Cf.  the  preceding. 

THE  WAY  TO  GOLGOTHA 

In  the  foreground  right,  Christ  falls  under  the  weight  of  the  cross;  he 
wears  a  robe  of  two  shades  of  wine-colour.  In  the  foreground  left,  St.  Veronica 
kneels  and  bends  towards  the  Christ  as  she  holds  out  to  him  the  sacred  cloth ; 
she  wears  a  skirt  of  dark  wine-colour  with  yellow  lights,  violet  sleeves,  a 
Veronese  green  scarf  shot  with  grey,  a  pink  cap  and  steel-coloured  band.  In 
the  lower  left  corner,  the  head  and  shoulders  of  a  figure  dressed  in  a  light 
wine-coloured  bodice  and  a  white  and  green  head-dress.  Above  St.  Veronica, 
tfie  executioner,  who  leads  Christ  by  a  cord  passed  around  his  waist,  stands 
facing ;  he  has  yellow  hair  and  is  dressed  in  a  wine-coloured  tunic  with  yellow 
lining  and  a  Veronese  green  cap  turned  out  with  violet.  To  his  left  and 
bending  forward,  a  soldier  in  Veronese  green  hose  slashed  with  blue-white, 
a  yellow  jerkin  shot  with  red,  puffed  sleeves  slashed  from  the  elbows  down, 
yellow  over  white.  Behind  the  last  named  figure,  a  man,  with  golden  hair 
tied  with  a  white  band,  dressed  in  a  bright  red  tunic  with  a  violet  girdle. 
Behind  the  latter,  a  youth  leaning  forward,  staff  in  hand ;  his  hair  is  golden, 
his  cap  Veronese  green,  his  jerkin  purplish  red.  Behind  the  group  just 
described,  the  two  thieves  nude  and  seen  from  behind.  In  front  of  them,  a  man 
on  horseback,  his  horse  light  bay,  his  mantle  Veronese  green,  his  cap  red  and 
green,  his  saddle  red.  On  his  right,  a  man  on  a  white  horse  who  turns  towards 
the  spectator;  he  wears  a  violet  tunic,  light  red  sleeves  and  saddle,  wine- 
coloured  mantle,  green  turban.  Behind  him  to  the  right,  half  hidden  by  a 
green  mound,  a  group  of  women:  the  Madonna  dressed  in  pale  purple  with 
a  white  head-dress;  to  her  right,  a  woman  with  hand  raised  to  her  face  who 
is  blond  and  wears  a  green  bodice  and  red  skirt;  to  the  left  of  the  Virgin, 
a  woman  weeping,  her  head  bent  on  her  arms ;  she  is  dressed  in  a  red  mantle 

109 


PONTORMO 

with  red  sleeves;  behind  the  latter,  other  women's  heads  in  white  head- 
dresses. Behind  and  to  the  right  of  the  man  who  leads  Christ,  a  boy  in 
white  with  flying  yellow  hair,  bearing  a  ladder.  Next  to  him  towards  the 
foreground,  a  man  with  a  staff  in  his  right  hand,  his  left  hand  on  an  arm  of 
the  cross;  he  wears  a  purple  tunic,  white  shirt-sleeves  rolled  back,  white 
cap;  his  staff  and  the  cross  are  reddish  yellow.  Farther  to  the  right,  a 
figure  wearing  a  yellow  hat,  purple  shirt  and  red  hose.  On  his  right,  a  man 
in  white  who  carries  one  of  the  thieves'  crosses.  Still  farther  to  the  right, 
an  old  man  on  a  white  horse  riding  towards  the  spectator;  he  wears  a  red 
mantle  turned  out  with  yellow,  purple  shirt,  red  hat  with  yellow  ornament; 
the  horse's  harness  is  red.  To  the  left  of  the  horse's  head  one  sees  a  blond 
head.  To  the  right,  another  man  who  bears  a  cross,  dressed  in  a  tunic  with 
green  sleeves  lined  with  white.  Below  these  last  named  figures,  a  man  nude 
to  the  waist  who  leans  forward  to  raise  the  end  of  Christ's  cross;  he  wears 
Veronese  green  hose  with  ribbons  and  a  wine-coloured  drapery  lined  with 
yellow-red.  To  the  right  of  the  latter,  a  blond  head  with  green  head-dress. 
In  the  extreme  right  corner,  a  kneeling  figure  with  golden  hair,  yellow  and 
brick-coloured  shot  dress,  pale  blue  sleeve  and  cuff  and  green  lower  sleeve. 
Fresco.  Arched,  h.  3.00,  w.  2.90. 

At  the  extreme  right  end  of  the  right-hand  wall  of  the 
cloister,  adjoining  the  wall  of  the  entrance  door.  Vasari 
considered  this  to  be  the  best  of  this  cycle  of  frescoes  —  "riusci 
molto  migliore  che  Paltre"  (VI,  268)  — and,  in  certain  details, 
a  return  to  Jacopo's  Italian  manner,  although  in  the  general 
effect  he  saw  an  imitation  of  Diirer.  Borghini  repeats  Vasari 's 
opinion,  but  to  us  this  fresco  appears  inferior  to  the  "Christ 
before  Pilate. "  It  was,  it  would  seem,  the  fourth  that  Pontormo 
painted  in  the  cloister.  In  it  the  following  figures  are  derived 
from  engravings  or  woodcuts  by  the  German  master:  St. 
Veronica,  from  "Die  Kreuztragung"  (1512)  ;  the  man  with  a 
ladder  on  his  head  and  the  figure  that  strikes  Christ,  from  "Die 
Kreuztragung"  (1509) ;  the  women  on  the  hill,  from  "Die 
Kreuzigung"  (1509-1511) ;  the  old  man  on  horseback,  to  the 
extreme  right,  from  "Christus  vor  Hannas"  (1509-1511). 

Condition:  ruined  and  repainted. 

Date:  1523-1524. 

Drawings:  possible  sketch  for  the  man  carrying  the  end  of  the  cross, 
Uffizi  6529 ;  possible  sketch  for  the  head  of  the  same,  Uffizi  6578 ;  sketch  for 
the  same  figure  from  the  knees  up,  Uffizi  6643  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  possible 
sketch  for  the  executioner,  Uffizi  6529. 

Documents:  see  above. 

Reprod.    Fig.  80 ;  photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.    See  above. 

110 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 


PIETA 


In  the  centre,  extended  from  right  to  left,  the  Christ;  his  hair  is  red; 
across  his  lap,  a  white  cloth;  under  him,  a  pale  purple  drapery  laid  over 
a  green  stuff.  In  the  foreground,  extreme  right,  a  woman  seated;  she  wears 
a  dark  purplish  robe,  green  head-dress  and  holds  a  white  handkerchief  in  her 
right  hand.  In  the  foreground,  extreme  left,  Magdalen  kneels  dressed  in  a 
red  robe  shot  with  yellow,  a  green  head-dress  shot  with  pink,  and  green 
sleeves  shot  with  yellow.  Behind  the  Christ,  the  Virgin  in  pale  purple  dra- 
peries and  white  head-dress.  Above  the  Magdalen,  Joseph  of  Arimathea,  seated 
profile  right,  dressed  in  a  purplish  red  vest,  grey  sleeves  and  purplish  yellow 
hat  around  which  is  wound  a  green  scarf;  in  his  hands,  a  white  cloth.  To 
the  right  of  the  latter  figure,  a  man  stooping  over  a  cylindrical  box ;  he  wears 
a  yellow  robe  with  red  sleeves;  the  box  is  purplish  white  with  red  ribbons. 
Next  to  the  latter  a  woman,  her  right  hand  raised  to  her  face;  her  mantle 
is  purple  dark  at  the  edges  and  her  head-dress  white.  Next  to  her,  and  to 
the  right  of  a  ladder,  the  head  of  a  woman  draped  in  white.  Next  to  the 
latter,  and  to  the  right  of  the  Virgin,  a  woman  standing;  she  wears  a  white 
tunic  and  a  red  mantle  which  is  drawn  over  her  head.  Directly  below  the 
latter,  a  seated  woman  in  a  green  robe  and  purplish  white  head-dress.  Next 
to  her,  a  man  stooping  to  support  the  Christ;  he  wears  a  green  coat,  purple 
hose  and  yellow  cap.  In  the  background,  yellow  uprights  of  crosses  and 
ladders  and  light  green  trees ;  to  the  left,  a  low  hill.  The  sky  is  a  pale  green, 
the  ground,  yellow. 

Fresco.    Arched,  h.  3.00,  w.  2.90. 

At  the  extreme  right  end  of  the  wall  opposite  the  entrance 
of  the  cloister.  Instead  of  painting  a  " Deposition"  for  which 
we  have  a  drawing  and  a  " Crucifixion"  which  he  had  projected 
and  which  were  never  executed,  Pontormo  began  and  finished, 
Vasari  tells  us,  this  "Pieta"  which  was  the  fifth  of  his  frescoes 
for  the  Certosini.  Vasari  praises  the  colour,  the  Magdalen,  the 
Joseph  of  Arimathea  and  the  Nicodemus.  Jacopo  derived  the 
following  figures  from  Diirer:  the  Madonna,  from  "Christus 
am  Kreuz"  (1508) ;  the  Magdalen  from  "Die  Beweinung 
Christi"  (1509-1511)  ;  the  Madonna's  head,  the  head  of  the 
woman  seated  to  her  right  and  the  woman  standing  between 
them,  from  "Die  Grablegung"  (1509-1511).  The  woman  seated 
to  the  extreme  right  may  have  been  suggested  by  the  Madonna 
in  "Christus  am  Kreuz"  (1498);  the  old  man  seated  left 
(Joseph  of  Arimathea)  is  not  unlike  the  old  man  in  "Die 
Kreuzabnahme"  (1509-1511)  and  recalls  the  Zacharias  of 
Pontormo 's  birth-plate,  in  the  Uffizi.  It  is  also  interesting  to 

111 


PONTOEMO 

compare  this  work  of  Pontormo's  with  Diirer's  pictures  of  the 
same  subject,  now  in  Munich  and  Nuremberg. 

Condition:  ruined  and  repainted. 

Date :  1524-1525. 

Drawings:  first  thought  for  the  woman  above  and  to  the  left  of  the 
Madonna,  Corsini  124242  (photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  first  thoughts  for  the  Christ, 
Uffizi  6614  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.)  and  6702  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  sketch 
for  the  woman  seated  to  the  right,  Uffizi  6702  verso;  possible  first  ideas  for 
the  drapery  of  the  women's  heads  may  be  seen  on  Uffizi  6558  (photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

Documents :  see  above. 

Reprod.  Small  copy  by  Empoli  (oil  on  canvas),  Ufficio  delle  Belle  Arti, 
Florence;  photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.    See  above. 

THE  RISEN  CHRIST 

In  the  centre,  the  Risen  Christ,  his  hands  outstretched  and  uplifted; 
with  the  right  he  makes  the  sign  of  benediction,  in  the  left  he  holds  the 
banner  of  the  Resurrection;  his  drapery  is  lavender.  Below  him  and  to  the 
right,  a  yellow  shield  with  a  light  blue  band  on  which:  S.  P.  Q.  R.  Below 
him  and  to  the  left,  a  light  blue  shield  with  a  yellow  band  on  which  are  stars. 
On  each  side  of  the  Christ,  groups  of  sleeping  soldiers.  In  the  group  to  the 
right,  the  figure  farthest  from  the  spectator  wears  a  yellow-brown  jerkin  and 
a  lavender  cap.  Before  him  and  towards  the  Christ,  a  sprawling  soldier, 
holding  a  shield,  dressed  in  a  purple  shirt  and  yellow  jerkin;  at  his  knees, 
white  drapery.  On  the  right  of  the  latter,  a  soldier  in  a  purple  suit,  lighter 
purple  hose,  white  shirt  showing  at  the  elbows,  white  underclothes  showing 
at  the  knees,  high  shoes  and  white  socks;  he  holds  on  his  right  arm  a  yellow 
shield  on  which  a  white  band  and  crescents.  In  the  group  to  the  left,  the 
soldier  nearest  Christ  wears  a  red  jerkin,  light  green  neck-band,  light  green 
and  purple  hat.  The  soldier  next  to  the  left  has  a  brown  beard  and  is  dressed 
in  a  purple  jerkin  and  a  purple  hat  turned  back  showing  a  pale  blue  lining. 
Before  the  latter  and  on  the  left,  a  soldier  with  his  head  resting  on  his  hand ; 
he  wears  a  pale  green  jerkin,  white  showing  at  the  wrist  and  through  the 
slashed  sleeve,  and  a  yellow  hat.  In  the  foreground  left,  a  soldier  wearing 
a  light  purple  jerkin,  yellow  hose,  white  with  red  ribbons  at  the  knees,  boots 
and  white  socks;  his  sleeve  from  elbow  to  wrist  is  light  red  slashed  with 
white ;  at  his  neck,  a  red  tie ;  his  hat  is  lavender  with  pale  blue  ribbons  and  a 
yellow  chin-stay;  his  right  hand  rests  on  the  red  hilt  of  a  sword  which  lies 
across  his  knees  and  has  a  golden  pommel;  beside  him  to  the  left,  a  silver 
helmet  with  purple  strap.  In  the  background,  pikes  and  halberds  seen  against 
purple  turning  to  silver  towards  the  centre. 

Fresco.    Arched,  h.  2.32,  w.  2.90. 

In  a  recess  at  the  extreme  left  end  of  the  farther  wall  of 
the  cloister.  Vasari  says  that  this  was  the  third  fresco  that 
Pontormo  painted  at  the  Certosa  and  that  in  it  he  changed  his 

112 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

colouring  —  "venne  capriccio  a  Jacopo  . . .  di  mutar  colorito" 
(VI,  268).  The  general  tone  was,  it  would  seem,  lighter  than 
in  the  other  frescoes.  The  composition  is  derived  from  Diirer's 
woodcut  of  the  same  subject;  the  soldier  to  the  extreme  left, 
from  "Die  Auferstehung"  (1509-1511);  the  figure  of  the 
soldier  to  the  right  and  the  Christ,  from  "Die  Auferstehung" 
(1510). 

Condition :  ruined  and  repainted. 

Date:  1523-1524. 

Drawings:  possible  sketch  for  the  soldier  to  the  extreme  right,  Uffizi 
6638 ;  possible  first  thoughts  for  the  Christ,  Uffizi  6702  verso  and  6726  verso 
(photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

Documents :  see  above. 

Reprod.    Fig.  81 ;  photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.    See  above. 

According  to  Vasari  (VI,  269)  Pontormo  intended  to 
execute  in  the  cloister  of  the  Certosa  a  "Crucifixion"  and  a 
"Deposition."  For  the  former  we  have,  in  Uffizi  459  verso 
(photo.  F.  M.  C.),  a  possible  first  thought  for  the  Madonna,  and 
for  the  latter  we  have,  in  Uffizi  6622  (fig.  83 ;  photo.  Houghton) , 
a  preliminary  sketch  for  the  whole  composition.  We  also  know 
that  he  planned  to  paint  a  "Nailing  to  the  Cross"  for  which 
we  have  a  drawing  of  the  whole  composition  (Uffizi  6671 ;  fig.  85 ; 
photo.  Houghton)  and  several  sketches  for  individual  figures 
(Uffizi  447;  fig.  89;  photo.  F.  M.  C.;  Uffizi  6652  verso;  6657; 
6665 ;  fig.  86 ;  photo.  Houghton) .  Bronzino  helped  Jacopo  at  the 
Certosa,  but  to  what  extent  we  cannot  now  determine.  There 
he  did  his  first  independent  work  —  a  "Pieta  with  Two  Angels" 
and  a  "San  Lorenzo,"  both  in  fresco  (Vasari,  VI,  270;  VII, 
594).  From  documents  that  I  have  discovered  (A.  S.  F., 
Convento  51,  No.  16,  p.  30)  we  learn  that  Bronzino  also  decorated 
for  the  monks  certain  service-books  which  have  since  been  lost. 
Vasari  in  his  early  youth,  just  after  he  came  to  Florence  for 
the  first  time  (VII,  651),  studied  the  frescoes  of  the  cloister  and 
made  drawings  from  them  (VII,  605).  Pontormo  also  executed 
at  the  Certosa  a  "Nativity,"  and  a  portrait  of  a  lay  brother 
that  Moreni  (Notizie,  II,  145)  describes  as  a  half-length  figure 

113 


PONTOEMO 

in  fresco  on  the  right  side  of  the  altar  of  San  Benedetto,  both 
of  which  have  since  disappeared.  Besides  these  he  painted  for 
the  Certosini  the  "Supper  at  Emmaus,"  now  in  the  Academy 
in  Florence. 

FLORENCE 

Academy 

190.     SUPPER  AT  EMMAUS 

In  the  centre,  Christ,  full  face,  seated  at  table,  in  his  left  hand  a  loaf, 
his  right  raised  in  benediction.  He  has  light  brown  hair  and  wears  a  reddish 
grey  vest  and  a  dark  blue  mantle.  To  the  right,  a  monk  standing  dressed  in 
a  grey-toned  purple  habit.  In  the  foreground  right,  a  man  seated  profile 
left,  legs  crossed,  his  left  hand  holding  a  drapery  at  his  knee,  his  head  seen 
three-quarters  from  behind;  he  wears  a  yellowish  red  vest,  grey  hat,  dark 
olive-green  mantle.  In  the  foreground  left,  a  man  seated,  turned  to  the 
right  and  seen  three-quarters  from  behind;  he  fills  a  glass  from  a  pitcher 
and  wears  a  grey  tunic  and  a  red  drapery  shot  with  yellow  about  the  hips. 
Above  the  latter  and  to  the  left,  a  monk  standing  turned  three-quarters  right, 
his  hands  raised  to  the  level  of  his  breast;  he  wears  a  grey  habit.  In  the 
background  to  the  right,  a  monk  dressed  in  grey  stands  facing.  Over  his 
shoulder  one  sees  the  head  of  another  figure  turned  three-quarters  left.  The 
background  is  dark  grey;  around  the  eye  of  the  Trinity  in  the  upper  part 
of  the  picture  there  is  a  yellowish  light.  The  table  is  grey-white,  the  stools 
brownish  grey,  the  plate  and  pitcher  silver-grey,  the  cat  brown,  the  dog 
light  grey.  On  a  "cartella,"  in  the  lower  right  corner,  is  inscribed  1525. 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  2.30,  w.  1.73  (catalogue,  h.  2.69,  w.  1.78). 

Mentioned  by  Vasari.  This  picture  was  painted  for  the 
Certosini  of  San  Lorenzo  al  Monte  and  placed  in  the  Foresteria, 
or  Dispensa,  of  the  convent.  It  was  removed,  after  the  suppres- 
sion of  the  monasteries,  to  the  Academy.  The  composition  is 
derived  from  Diirer's  woodcut  "Christus  und  die  Jiinger  von 
Emmaus."  In  type  and  treatment,  however,  our  canvas  is  less 
Diireresque  than  the  frescoes  of  the  cloister  at  the  Certosa.  On 
the  back  one  finds  the  note:  "Verif.  7  Giugno  1906." 

Condition:  somewhat  damaged,  especially  on  the  left  side. 
Date :  1525. 

Drawings:  possible  first  thought  for  the  figure  to  the  left  in  the  fore- 
ground, Uffizi  6656  recto  (photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  finished  study  for  the  monk  in 
the  background  to  the  right,  Uffizi  6656  verso  (fig.  84;  photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

114 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Document:  payment  for  the  colours  and  the  frame,  A.  S.  F.,  San 
Lorenzo  al  Monte,  Giornale  L.,  p.  30  destra.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  15. 

Reprod.  Fig.  82;  photo.  Reali;  small  copy  (oil  on  canvas),  the  back- 
ground of  which  is  the  grey  stone  frame  of  a  door,  painted  by  Empoli  at  the 
request  of  the  monks  of  the  Certosa,  and  now  in  the  Ufficio  delle  Belle  Arti, 
in  Florence. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  270 ;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  394 ;  Pieraccini, 
Guida  delta  R.  Galleria  antica  e  moderna,  7th  ed.,  Prato,  p.  75 ;  B.  F.  P.  R., 
p.  174 ;  Dessins,  pp.  33,  35,  38,  52,  55,  69,  128,  209,  223 ;  On  Certain  Drawings, 
pp.  12,  21. 

"THE  HOSPITAL  OF  SAN  MATTEO" 

Behind  an  early  Renaissance  arcade,  on  a  slightly  raised  platform,  four 
women  in  bed;  the  bed  to  the  extreme  right  is  canopied  and  its  occupant 
wears  a  halo.  Between  this  bed  and  the  next  a  woman  kneels  profile  left 
before  a  statue  of  the  Virgin  and  Child.  An  attendant  sits  at  the  foot  of 
the  first  bed  to  the  right.  To  the  extreme  right  and  in  front  of  the  platform, 
two  figures  profile  left,  one  carrying  a  book,  the  other  coming  in  through  a 
door.  To  their  left,  a  child  standing  full  face  who  seems  to  address  them; 
farther  to  the  left,  a  woman's  figure  with  back  turned;  to  the  extreme  left, 
a  group  of  four  women,  one  seated  profile  right,  while  another  with  a  halo 
kneels  before  her  and  washes  her  feet;  another  standing  profile  left  brings 
a  towel;  a  fourth,  to  the  extreme  left,  stands  profile  right  looking  on.  On 
the  floor,  slippers  and  a  pitcher.  The  figures  are  grey  on  a  lavender  back- 
ground; the  beds,  light  yellow,  the  floor,  grey. 

Fresco.    H.  .91,  w.  1.50. 

Painted  in  grisaille  on  the  wall  of  a  room  that  was  once 
part  of  the  Hospital  of  San  Matteo.  It  is  now  concealed  by 
Giotto's  " Madonna  Enthroned"  and  has  long  been  ascribed 
to  Andrea  del  Sarto.  Guinness  makes  the  impossible  suggestion 
that  Andrea  painted  this  fresco  while  he  was  an  inmate  of  the 
hospital.  Schaeffer  considers  it  to  be  an  early  work  of  Andrea's. 
The  attribution  to  Pontormo,  in  which  I  completely  concur,  is 
Berenson's.  The  haloes  worn  by  several  figures  in  the  composi- 
tion indicate  that  the  generally  accepted  explanation  of  the 
subject  is  incorrect  and  that,  in  all  probability,  we  have  here 
some  obscure  episode  from  the  "Lives  of  the  Saints." 

Condition:  fair;  somewhat  rubbed  here  and  there. 

Date:  about  1513. 

Reprod.  Fig.  1;  photo.  Alinari  1633  (as  Andrea)  ;  Hanfstaengl  (also 
as  Andrea) . 

Bibl.  Guinness,  Andrea  del  Sarto,  London,  1899,  p.  85;  Schaeffer, 
Andrea  del  Sarto;  Lafenestre,  Florence,  p.  193 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  174. 

115 


PONTORMO 


SS.  Annunziata 

FAITH  AND  CHARITY 

In  the  centre,  a  marble  relief  of  the  Medici  arms  surmounted  by  tiara 
and  keys.  To  the  left,  a  voluminously  draped  female  figure  holding  in  her 
arms  an  infant;  she  is  seated  nearly  profile  left,  head  full  face;  behind  her 
on  a  high  step,  a  "putto"  seated  profile  left,  his  right  hand  laid  on  her 
shoulder.  Seated  to  the  right,  a  heavily  draped  woman's  figure  turned  three- 
quarters  right,  her  right  arm  extended  at  her  side,  her  left  hand  laid  on  the 
top  of  a  great  book  that  rests  on  her  knees.  Behind  her,  a  "putto"  three- 
quarters  right.  Between  these  draped  figures  and  the  shield,  at  the  centre 
of  the  composition,  are  vestiges  of  "putti"  in  various  poses. 

Fresco  over  the  main  portal  on  the  fagade  of  the  "loggia."  The  space 
decorated  is  enclosed  between  concentric  arcs  and  two  verticals.  H.  1.25, 
w.  4.60. 

This  work,  which  was  originally  entrusted  to  Andrea  di 
Cosimo  Feltrini  who,  however,  executed  only  the  ornaments 
and  the  gilding,  is  described  at  length  and  enthusiastically 
praised  by  Vasari.  Jacopo,  it  would  seem,  prepared  his  draw- 
ings secretly  at  Sant 'Antonio  alia  porta  a  Faenza.  The  success 
of  these  drawings  was,  according  to  Vasari,  the  cause  of 
Jacopo 's  rupture  with  Andrea.  Michelangelo  is  said  (Vasari) 
to  have  admired  this  decoration,  and  it  was  celebrated  through- 
out the  sixteenth  century.  Cav.  Gabburri  (Lettere  pittoriche, 
II;  Vasari,  ed.  1811,  XII,  9,  n.  2)  wanted  to  restore  it  but 
nothing  was  done ;  by  1831  it  had  become  so  complete  a  ruin  that 
restoration  was  found  to  be  impracticable. 

Condition:  ruined;  the  figures  described  above  can  only  be  dimly 
discerned. 

Date:  September,  1513 — June,  1514. 

Drawing:  Uffizi  6706,  a  ruined  study  of  a  "putto"  clinging  to  the 
branch  of  a  tree,  is  perhaps  a  fragment  of  Pontormo's  preparatory  work. 
Bocchi  describes  a  figure  in  this  pose  as  one  of  the  beauties  of  the  fresco. 

Documents:  we  have  five  payments  for  this  work:  November,  1513; 
March,  1513  (Old  Style);  March,  1514;  April,  1514;  June,  1514.  See 
Appendix  II,  Doc.  12. 

Reprod.    Photo,  of  the  facade  of  the  church,  Alinari  2028. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  247-249;  Bocchi,  ed.  Cinelli,  p.  416;  Richa,  VIII,  52; 
R.  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  392 ;  Del  Migliore,  p.  269 ;  Dessins,  pp. 
33,  34,  41,  47,  66,  90,  249 ;  On  Certain  Drawings,  pp.  5,  19. 

116 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

MADONNA  AND  SAINTS 

In  the  centre  the  Madonna  stands  almost  facing,  the  head  nearly  profile 
right,  the  weight  on  left  foot,  the  right  foot  slightly  raised;  violet  drapery 
over  her  blond  hair,  brick-red  mantle,  light  blue  skirt.  The  female  saint 
(Agnes?),  who  kneels  facing,  in  the  foreground  to  the  left,  and  who  with  her 
left  hand  holds  against  her  lap  a  white  book  on  which  her  right  hand  rests, 
wears  a  purple  robe  with  green  sleeves ;  she  gazes  up.  In  the  foreground  right 
a  male  saint  (Zechariah)  kneels  profile  left;  he  wears  a  purple  robe  shot  with 
yellow  and  a  red  skirt;  his  hands  rest  on  the  top  of  a  tablet  that  stands  on 
the  ground  before  him.  To  the  extreme  right  stands  St.  Michael  nearly 
facing,  his  head  profile  left;  in  his  right  hand  he  holds  a  scales;  his  armour 
is  purple,  his  drapery  brick-red,  his  wings  brown.  To  the  extreme  left  St. 
Lucy  stands  profile  right,  her  head  three-quarters  right ;  she  holds  in  her  left 
hand  a  palm  and  in  her  raised  right  hand  a  plate  on  which  her  eyes.  The 
steps  are  green,  the  background  grey-green;  above,  draped  curtains  drawn 
back. 

Fresco.    H.  1.85,  w.  1.71. 

Once  in  the  first  chapel  to  the  right,  in  the  church  of  San 
Ruffillo  in  Piazza  dell'  Olio,  anciently  San  Ruffillo  del  Vescovo. 
At  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  this  decoration  had  already 
fallen  into  decay.  When  the  church  was  pulled  down  in  the 
early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century,  the  fresco  was  transferred 
(1823)  to  the  left  wall  of  the  Chapel  of  San  Luca,  in  the  Annun- 
ziata,  where  it  may  now  be  seen.  On  that  occasion  the  lunette 
of  "God  the  Father"  that  surmounted  this  composition  was 
destroyed. 

Condition:  ruined  and  badly  restored;  the  left  side  and  leg  of  St. 
Micfrael,  as  well  as  the  back  of  St.  Lucy,  are  quite  modern;  the  "intonaco" 
had  fallen. 

Date :  1513. 

Drawings:  first  sketch  for  the  Madonna,  Uffizi  6676  verso  (fig.  4; 
photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  study  for  the  Zechariah,  Dresden,  200  (fig.  3;  photo. 
Hanstaengel). 

Reprod.    Fig.  2 ;  photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  256;  Richa,  IV,  146;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730, 
p.  392  f . ;  Del  Migliore,  p.  155 ;  Dessins,  pp.  19,  34,  38,  51,  65,  84,  194,  226, 
335 ;  On  Certain  Drawings,  pp.  5,  19 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175. 

VISITATION 

Composition  of  fifteen  figures  grouped  on  steps  before  a  broad  round 
niche  ornamented  with  pilasters.  In  the  centre,  the  Virgin  standing  profile 
right,  orange  head-dress,  red  robe,  blue  mantle.  To  her  right  and  seen  profile 

117 


PONTOEMO 

left,  Elizabeth  who  bends  the  knee  to  her,  white  head-dress,  light  green  robe, 
orange  mantle,  lavender  under-sleeve.  In  the  background  behind  Elizabeth, 
a  man's  figure  (effaced),  dark  purple  cap,  red  mantle.  To  his  right,  a 
woman's  figure  profile  left;  still  farther  right  in  the  background,  a  woman 
three-quarters  left,  head  three-quarters  right,  red  vest,  dark  purple  mantle. 
In  front  of  the  latter  figure  and  behind  Elizabeth,  St.  Joseph  kneeling,  in 
his  left  hand  a  staff,  his  right  pointing  to  the  Virgin,  red  sleeves  and  vest, 
yellow  mantle.  To  his  right,  a  prophet  standing  with  hand  uplifted,  green 
head-dress  and  sleeve,  red  draperies.  To  the  extreme  right,  Zechariah  stand- 
ing profile  left,  head  nearly  full  face ;  his  left  hand  holds  a  book  against  his 
hip,  blond  hair,  white  tunic,  light  yellow  draperies,  green  cover  of  book. 
On  the  second  step  and  to  the  right,  nude  ' '  putto ' '  seated,  right  arm  at  side, 
left  leg  extended  right,  blond  hair.  On  second  step  to  the  left,  woman  seated 
profile  right,  head  nearly  full  face,  white  head-dress,  reddish  tunic  with 
yellow  sleeves,  purple  drapery.  Behind  her,  a  woman  standing  profile  right 
with  a  bundle  on  her  head  to  which  her  left  arm  is  raised,  blond  hair,  brickish 
red  drapery,  white  sleeve,  the  bundle  greenish  blue  and  pink.  To  the  right 
of  the  latter,  blond  woman  standing  three-quarters  right,  lavender  vest  shot 
with  gold,  red  mantje.  To  her  right  and  behind  the  Madonna,  a  woman 
standing  full  face  carrying  on  her  right  arm  a  baby,  her  head  profile  right, 
light  green  dress  with  yellow  sleeves ;  the  baby  wears  a  violet  loin-cloth ;  both 
are  blond.  To  the  extreme  left,  an  old  woman  standing  full  face  with  a  staff 
in  her  right  hand,  light  purple  robe,  white  scarf.  The  steps  are  yellow,  the 
background  grey.  Above,  on  the  cornice  of  the  niche,  the  "Sacrifice  of 
Isaac";  Jacob,  dark  red  mantle  with  yellow  sleeves.  On  either  side  of  the 
latter  scene  are  cherubs  holding  tablets  on  which  are  inscribed,  left:  NYM| 
DEE |  EVM;  right:  NEC|  VAN]  IVR.  On  the  upper  edge  of  the  tablets 
are  cassolettes.  Between  the  capitals  of  the  middle  pilasters  of  the  niche  one 
reads :  ANVE  •  OPTIME  •  DEVS. 

Fresco  in  the  small  cloister  that  serves  as  courtyard  to  the  church. 
H.  3.92,  w.  3.37 ;  the  upper  part  of  the  composition  is  arched. 

Mentioned  by  Vasari.  This  is  the  most  important  speci- 
men we  possess  of  Pontormo's  early  work.  Wolmin  finds 
that  here  Jacopo  has  attempted,  and  not  unsuccessfully,  to 
imitate  the  compositions  of'Fra  Bartolommeo  ("  Marriage  of 
St.  Catherine,"  Louvre).  He  adds:  "This  fresco  not  only 
produces  an  imposing  effect  by  the  increased  size  of  the  figures ; 
it  is  intrinsically  a  great  composition.  The  central  scheme, 
according  to  the  design  which  Andrea  had  thoroughly  tested  five 
years  before,  is  now  for  the  first  time  raised  to  the  height  of  an 
architectonic  effect."  Selwyn  Brinton  feels  that  our  fresco 
"in  beauty  of  colour  and  refinement  of  drawing  almost  rivals 
the  ' Madonna  del  Sacco.'  Andrea's  fresco  of  course  dates 
from  ten  years  later.  More  careful  study  reveals  that,  while 
the  larger  elements  of  the  composition  are  well  arranged,  the 

118 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

accessory  figures  lack  rhythmical  coherence  and  the  general 
effect  is  somewhat  lame.  The  colour-scheme,  however,  is  charm- 
ing, light,  decorative,  and  harmonious.  The  " Assumption" 
in  this  cloister,  which  is  erroneously  ascribed  to  Pontormo  by 
Milanesi  (V,  67)  followed  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  (ed. 
Hutton,  III,  495),  is  of  course  by  Eosso  (Vasari,  V,  157) 
although  the  original  commission  for  the  work  was  given  to 
Andrea. 

Condition:  seriously  damaged  in  spots  and  badly  restored;  the 
"intonaco"  has  fallen  here  and  there  and  some  of  the  heads  are  almost 
obliterated ;  the  upper  part  of  the  fresco  has  suffered  from  humidity. 

Date:  December,  1514-June,  1516. 

Drawings :  sketch  for  the  boy  seated  on  the  steps  to  right,  Uffizi  6542 
(fig.  7;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  study  for  the  woman  seated  on  the  steps  left,  Uffizi 
6603  (fig.  6 ;  photo.  Houghton) ;  Gamba  believes  Louvre  461  (photo.  Giraudon; 
Braun,  Louvre  117)  to  be  a  study  for  the  Zechariah  but  the  drawing  has  been 
so  completely  rehandled  that  its  authenticity  is  somewhat  doubtful.  Berenson 
considers  a  sketch  on  Uffizi  6556  verso  to  be  for  the  hand  of  the  old  woman 
with  a  staff;  I  do  not  think  that  the  identification  is  convincing.  In  my 
Dessins  I  suggested  Uffizi  6565  as  a  first  thought  for  the  Zechariah.  It  now 
seems  to  me  to  be  a  sketch  for  one  of  the  figures  of  the  "Joseph  Sold  to 
Potiphar,"  in  Panshanger.  Cf.  fig.  31. 

Documents :  payments,  December,  1514 ;  April  24,  1515 ;  May  28,  1515 ; 
March  4,  1516 ;  May  13,  1516 ;  May  17,  1516.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  13. 

Reprod.  Fig.  5;  Louvre  1242,  modified  copy  of  the  late  sixteenth 
century,  recognized  as  such  by  Villot,  and  perhaps  the  work  of  Alessandro 
Allori  (photo.  Braun,  11242)  ;  engraving,  Etruria  pittrice,  pi.  XLIV;  photo. 
Alinari  3815 ;  fig.,  Vasari,  trans,  de  Vere,  VII,  154. 

_Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  257;  Bocchi,  p.  424;  Richa,  VIII,  60;  Borghini, 
II  Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  393;  Del  Migliore,  p.  170;  Ristretto  delle  cose  piu 
notabili  delta  cittd  di  Firenze,  1689,  p.  29;  B.  F.  D.,  II,  144;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p. 
175 ;  Cruttwell,  Florentine  Churches,  pp.  8  f .,  18  f . ;  Wolfflin,  The  Art  of  the 
Italian  Renaissance,  New  York,  1903,  pp.  148,  161,  219 ;  Selwyn  Brinton,  The 
Renaissance,  Goupil,  1908,  p.  187  f .  -f  Dessins,  pp.  19,  33,  34,  38,  66,  142,  151, 
152,  180,  220,  221,  301,  350;  On  Certain  Drawings,  pp.  7,  19  f.;  Rassegna 
d'arte,  IX,  No.  3,  p.  39;  as  well  as  Vine.  Meini,  Notizie  storiche  e  religiose 
dell'  Ordine  dei  Servi  e  del  tempio  della  88.  Annunziata,  Firenze,  Fioretti, 
1853 ;  Moreni,  Descrizione  della  chiesa  della  88.  Nunziata  di  Firenze,  Firenze, 
1781  (republished  in  Firenze  antica  e  moderna,  Firenze,  1789-1802,  III,  287- 
365;  Pitture  a  fresco  d'  Andrea  del  Sarto  e  d'altri  celebri  Autori  nel  chiostro 
della  88.  Annunziata  disegnate  e  incise  da  Aless.  Chiari  con  illust.  di  Melch. 
Misserini,  Firenze,  1834;  Ant.  Zobi,  Memorie  storico-artistiche  sulla  cappella 
della  88.  Annunziata  di  Firenze,  Firenze,  1837. 


119 


PONTORMO 

•  • 

Santa  Felicita 

Capponi  Chapel 
DEPOSITION 

Arched  composition  of  eleven  figures.  The  Christ  is  borne  by  two 
figures :  a  youth  to  the  extreme  left  who  walks  three-quarters  right,  head  full 
face,  supports  his  shoulders,  with  his  left  hand  lifting  the  Christ 's  left  hand ; 
a  youth  squatting  a  little  more  than  profile  right,  head  three-quarters  right, 
supports  Christ's  thighs  on  his  left  shoulder.  To  the  right  in  the  foreground, 
a  woman,  seen  from  behind  with  left  hand  lifted,  approaches  the  Madonna 
who  is  seated,  it  would  seem,  on  a  bank  by  the  road-side;  she  is  seen  nearly 
full  face,  her  left  arm  bent,  her  right  raised  and  stretched  out  towards  the 
Christ.  Over  the  Christ's  head  one  sees  the  head  of  a  woman,  seen  from 
behind,  who  with  her  right  hand  holds  the  Saviour's  left  wrist.  Above  her 
and  to  the  left,  a  woman  who  bends  down,  her  head  seen  three-quarters  right, 
and  with  her  left  hand  supports  the  left  side  of  the  Christ's  head.  Between 
the  latter  figure  and  the  Madonna,  the  head  of  a  woman  who,  turned  three- 
quarters  right,  looks  at  the  Virgin.  Above  the  latter,  at  the  top  of  the 
composition,  a  woman  who  stands  full  face,  head  three-quarters  left,  her 
right  arm  folded  across  her  breastr  and  looks  down  at  the  Christ.  To  the 
right  and  above  the  Madonna,  a  youth  who,  with  arms  extended  downwards 
and  at  his  sides,  looks  at  the  Saviour.  To  the  extreme  right,  head  and 
shoulders  of  a  man  profile  right,  his  head  three-quarters  right.  All  the 
heads  are  blond.  The  colour-scheme  is  somewhat  as  follows :  Christ,  purplish 
loin-cloth;  drapery  of  the  head  just  above  the  Christ,  lavender-grey;  woman 
on  the  left  leaning  forward,  light  blue  dress  with  pink  scarf;  youth  holding 
the  shoulders  of  Christ,  light  blue  drapery,  red  mantle;  youth  who  carries 
the  legs  of  Christ,  light  pink  drapery ;  woman  on  the  right,  seen  from  behind, 
light  pink  drapery;  figure  to  the  extreme  right,  pink  dress;  Madonna,  blue 
mantle;  woman  next  to  the  left,  greenish  blue  robe;  youth  leaning  forward 
at  the  top  of  the  composition,  pink  drapery  wound  around  his  arm;  back- 
ground, light  green  earth  and  cloudy  sky;  the  whole  is  bathed  in  a  golden 
light. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  3.13,  w.  1.92. 

As  Vasari  tells  us  this  altar-piece  was  painted  for  Lodovico 
Capponi  for  the  chapel  where  it  may  still  be  seen  in  its  magnifi- 
cently carved  original  frame.  The  chapel  belonged  to  the 
Barbadori  and  was  dedicated  to  the  Annunziata.  It  was 
rented  by  them  to  Antonio  di  Bernardo  Paghanelli  (1487) 
who  later  on  bought  it.  His  son  Bernardo  sold  it  for  two  hun- 
dred "scudi"  to  Lodovico  di  Gino  Capponi  somewhere  about 
1525  (A.  S.  F.,  Convento  83,  No.  115,  p.  21;  see  Appendix  II, 
Doc.  17).  Capponi  had  the  chapel  entirely  redecorated. 
Pontormo  was  chosen  to  fresco  the  walls  and  vaulting  and 

120 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

paint  the  altar-piece.  Guglielmo  Da  Marcillac  was  given  a 
commission  for  a  stained-glass  window  representing  the 
"Entombment"  (Vasari,  IV,  428).  This  window  was  later  in 
the  possession  of  the  Gesuati  of  Florence  who,  being  workers 
in  glass  themselves,  took  it  apart  to  discover  the  secret  of 
certain  effects.  Later  it  was  preserved  in  Palazzo  Capponi 
delle  Rovinate.  According  to  Milanesi  it  is  now  in  the  Museo 
Nazionale  of  Florence,  the  catalogue  of  which  does  not  mention 
it.  The  cupola  of  the  chapel  and  the  holy  water  font  were 
traditionally  held  to  be  by  Brunelleschi  and  on  the  memorial 
tablet  one  reads:  ". . .  ac  ne  illarum  ornamenta  at  hac  Brunel- 
leschi structura  Pontormi  que  pictura. . ."  In  our  "  Deposi- 
tion" the  figure  to  the  extreme  left  is  not  indispensable  to  the 
composition ;  it  may  be  a  portrait  of  Capponi,  the  donor. 

Condition:  excellent;  Milanesi  believes  that,  with  the  other  decorations 
of  the  chapel,  it  was  badly  cleaned  in  1723  (Vasari,  VI,  272;  see  also  Richa, 
IX,  211;  Borghini,  ed.  1730,  pp.  XIV  and  395).  The  picture  does  not  seem 
to  me  to  show  any  trace  of  a  drastic  cleaning  and  the  documents  contain  no 
specific  reference  to  any  such  restoration  (A.  S.  F.,  Santa  Felicita,  Filza 
Ricordi  e  Scritture,  1456-1734;  Restaurazione  del  Nostro  Capitolo  fata  a 
spese  di  Monache  particulari  nel  1722). 

Date:  1526-1528. 

Drawings :  probable  first  idea  for  the  Christ,  Uffizi  6619  (fig.  99 ;  photo. 
F.  M.  C. ;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  XV)  ;  sketch  for  the  legs  of  same,  Uffizi  6527 ;  study 
for  the  youth  in  the  upper  right  corner,  Uffizi  6576  recto  (fig.  100;  photo. 
Houghton;  F.  M.  C.) ;  sketch  for  the  drapery  of  the  same,  Uffizi  6730  (fig.  97; 
photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  finished  study  for  the  head  of  the  youth  who  carries  the 
legs  of  Christ,  Uffizi  6577  (fig.  95 ;  photo.  Houghton) ;  sketches  for  the  head 
and  shoulders  of  the  youth  who  carries  the  shoulders  of  Christ,  Uffizi  6687 
(photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  Corsini  124229  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  Corsini  124230 
(fig.  96;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  sketch  for  the  torse,  legs  and  drapery  of  the  same, 
Uffizi  6613  verso  (fig.  98;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  sketch  for  the  drapery  of  the 
same,  Uffizi  6730  (fig.  97;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  possible  sketch  for  the  woman 
seen  from  behind  who  Approaches  the  Madonna,  Uffizi  6735;  finished  study 
for  the  head  of  the  figure  to  the  extreme  right,  Uffizi  6587 ;  first  idea  for  the 
head  of  the  woman  to  the  right  of  the  Virgin,  Uffizi  6627  (fig.  94;  photo. 
Houghton) ;  on  the  same  sheet,  a  finished  study  for  the  same;  possible  sketch 
for  the  head  of  the  Madonna,  Uffizi  6519;  study  for  the  same,  Uffizi  6666 
(fig.  93;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  Berenson  considers  Oxford  224  to  be  a  first  idea 
for  the  whole  composition  but  the  resemblance  between  the  drawing  and  the 
picture  is  remote. 

Documents:  the  following  books  of  the  monastery  dating  from  the 
period  at  which  this  picture  was  painted  are  preserved :  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  83, 
No.  6,  Giornale,  1528-1558;  No.  21,  Entrata  e  Uscita,  1530-1539;  No.  74, 

121 


PONTOBMO 

Debitor!  e  Creditor!,  1527-1528;  No.  75,  Debitori  e  Creditori,  1528-1538; 
No.  106,  Ricordi  e  Scritture,  1436-1734;  No.  115,  Ricordanze,  1485-1528. 
None  of  these  contain  any  reference  to  our  altar-piece. 

Reprod.  Fig.  92;  photo.  Alinari  4708;  fig.  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit.; 
Vasari,  trans,  de  Vere,  VII,  168. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  II,  350;  IV,  428;  VI,  271  f.;  Bocchi,  p.  117;  Richa,  IX, 
252  ff. ;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  394 ;  Follini,  Firenze  illustrata,  VIII, 
194  ff. ;  Lami,  Deliciae  Erudit.,  XIII,  1173  ff. ;  Firenze,  Bibl.  Naz.  Magliab., 
XXXV,  411,  p.  73;  Del  Migliore,  Zibaldone  historico,  Vol.  C.,  XVII; 
Balocchi,  Illust.  dell'  I.  e  R.  Chiesa  parrochiale  di  S.  Felicita,  Firenze,  1828, 
pp.  34 f.;  Ristretto,  p.  106;  Morelli,  Borghese  and  Doria  Pamfili  Galleries, 
1900,  p.  130 ;  Cruttwell,  Florentine  Churches,  pp.  12  f. ;  Fabriczy,  Brunel- 
leschi,  p.  76  f.;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  3211;  II,  139,  142,  145,  147,  148,  150,  151,  155; 
B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175 ;  Dessins,  pp.  20,  35,  40,  70,  91,  96,  128,  132,  141,  164,  169, 
170,  179,  186,  189,  190,  193,  203,  217,  223,  234,  255,  263,  264,  266,  366;  On 
Certain  Drawings,  pp.  13,  22. 

ANNUNCIATION 

The  Virgin  stands  full  face  beside  her  lectern,  head  turned  three- 
quarters  left,  her  left  hand  resting  on  the  book  she  has  just  been  reading, 
her  right  holding  the  folds  of  her  robe ;  red  robe,  blue  mantle,  over  her  head, 
a  grey  scarf.  The  Angel  Gabriel  is  turned  three-quarters  right;  he  holds  his 
drapery  with  both  hands  against  his  thigh,  right  leg  advanced,  head  profile 
right;  red  drapery  with  a  blue  belt  and  blue  wings. 

Fresco.    In  two  parts,  each,  h.  2.50,  w.  1.10. 

Part  of  the  decoration  of  the  chapel  of  which  the  "  Depo- 
sition" just  described  is  the  altar-piece.  The  pose  of  the 
Madonna  may  have  been  suggested  by  a  drawing  of  Michel- 
angelo's, such  as  the  sketch  (British  Museum  1900-9-11-1) 
which  was  used  by  Venusti  for  his  " Annunciation"  at  the 
Lateran. 

Condition :  ruined  and  grossly  repainted. 

Date:  1526-1528. 

Drawings:  possible  first  thought  for  the  Virgin,  Uffizi  6570  recto 
(photo.  F.  M.  C. ;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  XIX)  ;  finished  study  for  the  Virgin,  Uffizi  448 
(fig.  88;  photo.  Pini;  F.  M.  C.;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  XVI) ;  five  sketches  for  the  head 
and  shoulders  of  the  angel,  Uffizi  6570  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  finished  study 
for  the  angel,  Uffizi  6653  (fig.  87;  photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

Bibl.  See  the  preceding  and  B.  F.  D.,  II,  138,  149;  Dessins,  pp.  40, 
70,  96,  159,  160,  164,  190,  208,  295. 

THE  FOUR  EVANGELISTS 

Bust  figures.  They  cannot  be  identified  with  certainty.  In  the 
pendentive  left  of  altar,  Evangelist,  bearded  and  bald,  turned  three-quarters 

122 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

right,  dressed  in  reddish  robe  with  green  sleeve.  Pendentive  right  of  altar, 
Evangelist,  torse  full  face,  head  three-quarters  right,  blue  robe,  red  mantle, 
white  sleeve.  Pendentive  nearest  the  door  of  church,  Evangelist,  full  face, 
leaning  with  right  forearm  on  a  parapet,  head  inclined  slightly  to  left,  red 
drapery,  grey  sleeve.  Pendentive  above  pillar,  Evangelist  leaning  on  a  parapet 
and  turned  slightly  to  right,  red  drapery. 
Oil  on  wood.  Diameter  .70. 

Like  the  "Annunciation"  just  described  these  "tondi"  of 
the  vaulting  are  part  of  the  general  decoration  of  the  chapel. 
Vasari  and  Borghini  state  that  one  of  them  was  painted  by 
Bronzino.  In  his  "Life  of  Bronzino"  Vasari  ascribes  two 
Evangelists  and  certain  other  figures  (now  destroyed)  of  the 
vaulting  to  Jacopo's  pupil.  The  chapel  is  now  so  dark  that 
no  distinctions  of  touch  can  be  made  although  the  "tondo"  over 
the  pillar  seems  to  show  traces  of  Bronzino 's  hand.  The 
Evangelist  seen  nearly  in  profile  may  have  been  suggested  by 
such  a  drawing  of  Michelangelo's  as  British  Museum  1835,  9- 
15-495  (B.  P.  D.,  1520;  photo.  Kensington  2209).  The  church 
was  modernized  in  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth  century ;  the 
"God  the  Father  and  Patriarchs"  that  occupied  the  centre  of 
the  cupola  was  destroyed  in  1766  in  remodelling  the  organ-loft. 
Uffizi  6615  (photo.  Houghton)  may  have  served  as  a  study  for 
one  of  these  lost  figures. 

Condition :  darkened  by  smoke. 

Date :  1526-1528. 

Drawings :  possible  first  idea  for  one  of  these  figures,  Uffizi  6674  (photo. 
F.  M.  C.)  ;  finished  study  for  the  "tondo"  nearest  the  door,  British  Museum, 
Payne  Knight  Collection,  P.  p.  2,  102. 

Bibl.    See  above  and  Dessins,  pp.  36,  40,  70,  186,  203,  225,  295. 


Santa  Maria  Novella 
Cappella  del  Papa 


ST.  VERONICA 


In  the  centre  the  saint  kneels  facing  holding  out  to  the  left  the  sacred 
cloth,  white  head-dress,  orange  robe.  To  right  and  left,  on  a  high  square 
parapet  kneels  a  cherub  with  purple  wings  touched  with  light  blue;  each 
holds  a  flaming  blue  cassolette  and  draws  back  the  purple  curtains  which 

123 


PONTORMO 

hang  from  a  canopy  ornamented  with  three  cherub  heads,  one  (left)  with  blue 
wings,  one  (centre)  with  grey-green  wings,  one  (right)  with  reddish  wings. 
Under  the  figure  of  St.  Veronica,  the  inscription:  HECEST[  SALVJVRA; 
on  the  parapet  to  the  left:  ECCE|  TABER|NACVLV|  DEI|  SV;  on  the  right 
parapet:  PRETENDE|  DNE|  SVP|  FAMVLV. 

Lunette  over  the  entrance  door.    Fresco.    H.  3.07,  w.  4.13. 

Condition :  completely  restored  by  Conti.  There  is  nothing  to  show  that 
the  present  colour-scheme  resembles  Pontormo's. 

Reprod.    Photo.  Perazzi;  fig.  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit. 

The  ceiling,  which  is  a  barrel  vault  (L.  6.84,  w.  4.12),  and  the  side-walls 
down  to  about  a  metre  from  the  floor  are  covered  with  grotesques  subdivided 
by  a  geometrical  pattern  in  which  are  the  following  compositions : 

In  the  centre,  a  medallion :  God  the  Father  seen  to  the  knees  holding  in 
his  left  hand  a  book  on  which,  A.  (i.  His  right  hand  is  raised  in  benediction. 
He  is  dressed  in  a  brick-red  mantle  and  brown  vest.  To  his  left,  bust  figure 
of  a  "putto." 

Fresco.    Diameter,  1.20. 

Between  the  central  medallion  and  the  door,  a  small  medallion:  "putto" 
flying  downward  with  a  cross. 

Between  the  central  medallion  and  the  window,  a  small  medallion: 
"putto"  flying  downward  with  the  tables  of  the  law. 

Between  the  central  medallion  and  the  back  wall,  a  small  medallion: 
"putto"  flying  with  a  blue  scroll. 

Between  the  central  medallion  and  the  right  wall,  a  small  medallion: 
"putto"  flying  with  pole  and  crown  of  thorns;  reddish  drapery. 

Frescoes.    Diameter,  .60 ;  the  backgrounds  are  purple. 

These  medallions  are  surrounded  by  grotesques  consisting  of  griffons, 
cherubs,  vases,  cartouches,  harpies,  the  diamond  ring  and  ostrich  plumes  of 
Lorenzo  with  scrolls  inscribed:  SV|A|VE,  etc.  These  are  light  purple, 
yellowish  red  and  light  blue  on  a  black  ground.  Among  these  motives  are 
various  "cartelle,"  on  which  is  inscribed:  GLO[VI . . .  |S,  and  four  squares 
containing  Medici  arms  accompanied  by  "putti"  with  various  attributes  and 
surmounted  by  tiara  and  keys. 

These  squares  are  .75  by  .75. 

Reprod.    Photo,  (in  part)  Perazzi. 

Mentioned  by  Vasari.  The  commission  for  these  decora- 
tions was  given  to  Ridolfo  Ghirlandaio  who  turned  the  chapel 
over  to  Pontormo.  The  long  oval  of  the  face  of  St.  Veronica 
recalls  an  early  drawing  of  Michelangelo  now  in  the  Louvre. 
The  medallion  of  "God  the  Father"  is  mentioned  by  Borghini 
(Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  392).  That  the  decoration  of  this  chapel, 
as  far  as  its  character  and  general  effect  goes,  was  suggested, 
if  not  determined  by  Ridolfo  Ghirlandaio,  may  be  inferred 
from  the  decoration  of  the  Cappella  della  Signoria  where  we 

124 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

find  similar  grotesques  as  well  as  the  motive  of  "putti"  used 
in  the  same  way.  The  Cappella  della  Signoria  must  have  been 
painted  between  the  autumn  of  1513  and  the  summer  of  1514. 
On  June  4,  1514,  according  to  a  document  that  still  survives, 
Lorenzo  di  Credi  and  Giovanni  Cianfanini  gave  an  estimate  of 
the  value  of  the  decorations  (Vasari,  IV,  575;  VI,  539,  n.  2). 

Date:  1515. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  256,  540 ;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  393 ;  On 
Certain  Drawings,  p.  19  (where  I  erroneously  identified  Uffizi  6542  verso 
with  one  of  the  "putti"  of  the  Veronica  fresco)  ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175;  Dessins, 
pp.  19,  34,  66,  90,  113.  For  the  convent,  see  Memorie  dell'  insigne  monastero 
e  chiesa  di  8.  Maria  Novella,  Delizie  degli  Eruditi  Toscani,  IX,  111  ff. ; 
J.  Wood  Brown,  The  Dominican  Church  of  8.  Maria  Novella  at  Florence, 
Edinburgh,  1902.  There  are  four  account  books  of  the  convent  in  the  archives 
of  Florence  dating  from  the  period  in  which  these  decorations  were  executed 
but  none  of  them  contain  any  reference  to  our  frescoes  ( Convento  102,  No.  1, 
Giornale,  1516-1521,  No.  56,  Contratti,  1491-1779,  No.  87,  Ricordi,  1489-1531, 
No.  89,  Ricordi,  1507-1527). 

On  the  wall  opposite  the  door  is  a  "  Crowning  of  the 
Virgin."  The  Madonna  wears  a  light  blue  robe  with  yellow 
inner  mantle  and  head-dress;  the  God  the  Father,  a  dark 
red  mantle  and  purplish  tunic.  Light  purple  background; 
above,  purple  curtains.  This  composition  has  been  completely 
repainted.  The  original  fresco  was  perhaps  by  Ridolfo 
Ghirlandaio. 


San  Michele  Visdomini 


HOLY  FAMILY 


In  the  centre,  the  Madonna  enthroned,  turned  three-quarters  right,  the 
head  full  face ;  her  left  hand  rests  on  her  lap,  her  right  points  to  St.  Joseph ; 
she  wears  a  pinkish  red  robe  and  blue  mantle.  In  the  foreground  right, 
St.  Francis  kneels  profile  left;  his  hands  clasped  before  him,  he  gazes  at 
the  Christ  Child ;  he  wears  a  grey  habit.  Behind  him  stands  St.  James  profile 
left,  head  three-quarters  left,  left  arm  at  his  side,  right  arm  extended  holding 
a  staff;  darkish  pink  drapery,  grey- white  sleeve.  In  the  foreground  left, 
St.  John  the  Evangelist  seated  three-quarters  right,  head  three-quarters  left 
gazing  up ;  his  right  arm  extended  at  side,  his  hand  holding  a  quill  pen ;  in  his 
lap  an  open  book  on  which  is  written :  M  D  viij,  followed  by  ten  lines  which 
are  illegible ;  he  has  a  long  curly  beard  and  wears  a  grey  tunic  and  light  red 
mantle ;  on  the  rock  on  which  he  sits  is  inscribed  D.  N.  Above  him  St.  Joseph 

125 


PONTORMO 

is  seated  three-quarters  right,  head  nearly  full  face;  he  holds  on  his  knees 
the  Infant  Jesus ;  Joseph  is  dressed  in  a  greyish  purple  robe,  a  greyish  yellow 
mantle  across  his  knees.  The  Christ  Child  stands  on  Joseph's  left  knee, 
weight  on  left  leg,  right  leg  drawn  back,  in  his  left  hand  a  reed  cross,  his 
head  inclined  on  his  right  shoulder  looks  up  left.  In  the  middle  foreground, 
the  young  St.  John  seated  profile  left,  his  right  leg  raised;  with  his  right 
hand  he  points  to  the  Christ  Child;  his  head,  seen  nearly  full  face,  looks  at 
St.  Francis.  The  background  is  a  dark  grey  stone  niche  and  wall  with  dark 
purple  curtains  drawn  aside,  to  the  left,  by  a  "putto"  who  stands  profile 
right,  his  right  arm  raised,  a  fold  of  the  curtain  hanging  across  his  loins. 
To  the  right  stands  a  cherub  nearly  full  face ;  his  right  arm  extended  across 
his  body  holds  back  the  curtains. 

Oil  on  heavy  prepared  paper  stretched  and  glued  on  a  wooden  panel. 
H.  2.14,  w.  1.85. 

On  the  second  altar  to  the  right.  Mentioned  by  Vasari. 
Painted  for  Francesco  di  Giovanni  Pucci,  gonf aloniere  of  the 
Republic,  for  the  altar  where  it  still  hangs.  Francesco  Pucci 
was  the  son  of  Giovanni  d' Antonio  Pucci  and  Bartolommea  di 
Leonardo  Benivieni.  He  was  born  in  1437  and  held  many 
important  offices:  podesta  of  Bibbiena,  1478;  vicario  of 
Anghiari,  1485;  castellano  of  the  fortress  of  Sarzana,  1493; 
captain  of  Cutigliano,  1494;  vicario  of  Lari,  1500.  After  the 
fall  of  Soderini  he  was  elected  to  the  balia  that  reformed  the 
state  for  the  Medici  and  he  was  later  gonfaloniere  of  Justice. 
He  died  in  1518,  the  year  in  which  Pontormo's  altar-piece  was 
painted.  The  Archduchess  Maria  Maddalena  offered  one  thou- 
sand "scudi"  for  this  picture  (Richa,  VII,  23;  Del  Migliore,  p. 
366)  but  it  is  an  unalienable  part  of  the  Pucci  inheritance  as  is 
established  by  the  "rogato"  of  Ser  Carlo  da  Firenzuola.  This 
fact  would  seem  to  militate  against  the  assertion  made  by  some 
critics  and  repeated  by  Goldschmidt  that  the  panel  once  in  the 
Doetsch  Collection  was  the  original.  The  Doetsch  Catalogue 
(Richter),  it  is  true,  holds  the  picture  then  part  of  that  collec- 
tion to  be  the  original  and  adds  that  it  was  replaced  in  San 
Michele  by  a  copy.  Berenson  too  once  gave  the  Doetsch  picture 
as  authentic  but  in  his  latest  list  he  is  of  the  opinion  that  our 
panel  is  Pontormo's.  We  may,  moreover,  remark  that  Milanesi 
in  his  note  on  this  altar-piece  (VI,  258,  n.  3)  states  that  it  was 
carefully  cleaned  and  restored  in  1823  by  Luigi  Scotti  who 
found  that  over  the  wooden  panel  a  sheet  of  paper  had  been 

126 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

stretched  upon  wMch  the  picture  had  been  painted.  The 
Doetsch  picture  was  on  canvas,  and  the  catalogue  informs  us 
that  the  copy  substituted  in  San  Michele  in  the  first  part  of  the 
last  century  was  painted  on  paper  stretched  on  a  panel.  It 
seems  hardly  likely  that  Scotti  would  have  been  asked  to  restore 
a  new  copy.  This  combination  of  facts  seems  to  point  to  the 
present  version  as  the  original,  and  such  scrutiny  as  I  have  been 
able  to  give  it  has  not  led  me  to  doubt  its  authenticity,  although 
the  church  is  so  badly  lighted  that  a  thorough  examination  is 
impossible.  The  altar  was  erected  in  1518  and  restored  in 
1872.  On  a  marble  slab  under  it  one  reads:  FRANCISCUS 
PUCCIUS  •  IO:  ANTONII  FIL  •  SIBI  •  SUISQUE  •  POS- 
TEEIS|  ET  VOLENTI  •  EX  •  FAMILIA  POSUIT. 

Condition :  cleaned  and  restored. 

Date:  1518. 

Drawings:  possible  first  idea  for  the  St.  John  Evangelist,  Uffizi  6742 
recto  (photo.  Pini;  F.  M.  C.)  ;  first  thoughts  for  the  little  St.  John,  Corsini 
124232  (fig.  14;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  Uffizi  6678  (photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  sketches 
for  the  same  figure,  Corsini  124244  (fig.  15;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  Uffizi 
6545  (fig.  18;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  reversed;  Uffizi  6554  (photo.  Houghton;  Pini; 
fig.,  Vita  d'arte,  No.  57,  p.  3)  ;  study  for  the  same,  Uffizi  7452;  sketch  for 
the  left  leg  of  same,  Uffizi  6551  (fig.  16;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  finished  study  for 
the  head  of  St.  Joseph,  Uffizi  6581  recto  (fig.  22;  photo.  Houghton;  Pini)  ; 
studies  for  the  "putto"  to  the  right  who  draws  back  the  curtains  and  sketch 
for  the  folds  of  the  curtain,  Uffizi  6662  (fig.  21;  photo.  Houghton);  first 
thought  for  the  Christ  Child,  Uffizi  6744  verso  (fig.  19;  photo.  F.  M.  C.), 
which  may  also  represent  an  idea  for  the  little  St.  John  reversed;  study  for 
the  Christ  Child,  Uffizi  6520  (photo.  Pini;  F.  M.  C.)  ;  study  for  the  head 
of  the  same,  Uffizi  654  (fig.  20;  photo.  Braun,  Florence  388;  Alinari;  Pini; 
F.  M.  C.)  ;  first  thought  for  the  St.  Francis,  Uffizi  6742  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ; 
sketch  for  the  same,  Uffizi  6525;  study  for  the  same,  Uffizi  6744  (fig.  23; 
photo.  Houghton;  Pini;  F.  M.  C.)  ;  first  thought  for  the  Madonna's  head, 
Uffizi  6551  verso  (fig.  17;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  study  for  the  head-dress  of  the 
same,  Uffizi  6520  verso;  first  idea  for  the  torse  and  legs  of  St.  James,  Uffizi 
6579  verso ;  first  thought  for  the  same  figure,  Uffizi  7452  verso ;  possible  first 
idea  for  the  whole  composition,  Corsini  124229  (photo.  F.  M.  C.).  In  the 
Descrizione  dei  disegni  della  galleria  Gabburri  in  Firenze  (Bibl.  Naz.  Fir., 
A  XVIII,  No.  33 )  we  find  the  following  mention  of  a  drawing  for  the  present 
panel:  "No.  13.  Altro  compagno  con  quantita  di  figure  di  penna  e  acqua- 
relli  rappresentante  la  Vergine  che  siede  in  alto  col  bambino  Gesu,  S. 
Giovambattista  piccolo,  S.  Francesco  e  altri  Santi.  Opera  singolarissima  del 
celebre  lacopo  da  Pontormo :  ed  e  lo  stesso  che  si  vede  in  una  tavola  da  altare 
nella  chiesa  di  S.  Michele  Bisdomini  in  Firenze."  The  Gabburri  Collection 
was  sold  to  Kent  (1742)  who  afterwards  sold  it  in  London.  Mariette  had  a 

127 


PONTOEMO 

poor  opinion  of  it.  We  cannot  tell,  of  course,  whether  the  drawing  in  question 
was  authentic  or  merely  a  copy  of  the  picture,  but  the  chances  are  that  it  was 
a  copy. 

Documents :  Neither  the  Libro  di  Copie  di  Contratti  di  Casa  Pucci  1479- 
1574  (A.  S.  F.,  Carte  Riccardi,  No.  605)  nor  Strumenti  dal  1516  al  1529  dei 
Signori  Pucci,  segnato  C.  (idem,  No.  606)  contains  any  record  of  the  contract 
for  this  picture. 

Reprod.  Fig.  13;  photo.  Alinari  20313.  Ancient  copy  in  the  former 
Doetsch  Collection  sold  in  London  in  1895  for  10,500  frcs.,  of  which  the 
provenance  and  fate  are  unknown  (fig.,  Doetsch  Catalogue). 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  258 ;  Borghini,  II  Eiposo,  ed,  1730,  p.  393 ;  Bocchi, 
p.  403;  Del  Migliore,  p.  366;  Richa,  VII,  23;  Eistretto,  p.  53;  B.  F.  D.,  I, 
314,  n. ;  II,  139, 140, 142, 143, 145, 149,  150, 153 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175 ;  Jacobsen, 
Repertorium,  XXI,  281;  Morelli,  Borghese  and  Doria  PamjUi  Galleries,  p. 
130;  Catalogue  of  the  Collection  of  Henry  Doetsch,  London,  1895,  p.  31; 
Dessins,  pp.  19,  34,  38,  55,  67,  109,  111,  128,  129,  131,  145,  148,  150,  151,  165, 
166,  215,  221,  228,  229,  242,  261,  271,  273,  274,  282,  305,  335,  336,  342;  On 
Certain  Drawings,  pp.  6,  20. 


Palazzo  Capponi 
Collection  of  Marchese  Farinola 

MADONNA  AND  LITTLE  ST.  JOHN 

The  Virgin,  full  face,  seen  to  the  waist,  wears  a  scarlet  robe,  a  dark 
violet  scarf  about  her  auburn  hair.  The  Christ  Child  kneels  profile  right 
with  his  right  knee  on  a  cream-coloured  sack  over  which  a  green  drapery  is 
thrown.  To  the  right  of  this  sack  one  sees  the  head  and  shoulders  of  the 
little  St.  John,  torse  profile  left,  head  full  face;  behind  him,  his  cross  of 
reeds.  Across  the  foreground  runs  a  parapet  of  greenish  stone-colour.  The 
background  is  greyish  green. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.00,  w.  .65. 

Provenance  and  history  unknown.  It  would  be  the  merest 
conjecture  to  venture  the  suggestion  that  this  may  be  the  panel 
that  Vasari  says  Pontormo  painted  for  Lodovico  Capponi 's  own 
room  (VI,  272;  cf.  also,  Borghini,  p.  395).  The  children's 
faces  are  Leonardesque  and  recall  the  Visdomini  altar-piece; 
the  modelling  too  has  the  same  soft  quality,  but  the  colour  is 
paler. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date :  1517-1518. 

Bibl.    Morelli,  op.  cit.,  p.  130 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175. 

128 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 


Palazzo  Corsini 

141.     MADONNA  AND  LITTLE  ST.  JOHN 

The  Madonna,  seated  three-quarters  right,  is  seen  almost  to  the  knees, 
her  head  turned  slightly  to  the  left.  She  wears  a  light  red  dress  with  yellow 
sleeves,  blue-green  mantle  and  violet  head-dress ;  her  hair  is  red.  She  supports 
the  Christ  Child  who  stands,  full  face,  on  her  left  knee,  his  right  foot  forward, 
his  left  hand  raised  in  blessing.  He  is  blond.  A  narrow  drapery  crosses  his 
body.  In  the  lower  left  corner,  the  head  and  shoulders  of  St.  John,  seen  full 
face;  he  has  red  hair  and  draws  about  him  a  part  of  the  Madonna's  mantle. 
The  background  is  a  landscape:  to  the  right,  hill  and  trees;  to  the  left,  a 
round  low  tower  with  conical  roof,  a  lofty  donjon,  a  little  church  with  belfry, 
and  lightly  indicated  olive-trees ;  the  sky  is  a  greenish  blue. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .87,  w.  .67. 

Attributed  to  Rosso  or  Bacchiacca.  Berenson  ascribes  it 
correctly  to  Pontormo.  There  is  something  in  the  composition 
that  reminds  one  of  Andrea's  " Madonna  di  Borgo  Pinti,"  of 
which  there  is  a  good  copy  by  Empoli  in  this  collection 
(No.  121)  ;  the  little  church  faintly  suggests  the  background 
of  Diirer's  larger  woodcut,  the  "Kreuztragung";  the  little 
St.  John  recalls  Michelangelo's  "tondo"  of  the  "Holy  Family." 
Cruttwell  inaccurately  states  that  Berenson  ascribes  this  picture 
to  Bacchiacca. 

Condition :  excellent ;  a  slight  vertical  crack  to  the  left  has  been  repaired. 

-Date:  1528-1529. 

Reprod.    Fig.  103 ;  photo.  Brogi,  17626. 

Bibl.  B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  175;  Uld.  Medici,  Catalogo  della  Galleria  del 
Principi  Corsini  in  Firenze,  Firenze:  Mariani,  1880;  Cruttwell,  Florentine 
Churches,  p.  85. 

185.     MADONNA  AND  LITTLE  ST.  JOHN 

The  Madonna  sits  facing,  her  right  foot  advanced,  her  head  slightly 
inclined  on  her  right  shoulder.  She  has  blond  hair  and  wears  a  light  red 
robe,  a  blue  mantle,  a  fold  of  which  is  draped  across  her  lap,  and  a  violet  and 
yellow  scarf.  She  holds  to  the  left  the  Christ  Child,  who  is  also  blond  and 
stands  facing,  his  right  hand  raised  in  sign  of  benediction.  He  wears  a 
greenish  loin-cloth.  On  the  right,  St.  John  seated,  facing;  he  has  red  hair; 
his  head,  turned  three-quarters  left,  gazes  at  the  Madonna;  a  drapery  is 
wound  about  his  loins  and  passes  over  his  left  arm ;  he  holds  a  scroll  on  which 
is  written:  ECCE|  AGNUS]  DEI;  below  him  to  the  right,  his  cross  of  reeds. 

129 


PONTORMO 

The  background  consists  of  rocks  and  trees;  the  foreground  of  rocks,  earth 
and  little  plants. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .52,  w.  .40. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date:  1526-1528. 

Keprod.    Photo.  Alinari  4546. 

Bibl.    See  above  and  Cruttwell,  op.  cit.,  p.  81. 


Palazzo  Davanzati 

BIRTH-PLATE:  NATIVITY  OF  ST.  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST 

The  composition  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  birth-plate  now  in  the  Uffizi 
(No.  1198).  The  robe  of  the  woman  to  the  left  is  pale  yellow;  the  woman 
bending  with  the  child  in  her  arms  wears  a  light  yellow  tunic  and  white 
turban ;  St.  Elizabeth,  white  head-dress ;  the  coverlet  of  her  bed,  dark  green ; 
Zacharias,  red  tunic,  dark  blue  mantle,  white  sleeves.  On  his  tablets  he  writes : 
JOHANNES. 

On  the  back  in  the  midst  of  tasselled  red  ribbons,  a  bearing;  to  the 
right,  the  arms  of  the  Antinori ;  to  the  left,  those  of  the  San  Giovanni  or  of 
the  Ughi — it  is  hard  to  say  which  because  the  colours  have  faded  (Priorista 
di  Monaldi,  p.  243  verso). 

Oil  on  wood.    Diameter,  .52. 

Provenance  unknown.  The  colour-scheme  differs  some- 
what from  that  of  the  Uffizi  birth-plate,  though  the  composition 
is  identical.  There  the  woman  to  the  left  wears  a  red  dress; 
the  woman  in  the  centre,  a  reddish  violet  turban  and  orange 
dress ;  Zacharias,  a  yellow  tunic  and  red  mantle.  I  have  been 
unable  to  ascertain  whether  this  is  the  birth-plate  that  Berenson 
cites  in  the  Butler  Collection,  which  was  recently  dispersed. 
The  date  of  our  "piatto"  could  be  accurately  determined  if 
the  date  of  the  marriage  indicated  by  the  arms  was  known. 
Beside  it  and  purporting  to  be  the  original  sketch  for  it,  is 
exhibited  a  poor  late  sixteenth  century  copy  in  bistre  heightened 
with  white  laid  on  in  strokes  on  grey  paper  (h.  .41,  w.  .32). 

Condition:  practically  untouched  but  faded. 
Date:  about  1530. 


130 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 


Palazzo  Pitti 

182.     MARTYRDOM  OF  ST.  MAURICE 

Composition  of  over  eighty  figures.  On  the  left,  on  a  dais  approached 
by  brownish  steps,  sits  Maximianus  as  judge;  in  the  extreme  left  corner,  a 
man  with  his  back  turned  who  carries  a  basket ;  in  the  foreground  to  the  left 
and  to  the  extreme  right,  martyrs  with  their  hands  tied  behind  them  being 
driven  away  to  sacrifice;  on  the  left  and  farther  back,  martyrs  pursued  and 
slain  by  naked  horsemen;  above  the  latter,  on  a  mound,  an  angel  baptizing 
the  souls  of  the  slain ;  above  them,  in  the  clouds,  three  angels  shooting  arrows 
at  the  executioners;  on  another  brown  mound  to  the  right,  martyrs  crucified 
or  lying  on  the  ground  wounded  or  slain ;  at  the  foot  of  this  mound  an  angel 
who  picks  up  nails.  The  colour-scheme  is  as  follows :  figure  in  the  foreground 
right,  red  hair,  red  tights  to  the  knees,  yellow  jacket  with  sash,  blue  sleeves, 
mole-grey  scarf,  yellow-brown  basket;  Maximianus,  brown  hair,  light  green 
vest,  violet-red  mantle,  under  him  a  grey  drapery ;  to  his  right,  angel  picking 
up  nails,  pale  greenish  blue  drapery ;  standard  in  the  centre,  red  with  a  blue 
stripe;  in  front  of  it  a  figure  in  yellow  on  horseback;  among  the  horsemen, 
touches  of  scarlet  given  by  their  caps;  figure  to  the  extreme  left,  blue-green 
drapery;  standard  to  the  extreme  left,  orange  with  a  blue  stripe;  draped 
figure  to  the  left,  blue  robe ;  angel  baptizing,  tunic  of  reddish  yellow ;  shields, 
some  red,  some  yellow;  touches  here  and  there  among  the  martyrs  of  red; 
sky,  green;  landscape,  brown;  steps  and  platform,  brown;  flesh-tones  pale 
with  brown  shadows. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .65,  w.  .70. 

Painted  for  the  women  of  the  Hospital  of  the  Innocents 
according  to  Vasari  (VI,  275)  who  praises  this  panel  extrava- 
gantly. A  variant  exists  in  the  Uffizi  which  was  executed  for 
Carlo  Neroni  (Vasari,  ibid.).  The  present  picture  was  still  in 
the  Hospital  in  1565  and  greatly  prized  by  Vincenzo  Borghini, 
who  at  that  time  was  prior  of  the  institution.  Biscioni  in  his 
notes  on  Raffaello  Borghini  states  that,  when  he  wrote,  it  was 
no  longer  at  the  Innocents.  Richa  in  the  late  eighteenth  century 
knew  that  it  still  existed,  but  the  editors  of  the  Milan  edition 
of  Vasari  (1811)  speak  of  it  as  lost  (XII,  43,  n.  1)  as  also  does 
the  Roman  edition  of  the  " Lives."  When  and  under  what 
circumstances  it  passed  into  the  Pitti  I  do  not  know.  The  panel 
is  a  curious  mixture  of  nudes  inspired  by  Michelangelo's  early 
work  and  horsemen  that  are  reminiscent  of  the  "  Battle  of 
Anghiari."  We  may  measure  the  extent  to  which  Jacopo  was 
influenced  by  the  studies  that  he  must  have  made  in  his  youth 

131 


PONTORMO 

of  Leonardo's  lost  masterpiece  by  comparing  this  picture  with 
fragmentary  copies  of  the  "  Battle  of  Anghiari"  known  to  us 
in  Leonardo's  sketches,  in  London,  Venice  and  Windsor; 
Raphael's  sketch,  in  the  University  Galleries,  Oxford;  Cesare 
da  Sesto's  drawing,  in  Windsor;  Rubens'  drawing  in  coloured 
chalks,  in  the  Louvre,  which  is  a  copy  of  a  copy ;  a  drawing  in 
the  British  Museum  which  is  a  copy  of  the  right-hand  figure  of 
the  central  group;  an  old  copy  in  oils,  in  the  magazine  of  the 
Uffizi  (part  of  central  group)  ;  a  smaller  painting  of  part  of 
the  same  group,  Collection  Timbal,  Paris ;  a  large  late  sixteenth 
century  copy,  in  oils  on  canvas,  of  an  earlier  copy,  now  in  the 
collection  of  the  late  Herbert  Home,  Florence ;  the  engraving  by 
Edelinck;  the  engraving  by  Lorenzo  Zacchia  (1558).  Jacopo 
is  perhaps  at  his  feeblest  here  and  in  the  Uffizi  variant;  the 
colour  is  arid,  the  composition  and  modelling  laboured. 

Condition :  The  panel  has  been  cut  down  on  the  left  side ;  it  is  otherwise 
relatively  untouched. 

Date :  1528-1529. 

Drawings:  possible  study  for  the  nude  to  the  left  of  the  angel  that 
baptizes  the  martyrs,  Corsini  124236  (photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  modified  variant  of 
the  upper  left  quarter  of  the  composition,  Hamburg  21253  (fig.  108 ;  B.  F.  D., 
pi.  CLXXII). 

Documents:  If  the  women  of  the  hospital  paid  for  this  picture  the 
transaction  would  probably  not  appear  in  the  records  of  the  Institution.  At 
any  rate,  in  the  Archives  of  the  Innocents  I  have  found  no  trace  of  this  panel. 
I  have  examined  the  following  account-books:  Debitori  e  Creditori,  C,  1510- 
1526;  D,  1526-1533;  E,  1533-1539;  F,  1539-1544;  G,  1545-1551;  H,  1551-1554; 
Giornale  I,  1532-1539;  Entrata  e  Uscita,  D,  1527-1528;  xx,  1528;  y,  1528; 
yy,  1529;  z,  1530;  A,  1531;  B,  1532;  C,  1533;  D,  1534;  E,  1535;  F,  1536; 
G,  1537 ;  H,  1538. 

Reprod.  Fig.  106;  variant,  Uffizi,  No.  1187;  old  copy  in  the  Jarves 
Collection,  New  Haven,  No.  79;  photo.  Braun  42182;  Alinari;  Brogi  7892; 
fig.,  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit.;  Vasari,  trans,  de  Vere,  VII,  170. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  275;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  395;  Richa, 
VIII,  130 ;  Chiavacci,  Guida  della  R.  Oalleria  del  Palazzo  Pitti,  3d  ed.,  Firenze, 
1864,  p.  90;  3d  ed.  (in  French),  Prato,  p.  164;  Miintz,  Renaissance,  Paris, 
1895,  III,  499;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  320;  II,  154;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  174;  Cruttwell, 
Florentine  Galleries,  p.  215 ;  Dessins,  pp.  35,  40,  56,  71, 127,  225,  256,  290,  338. 

233.     ST.  ANTHONY 

Half-length ;  seen  three-quarters  right,  head  full  face ;  in  his  right  hand 
a  rustic  cross,  in  his  left  a  white  scroll  which  passes  to  the  right  across  the 

132 


AUTHENTIC  PICTUEES 

lower  part  of  the  picture   and  bears  the   inscription:   ES|    DEI|    ESTO| 
LITATE]  VICT;  he  wears  a  black  mantle  with  a  dull  grey-purple  sleeve; 
the  flesh-tones  are  reddish  brown ;  the  background,  green-brown. 
Oil  on  canvas.    H.  .78,  w.  .66. 

Not  mentioned  by  Vasari;  provenance  unknown.  This  is 
a  good  example  of  Pontormo's  most  mannered  period  (1540- 
1550) .  Part  of  the  inscription  is  covered  by  the  frame. 

Condition :  darkened  with  heavy  varnish  and  covered  with  minute  cracks 
but  otherwise  uninjured. 

Date :  1540-1545. 

Reprod.  Small  replica  in  a  private  collection,  in  Florence;  photo. 
Alinari;  Brogi  7893. 

Bibl.  Chiavacci,  op.  cit.,  3d  ed.,  p.  112;  idem  (in  French),  p.  167; 
Cruttwell,  Florentine  Galleries,  p.  164 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175. 


249.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Bust  figure,  seen  in  profile  to  left.  He  is  clean  shaven,  has  grey  hair 
and  wears  a  black  coat  with  a  small  white  frill  at  the  neck  and  a  greenish 
black  cap.  The  background  is  a  slate-grey. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .50,  w.  .39. 

The  traditional  title  was  " Portrait  of  an  Unknown  Man." 
E.  Schaeffer  thinks,  not  without  a  considerable  show  of  reason, 
that  we  have  here  a  portrait  of  Francesco  da  Castiglione, 
"canonico  fiorentino."  And  it  is  true,  as  Schaeffer  points  out, 
that  the  same  face,  seen  at  a  slightly  different  angle,  does  appear 
in  Vasari 's  fresco,  in  the  Palazzo  Yecchio,  "The  Entry  of  Leo  X 
into  Florence,"  and  that  Pontormo's  portrait  would  seem  to 
have  served  Vasari  as  a  prototype,  although  in  the  fresco  the 
prelate  appears  "in  pontificalibus,"  that  is,  in  a  reddish  violet 
mantle  and  carrying,  as  "suddiacono,"  the  cross  of  the  Pope. 
In  his  "Ragionamenti"  (VIII,  Rag.  Ill,  142)  Vasari  writes 
in  describing  his  fresco:  "P.  . . .  chi  e  quel  prete,  vecchio, 
magro,  rosso,  che  fa  I'uffizzio  di  suddiacono  con  quella  toga 
rossa,  portando  la  croce  di  papa?  Gr.  Quello  e  M.  Francesco 
da  Castiglione,  canonico  fiorentino,  il  quale  ha  accanto  a  se,  e 
sopra,  tutti  i  segretari  del  papa. ' '  This  is  clear  enough  identi- 
fication. We  may,  however,  notice  that  Castiglione  does  not 

133 


PONTORMO 

seem  to  be  definitely  mentioned  by  Paris  de  Grassis  in  his  "De 
ingressu  summi  pont.  Leonis  X  Florentiam"  (ed.  Moreni, 
Florentiae,  MDCCXCIII),  and  what  is  more  important  the 
date  of  his  death  is  not  known.  Schaeffer,  who  thinks  that  he 
died  rather  soon  after  1515,  conjectures  from  the  yellow  tone 
of  the  picture  and  from  the  shape  of  the  nostril  that  it  is  an 
example  of  the  early  work  of  Pontormo  —  perhaps  the  earliest 
portrait  we  possess  from  his  hand.  Such  an  opinion  shows  a 
total  absence  of  any  sense  of  quality  as  well  as  a  complete 
misunderstanding  of  Pontormo 's  development  as  a  painter. 
The  yellow  tone  —  the  picture  had  not  yet  been  cleaned  —  was 
of  course  due  to  the  thickening  and  darkening  of  old  varnish 
and  the  shape  of  the  nostril,  which  may  not  inconceivably  have 
been  characteristic  of  the  sitter,  is  certainly  not  an  index  of 
Pontormo 's  early  work.  In  this  panel,  which  Morelli  also  errs 
in  placing  early,  we  have  one  of  the  most  intense  and  masterly 
of  Jacopo's  portraits  of  men.  The  economy  of  means  with 
which  an  effect  of  rough-hewn  strength  is  given  is  remarkable 
and  the  modelling,  the  colour,  the  severity  of  the  conception, 
all  point  indubitably  to  Pontormo 's  later  period,  when  he  had 
evolved  a  personal  style  quite  free  from  the  influence  of  Andrea 
which  had  predominated  in  his  work  between  1514  and  1517. 
This  may  well  be  a  portrait  of  Castiglione,  but  in  that  case  he 
was  still  living  as  late  as  1534,  and  until  the  date  of  his 
death  is  determined  Schaeffer's  identification  must  remain  a 
conjecture. 

Condition :  excellent ;  the  background  has  been  retouched  and  the  panel 
has  recently  been  cleaned. 

Date:  1534-1535. 

Reprod.  Fig.  125;  photo.  Alinari;  Brogi  7894;  fig.,  article  cited  below 
with  two  figs,  of  Vasari's  fresco;  fig.,  Miintz,  Renaissance,  Paris,  1895,  III,  143. 

Bibl.  Chiavacci,  op.  cit.,  p.  120;  3d  ed.  (French),  p.  163;  Morelli,  op. 
cit.,  p.  129,  n. ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175 ;  Cruttwell,  Florentine  Galleries,  p.  210 ; 
E.  Schaeffer,  Ein  Bildnis  Pontormos  im  Palazzo  Pitti,  Monatshefte,  f. 
Kunstwissenschaft,  March,  1910,  p.  115. 


134 


AUTHENTIC  PICTUEES 

379.     ADORATION  OF  THE  MAGI 

Composition  of  about  ninety  figures.  To  the  extreme  right,  two  shep- 
herds kneel  almost  profile  left;  they  have  grey  hair  and  are  dressed  in  grey 
clothes ;  to  their  left,  St.  Joseph,  seated  profile  left,  wears  a  pinkish  white  tunic 
and  white  tights;  the  Madonna,  who  stands  near  by  turned  three-quarters 
left,  wears  a  red  dress  and  blue  mantle;  Elizabeth,  turned  three-quarters 
left,  is  dressed  in  a  pale  lilac  robe,  grey  mantle  and  white  head-dress ;  the  first 
King,  who  kneels  almost  profile  right  before  the  Christ  Child,  wears  a  dress 
of  cloth  of  gold  with  blue  sleeves ;  his  companion  stands  profile  right,  wearing 
blue  cap,  fur  collar*  large  blue  sleeves,  and  he  holds  a  red  bundle  under  his 
arm;  his  second  companion  stands  profile  right  dressed  in  yellow;  the  man 
who  bends  forward  behind  the  latter  is  clad  in  green-black  and  holds  in  his 
left  hand  a  blue  hat;  the  men  in  the  group  immediately  behind  the  parapet 
wear  red  jackets  and  blue  hats  or  blue  jackets  and  red  hats ;  the  second  King, 
who  stands  three-quarters  right,  wears  a  robe  embroidered  in  gold,  red  cloak 
with  pale  lavender  sleeves  and  blue  turban;  the  man  to  his  right  is  dressed 
in  red;  the  figure  seen  over  his  shoulder  in  dark  blue  tunic  and  dark  blue 
cap ;  the  third  King  is  dressed  in  a  dark  yellow  robe  with  red  sleeves  and 
red  turban ;  the  man  on  the  left,  who  presents  a  vase  to  him,  has  brown  hair 
and  wears  a  yellow  tunic  and  red  tights ;  the  next  figure  to  the  left  has  blue 
tights  and  sleeves  and  a  yellow  tunic ;  the  figure  to  his  right,  white  tunic  and 
scarlet  tights;  behind  the  parapet,  many  spectators;  in  the  distance,  two 
converging  processions  of  horsemen;  in  their  costumes  blue  and  red  pre- 
dominate; in  the  background  at  the  left,  low  knolls  covered  with  delicate 
trees;  in  the  centre,  a  city  gate  with  towers;  to  the  right,  three  buildings  in 
the  style  of  the  early  Renaissance;  the  foreground,  brown;  paths,  brownish 
yellow;  fields,  greenish  brown;  penthouse,  brown;  buildings,  various  shades 
of  yellow,  white,  and  brown ;  sky,  blue  and  green. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .85,  w.  1.91. 

Believed  to  be  the  panel  that  Pontormo  painted  for 
Giovanmaria  Benintendi  (Vasari,  VI,  264,  note).  Francia- 
bigio  and  Bacchiacca  also  painted  for  Benintendi  pictures  of 
about  the  same  dimensions  and  shape  (Vasari,  V,  196;  VI,  455). 
These  are  now  in  the  Dresden  Gallery  (Nos.  75  and  80),  where 
Franciabigio's  is  dated  1523,  and  in  the  Kaiser-Friedrich 
Museum  (No.  267).  The  decorative  woodwork  of  the  room 
of  which  this  "  Adoration"  formed  part  was  by  Baccio  d' Agnolo 
(Vasari,  V,  352).  Waetzoldt  believes,  I  think  without  reason, 
the  figure  to  the  extreme  left  to  be  a  portrait  of  Pontormo 
himself. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date :  1518-1519. 

Drawings:  sketches  for  one  of  the  horsemen  in  the  middle  distance, 

135 


PONTOBMO 

Uffizi  6518  and  6722  (fig.  34;  photo.  Houghton)  ;  sketch  of  the  horse  of  the 
same,  Uffizi  6558  verso. 

Reprod.  Fig.  33;  engraving,  Luigi  Bardi,  Galleria  Pitti,  IV;  photo. 
Braun  42379 ;  Alinari ;  Brogi  7895 ;  fig.,  Vasari,  trans,  de  Vere,  VII,  147. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  V,  196 ;  VI,  264 ;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  393 ; 
Chiavacci,  op.  cit.,  p.  164;  3d  ed.  (French),  p.  167;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175; 
Cruttwell,  Florentine  Galleries,  p.  217;  Waetzoldt,  Die  Kunst  des  Portrats, 
p.  345 ;  Schubring,  Cassoni,  p.  404  f . ;  Dessins,  pp.  35,  39,  68,  118,  127,  256, 
269 ;  On  Certain  Drawings,  p.  21. 


Palazzo  Vecchio 
Ufficio  delle  Belle  Arti 

CARRO  BELLA  ZECCA 

Four  "putti"  with  a  bird. 

Ruined. 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Four  "putti"  playing  with  a  shield. 
Ruined. 

Four  "putti"  playing  with  arrows  and  a  ribbon. 
Ruined. 

Six  "putti";  to  the  left  one  carries  another  on  his  head;  in  the  centre 
two  carry  a  sphere. 
Ruined. 

Four  "putti"  playing  together;  one  holds  a  shield  which  rests  on  the 
ground. 

Ruined. 

Three  "putti";  one  in  the  centre  rides  a  lamb  which  one  to  the  left 
leads;  another,  to  the  right,  carries  a  bundle. 
Ruined. 

Two  "putti"  and  two  cherubs. 
Completely  repainted. 
Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Eight  "putti";  two  on  a  table  that  the  others  surround;  one,  to  the 
right,  carries  a  large  bundle. 
Ruined. 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 
The  preceding  eight  pieces  are  in  monochrome,  oil  on  wood.    H.  .32,  w.  .44. 

136 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Two  "putti"  supporting  a  gilded  shield  (Medici  arms  and  those  of 
Florence). 

Two  "putti"  supporting  a  shield  (Medici  arms  and  those  of  Florence). 
The  preceding  two  panels  are  in  monochrome,  oil  on  wood.    H.  .28,  w.  .56. 

Baptism  of  Christ. 

Hair,  blond;  drapery,  purplish  white;  background,  black. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .69,  w.  .45. 

Grossly  repainted. 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Visitation. 

The  Virgin  wears  a  purple  robe,  blue  mantle,  white  head-dress;  St. 
Elizabeth,  orange  robe,  white  head-dress. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  .69,  w.  .45. 
Completely  repainted. 
Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Prophet. 

Full-length ;  stands  nearly  full  face  holding  to  the  left  a  book  supported 
on  a  lectern  in  the  form  of  a  child;  robe,  white;  background,  black;  step, 
greenish. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .69,  w.  .45. 

Completely  repainted. 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

St.  Zenobius. 

Stands  nearly  full  face ;  the  episcopal  glove  on  his  right  hand  which  is 
raised  in  benediction ;  white  vestments,  black  background. 
Repainted. 
-.Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

The  Baptist. 

Stands  turned  three-quarters  right;  right  arm  raised,  left  hand  holds 
a  staff ;  purplish  grey  shirt,  black  background. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .69,  w.  .45. 

Repainted. 

Drawing:  sketch  for  the  whole  figure,  Uffizi  6581  verso.  (Fig.  8;  photo. 
F.  M.  C.). 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

St.  Matthew. 

Stands  turned  three-quarters  left;  in  his  hands  he  holds  a  book;  green 
vest ;  purplish  mantle.    On  the  right  a  cherub  flying  downward  speaks  to  him. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  .69,  w.  .45. 
Repainted. 
Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

137 


PONTORMO 

The  Preaching  of  St.  John. 

Composition  of  sixteen  figures.  In  the  centre,  St.  John  stands  turned 
three-quarters  right ;  in  his  left  hand  a  cross,  his  right  raised ;  to  the  left,  seven 
figures,  one  of  which  kneels  in  the  foreground  with  right  arm  outstretched; 
to  the  right,  eight  figures,  one  of  which,  a  woman,  kneels  holding  a  child. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .59,  w.  1.28. 

Completely  ruined. 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Baptism  of  Christ. 

In  the  centre,  St.  John  baptizing  Christ ;  to  the  right,  a  man  seated  who 
takes  off  his  tunic ;  to  the  left,  a  man  seated  seen  from  behind. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  .50,  w.  1.28. 
Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Beheading  of  John  the  Baptist. 

In  the  centre  John  kneels;  the  executioner,  seen  from  behind,  holds  a 
sword  in  his  right  hand  and  with  his  left  grasps  by  the  hair  the  saint 's  severed 
head  holding  it  out  to  Salome  who  advances  from  the  left  with  a  plate  held 
in  her  extended  hands;  to  the  extreme  left,  a  man  seen  from  behind;  to  the 
right,  the  barred  window  of  the  prison  and  two  spectators. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .50,  w.  1.28. 

Completely  ruined. 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

St.  John  in  the  Wilderness. 

To  the  left,  St.  John  seated  on  a  rock ;  to  the  right,  the  meeting  of  John 
and  Christ. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .50,  w.  1.28. 
Completely  ruined. 


These  panels  once  formed  part  of  the  Carro  della  Zecca 
painted  for  the  Corporation  of  the  Mint  and  were  exhibited 
every  year  in  the  procession  of  the  feast  of  St.  John.  In  1810, 
during  the  occupation  of  Florence  by  the  French,  the  car  was 
broken  up.  The  fragments  enumerated  above  were  once  in  the 
city  store-rooms;  recently  they  have  been  placed  in  the  Ufficio 
delle  Belle  Arti.  Milanesi  states  (VI,  257)  that  eighteen  pieces 
survive ;  there  are  in  reality  twenty.  The  woodwork  of  the  car, 
now  lost,  was  by  Marco  del  Tasso  who  carved  much  of  the 
woodwork  of  the  choir  of  the  Badia  and  was  a  well-known 
engineer  and  architect  (Vasari,  III,  350-353) .  The  composition 
of  the  "Beheading  of  John"  is  a  free  copy  of  the  "predella" 

138 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

panel  of  the  same  subject  ascribed  to  Andrea  and  now  in  the 
Academy  at  Florence  (No.  77). 

Date :  1515. 

Documents:  The  records  of  the  Zecca  between  1510  and  1530  have 
been  lost. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  256 ;  Borghini,  ed.  1730,  p.  393 ;  Dessins,  pp.  34,  38, 
39,  66,  99,  167. 


Uffizi 

1177.     MADONNA  ENTHRONED 

In  the  centre,  the  Madonna  seated  on  a  throne  facing  the  spectator; 
her  hair  is  brown  and  she  wears  a  red  dress  and  a  blue-green  mantle  edged 
with  gold  the  ample  folds  of  which  lie  across  her  knees;  her  right  hand 
points  downward  to  the  angels  at  her  feet,  her  left  hand  supports  the  Christ 
Child  who  stands  on  her  left  knee,  his  left  leg  bent,  his  right  hand  raised 
in  benediction.  At  the  foot  of  the  throne  on  the  right  of  the  Virgin,  St. 
Francis  seen  in  profile  to  left,  his  left  arm  extended  at  his  side,  his  right 
laid  upon  his  breast;  his  robe  is  grey.  On  the  left,  St.  Jerome,  profile  right 
and  dressed  in  a  blue-grey  tunic  and  blue-pink  drapery,  his  hands  clasping 
to  his  breast  a  stone.  In  the  centre  on  the  steps  of  the  throne,  two  little 
angels  seated,  facing,  with  a  lamb  between  them ;  they  have  auburn  hair  and 
dark  wings  edged  with  gold.  In  the  background,  which  is  dark  grey,  the 
outlines  of  the  throne  are  dimly  visible. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .72,  w.  .60. 

Not  mentioned  by  Vasari.  Formerly  ascribed  to  Rosso; 
correctly  given  to  Pontormo  by  Berenson.  The  composition 
reminds  one  somewhat  of  Andrea's  " Marriage  of  St.  Cathe- 
rine,'7 now  in  Dresden. 

Condition:  unfinished  and  retouched. 

Date :  1517-1518. 

Drawing:  study  (reversed)  which  may  have  served  for  the  St.  Jerome, 
Uffizi  6742  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175;  Cruttwell,  Florentine  Galleries,  p.  98; 
Dessins,  pp.  67,  271. 

1187.     MARTYRDOM  OF  ST.  MAURICE 

This  picture  may  be  divided  into  three  planes.  In  the  foreground,  the 
massacre  of  the  Theban  Legion ;  nearly  all  the  figures  are  nude ;  the  prevailing 

139 


PONTORMO 

flesh-tone  is  a  light  brown.  Through  a  defile  in  the  low  hills  other  soldiers 
arrive;  the  standard  on  the  right  is  a  dull  red,  that  on  the  left,  green;  the 
ground  is  various  shades  of  brown.  In  the  middle  distance,  on  the  left, 
raised  on  a  little  mound,  an  angel  baptizes  the  souls  of  the  slain;  on  the 
right,  a  grove  of  trees  in  which  other  soldiers  of  the  Legion  are  crucified. 
Between  these  two  groups,  behind  a  dip  in  the  landscape,  a  glimpse  of  the 
domes  and  spires  of  Florence  (?)  ;  in  the  sky,  flying  out  of  the  clouds,  three 
angels  who  hurl  arrows  at  the  executioners. 

Oil  on  wood  covered  with  a  layer  of  "gesso."    H.  .64,  w.  .43. 

Painted  according  to  Vasari  for  Carlo  Neroni.  This  panel 
is  a  modified  replica  of  the  same  subject  now  in  the  Pitti 
(No.  182).  When  and  how  our  picture  entered  the  Uffizi  is 
unknown  to  me. 

Condition :  chipped  here  and  there  but  unrestored. 

Drawing :  variant  of  the  whole  composition  in  which,  however,  the  same 
figures  appear,  Hamburg  21253  (fig.  108). 

Eeprod.    Fig.  107 ;  photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  275;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  320;  II,  142,  152,  154;  B.  F.  P.  E., 
p.  175 ;  Catalogue  de  la  R.  Galerie  de  Florence,  Florence,  1864,  p.  138 ;  Crutt- 
well,  Florentine  Galleries,  p.  92;  Dessins,  pp.  35,  40,  56,  71,  127,  225,  256, 
290,  338. 

1198.     BIRTH-PLATE 

Birth  of  St.  John  the  Baptist.  A  group  of  seven  figures  and  the  new- 
born child.  St.  Elizabeth  sits  upon  her  couch,  head  and  shoulders  facing, 
surrounded  by  her  friends  and  serving-maids;  to  her  left,  Zacharias  seated 
by  the  couch,  profile  left,  writes  on  his  tablets  the  name  of  the  child:  10. 
St.  Elizabeth  wears  a  white  scarf  over  her  head  and  a  violet-grey  dress.  The 
bedclothes  are  a  greenish  blue.  Zacharias  is  dressed  in  pinkish  red  with  yellow 
jacket  and  brown  stockings.  The  woman  who  stands  behind  him  and  bends 
forward  to  the  left  to  see  the  writing  wears  a  blue-green  dress  and  over  her 
head  a  white  scarf.  The  woman  in  the  centre  of  the  composition  who  holds 
the  child  stands  nearly  profile  to  the  right  and  is  dressed  in  an  orange-yellow 
robe  with  a  red  scarf  on  her  head.  The  woman  to  the  extreme  left  stands 
profile  right  and  wears  a  pinkish  red  dress  with  a  white  scarf  on  her  head. 
Next  to  the  last  mentioned,  a  woman  with  a  fan  leans  forward;  she  has  red 
hair  and  is  dressed  in  green.  To  her  right,  in  the  middle  background,  the 
head  and  shoulders  facing  of  a  figure  draped  in  violet.  A  green  looped-up 
curtain  forms  the  background  behind  St.  Elizabeth;  the  rest  -of  the  back- 
ground is  black  above  and  brown  below.  On  the  back  of  the  plate,  a  bearing 
with  above,  to  left  and  right,  "putti."  The  blazon  is  divided  vertically. 
The  arms  to  the  right  may  be  those  of  the  Delia  Casa  family ;  those  to  the  left, 
of  the  Tornaquinci  (blue  and  gold  quarterings)  ;  but  the  alteration  of  the 
colours  makes  identification  of  these  "stemmi"  problematical. 

Oil  on  wood.    Diameter,  .54. 

140 


AUTHENTIC  PICTUEES 

Provenance  unknown.  The  composition  is  identical  with 
that  of  the  birth-plate  now  in  the  Palazzo  Davanzati,  but  the 
colour-scheme  is  more  varied.  There  the  woman  to  the  left  is 
dressed  in  pale  yellow,  the  turban  of  the  woman  in  the  centre 
is  white,  Zacharias'  tunic,  red  and  his  mantle,  blue.  I  have 
not  discovered  the  date  of  the  marriage  indicated  by  the  arms. 
Cruttwell,  who  is  followed  by  Goldschmidt,  states  that  this 
"piatto"  was  painted  for  Elisabetta  Tornaquinci,  wife  of 
Paolo  Aldighieri.  Schubring  erroneously  gives  the  arms  as 
those  of  the  Monte  di  Pieta.  Cf .  in  this  catalogue,  under  Palazzo 
Davanzati,  Florence,  and  in  the  Catalogue  of  Attributed  Pic- 
tures, under  Butler  Collection. 

Condition:  excellent;  the  colours  have  faded  somewhat. 

Date :  1529-1530. 

Drawing:  In  the  former  Lamponi  Collection,  Florence,  there  was  a 
red-chalk  study  (h.  220,  w.  140  mm.)  for  the  head  and  shoulders  of  the  woman 
to  the  extreme  left.  I  have  not  seen  this  drawing  and  from  the  poor  cut  in 
the  Lamponi  Catalogue  (Florence,  1902,  pi.  XX,  No.  356)  I  cannot  tell 
whether  it  is  an  original  sketch  or  a  copy. 

Reprod.    Fig.  114 ;  photo.  Brogi  14763. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  de  la  R.  Galerie  de  Florence,  p.  140 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175 ; 
Cruttwell,  Florentine  Galleries,  p.  98;  Schubring,  Cassoni,  Leipzig,  1915,  p. 
407,  Nos.  834  and  835;  Miintz,  Les  plateaux  d'accouchees  et  la  peinture  sur 
meubles  du  XIVe  au  XVIe  siecle,  Monuments  Piot. 

1220.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

~Bust  figure  turned  three-quarters  left ;  he  looks  at  the  spectator  and  has 
brown  hair  and  a  sparse  brown  beard ;  he  wears  a  black  velvet  hat  and  a  black 
coat  with  turned  down  embroidered  linen  collar.    The  background  is  brown. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  .65,  w.  .49. 

Provenance  unknown.  The  treatment  is  faithful  but  dry. 
There  is  no  evidence  to  support  the  conjecture  that  this  is  the 
portrait  of  Carlo  Neroni  (Vasari,  VI,  275)  for  whom  the 
"Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice,"  which  hangs  near  by,  was 
painted. 

Condition :  excellent ;  a  small  piece  has  been  added  at  the  top  of  the  panel. 
Date:  1530-1532. 

Reprod.    Fig.  118 ;  photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  cited  above,  p.  142;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175;  Cruttwell, 
op.  cit.,  p.  142. 

141 


PONTORMO 

1284.     VENUS  AND  CUPID 

Venus  reclines,  her  head  to  the  right,  her  feet  to  the  left ;  she  faces  the 
spectator,  her  head  profile  left,  and  supports  herself  on  her  left  elbow  which 
is  raised  and  rests  on  a  heap  of  drapery;  her  right  arm  is  outstretched,  the 
hand  touching  one  of  Cupid's  arrows;  her  golden  hair  is  partially  covered  by 
a  head-dress.  To  the  left  Cupid  stands,  his  weight  on  his  right  foot,  his  left 
leg  raised  and  passed  over  the  right  hip  of  Venus ;  his  right  hand  rests  on  a 
sheaf  of  arrows,  his  left  arm  passed  under  his  mother's  chin,  his  face,  seen 
in  profile,  resting  against  hers;  his  hair  is  blond  and  curly,  his  wings  out- 
stretched behind  him.  To  the  extreme  left,  a  stone  altar  on  which  a  vase  of 
flowers,  a  bundle  of  arrows  and  a  piece  of  drapery;  across  one  corner  of  it 
hangs  a  bow  from  which  two  masks  are  suspended,  one  of  a  satyr,  the  other 
of  a  man ;  on  the  side  of  the  altar,  a  bas-relief  of  a  fallen  figure.  In  the  middle 
distance,  a  rocky  hillock ;  behind,  distant  hills  and  sky. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.27,  w.  1.91. 

Painted  for  Bartolomeo  Bettini  from  a  cartoon  drawn  by 
Michelangelo  (Vasari,  VI,  277).  Bettini  planned  to  place  it 
in  a  room  of  his  decorated  by  Bronzino  with  portraits  of  Tuscans 
who  had  written  of  love :  Dante,  Petrarch,  Boccaccio  and  others. 
Certain  interested  people,  however,  took  the  panel  almost  by 
force  from  Pontormo  and  gave  it  to  the  Duke  Alessandro  who 
paid  him  fifty  "scudi"  for  it.  As  a  result  of  this  high-handed 
action,  for  which  Jacopo  could  hardly  be  held  responsible, 
Michelangelo  was  alienated  from  our  master.  The  painting 
was  famous  throughout  the  sixteenth  century.  Varchi  (Due 
Lezzioni,  Florence,  1549,  pp.  104,  278  f.)  speaks  of  it  in 
the  following  terms:  "Non  dice  egli  che  gli  uomini  medesimi 
si  sono  innamorati  delle  statue  di  marmo,  come  awenne  alia 
Venere  di  Prassitele,  benche  questo  stesso  awiene  ancora  oggi 
tutto  il  giorno  nella  Venere  che  disegno  Michelagnolo  a  M. 
Bartolommeo  Bettini,  colorita  di  mano  di  M.  Jacopo  Pontormo." 
It  hung  in  the  Salotto  della  Duchessa  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio 
(Inventorio  della  Guardaroba  per  M.  Giul.  del  Tovaglia,  XXV 
oct.,  1553,  p.,  13  verso:  "Uno  quadro  di  pittura  drentovi  una 
Venere  con  Cupido  et  f ornimento  di  noce  intagliato,  et  cortina 
di  taffeta  verde  di  Jac°  da  Pontolmo";  cf.  Conti,  Prima  reggia, 
p.  34).  It  is  also  mentioned  in  the  Inventorio  generale  a  capi 
(Guardaroba,  No.  30, 1553-1560),  p.  54.  The  present  panel  was 

142 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

found  in  1850  in  the  Guardaroba  generale.1  The  figure  of  Venus 
had  been  covered  in  part  with  a  wretchedly  painted  scarf 
(Milanesi,  VI,  292).  This  and  other  retouches  were  removed 
and  in  1861  the  picture  was  hung  in  the  second  room  of  the 
Tuscan  school  in  the  Uffizi.  Berenson,  Milanesi,  and  Thode 
believe  it  to  be  Pontormo's  original  and  their  conviction  seems 
to  be  well  founded.  But  owing  to  the  panel's  present  condition 
its  authenticity  can  only  be  proved  by  tracing  it  through  the 
various  inventories  of  the  Guardaroba  between  1550  and  1850. 
This  has  not  been  done.  Gamba  thinks  that  it  resembles  too 
closely  other  known  variants  of  this  subject  to  permit  the 
definite  assertion  of  its  authenticity.  The  first  German  edition 
of  Vasari  erroneously  states  that  the  original  is  in  the  Museum 
of  Naples.  Selwyn  Brinton  finds  the  Venus  a  mere  "  coarse 
imitation  (!)  of  the  Michelangelesque. "  Concerning  the  sym- 
bolism of  the  picture,  see  Thode,  III,  486.  The  following 
sonnet  inspired  by  this  picture  is  quoted  by  Frey  (Dichtungen, 
p.  271,  No.  CLXXIX)  : 

Sopra  la  miracolosa  pittura  de  la  Venere,  da  Michel'  Agnolo 
disegnata  et  da  il  Pontormo  colorita. 

Deh,  perche  '1  bello  et  il  buono,  com'  io  vorrei, 
Non  posso  a  pien'  di  te  spiegare  in  carte ! 
Che  la  natura  esser'  vinta  da  1'arte 
A  chi  mai  non  ti  vidde,  mosterrai. 
Se  cosi  bella  in  ciel  Venere  sei, 
Come  si  vede  qui  parte  per  parte, 
Ben  puossi,  et  con  ragion,  felice  Marte, 
Anzi  beato  dir  fra  gli  altri  i  dei. 

Non  han  le  rose,  le  viole  et  i  gigli 
Si  puro,  acceso,  vivo,  almo  colore, 
Ne  1'oro  ne  i  rubin  si  dolce  ardore. 

Cosa  mortal  non  e  che  ti  somigli, 

Et  che  sia  '1  ver ;  di  te  piagato  il  core, 

Si  sforza,  quant'  ci  puo,  baciarti  Amore. 

i  The  editor  of  the  1832-1838  edition  of  Vasari  was  aware  of  the  existence  of  this 
picture  in  the  Guardaroba. 

143 


PONTORMO 

Condition :  completely  repainted  and  restored  by  Ulisse  Forni  who  spent 
months  on  the  undertaking. 

Date :  1533-1535. 

Drawings:  Since  Michelangelo  furnished  the  cartoon  for  this  picture 
we  have  naturally  no  study  for  it  from  the  hand  of  Pontormo.  Variants  in 
which  Jacopo  rehandled  the  motive  may  be  studied  in  two  small  sketches, 
Uffizi  444  and  446 ;  in  the  masterful  black-chalk,  Uffizi  6534 ;  in  Uffizi  6586 
(fig.  133),  drawn  perhaps  for  the  frescoes  at  Castello ;  in  Uffizi  6684  (reversed). 
The  drawings  Uffizi  6655  and  Louvre  1029  are  late  copies  of  the  picture. 
The  Naples  cartoon  is  also  a  copy.  The  sketch  by  Michelangelo  in  the  British 
Museum  (1859-6-25-553)  considered  by  some  critics  to  be  an  idea  for  this 
composition  is  believed  by  Berenson  to  be  a  first  thought  for  a  "  Samson 
and  Delilah." 

Documents:  see  above. 

Copies:  A  close  copy  at  Hampton  Court  thought  by  Thode  to  be  by 
Bronzino  or  Salviati,  and  by  Law  to  be  by  Bronzino,  although  it  is  only  the 
work  of  the  latter 's  "bottega";  cf.  Handbook  to  the  Public  Galleries  in  and 
near  London,  London,  1842,  II,  360 ;  Duppa,  p.  329 ;  Fagan,  p.  143 ;  a  second 
altered  copy  in  the  same  collection;  a  variant,  once  the  property  of  Prof, 
d' Alton  of  Bonn  who  believed  it  to  be  a  Michelangelo  and  had  an  etching 
made  of  it  (Kugler,  Kunstblatt,  1842,  p.  42;  Kleine  Schriften,  II,  358),  was 
brought  to  the  Berlin  Gallery  in  1841,  was  later  in  the  magazine  of  the 
museum  and  still  later  was  placed  in  the  gallery  at  Hildesheim  (1884)  ;  a 
variant  sold  in  Florence  sometime  before  1880 ;  two  copies  in  the  Guardaroba 
in  Florence ;  a  small  copy  once  owned  by  the  heirs  of  Luigi  Riccieri  in  Florence 
(according  to  Milanesi  from  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century)  ;  the  cartoon 
(682,  XXV)  in  the  Museum  of  Naples  in  which  the  dish  and  the  flowers  are 
no  longer  visible  and  which  was  once  believed  to  be  Michelangelo's  original 
design  for  this  work;  a  close  early  copy  in  the  same  museum  (No.  22, 
VIII,  13),  of  the  same  size  as  the  present  panel,  once  ascribed  to  Bronzino, 
by  Thode  with  a  query  to  Salviati,  but  now  with  more  reason  to  Alessandro 
Allori;  a  copy  once  in  the  possession  of  Edmond  Blanc  in  Paris  which  was 
perhaps  the  same  as  that  mentioned  by  Milanesi  as  having  been  sold  and 
taken  out  of  Tuscany ;  a  variant  in  the  Stadtisches  Museum  of  Erfurt.  Several 
copies  are  mentioned  in  old  inventories:  (1)  In  the  inventory  of  1635  of 
the  palace  at  Turin  (Vesme,  Le  Gall.  Naz.  Hal.,  Ill,  52,  No.  437)  :  "Venere 
nuda  stesa  in  terra  con  Amore  che  la  bacia  et  alcune  mascare  con  arco  e 
saette,  in  tavola  D.  M.  A.  Buonarroti.  Siugolarissimo  e  de'  migliori.  A.  p. 
2.2  1/2.  L.  p.  3  1/2."  Vesme  adds  that  Carlo  Emanuele  had  the  picture 
burned.  (2)  In  the  1685  Verzeichniss  der  Gemaldesammlung  des  Heidel- 
berger  Schlosses  (Thode  und  Zangemeister,  Mitth.  des  Heidelb.  Schlossvereins, 
III,  197,  No.  230):  "Venus  et  cupido,  durch  Angeli  Bonarota."  (3)  A 
copy  in  the  Galleria  Gustiniani  in  Rome  (Vasi,  Itin.  istrutivo  di  Roma,  p.  429). 
(4)  There  was  also  in  the  eighteenth  century  a  wall  painting  of  the  same 
subject  in  the  Palazzo  Barberini  in  Rome,  which  was  held  to  be  a  Michelangelo ; 
cf.  Titi,  Descrizione  di  Roma,  1763,  p.  333:  "Una  Venere  giacente,  dipinta 
sul  muro,  pittura  antica,  che  ha  molto  della  maniera  del  Bonarroti,  onde  alcuni 
la  credono  di  sua  mano";  cf.  also  Crozat,  Recueil  d'Estampes,  Paris,  1720, 
I,  pi.  1.  We  may  add  the  following  pictures  derived  more  or  less  directly  from 
Pontormo 's  original:  a  "Venus  and  Cupid"  ascribed  to  Alessandro  Allori, 

144 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

sold  in  the  Sale  X,  in  London,  in  1800,  for  39,750  francs;  a  "Venus  and 
Cupid, ' '  perhaps  the  same,  withdrawn  from  the  Fossart  sale  in  1838  at  10,000 
francs  and  sold  at  the  Joubert  sale  in  1841  for  2,000  francs;  a  "Venus  and 
Cupid,"  ascribed  to  Alessandro  Allori,  sold  by  Francillon  in  1828  (cf. 
Mireur,  I,  pp.  26  f.).  See  also  the  small  "Venus  and  Cupid,"  ascribed  to 
Bronzino,  which  is  a  free  rehandling  of  the  same  composition  (Uffizi  1173)  ; 
the  ' '  Venus  and  Cupid, ' '  ascribed  to  Bronzino,  Galleria  Colonna,  No.  9 ;  the 
same  subject  treated  twice  by  Vasari  in  the  same  gallery,  Nos.  7  and  18,  as 
well  as  No.  16  which  is  ascribed  to  Salviati.  Vasari  is  known  to  have  painted 
two,  perhaps  three,  similar  pictures  from  cartoons  of  Michelangelo's,  one 
for  Ottaviano  de'  Medici  (VII,  669),  another  for  Bindo  Altoviti  in  1544 
(VII,  673).  He  took  a  "Venus"  with  him  to  Venice  in  1542  and  sold  it  there 
to  Don  Diego  de  Mendoza  (VII,  669  f . ;  VIII,  283).  For  the  possible  third 
"Venus"  by  Vasari,  see  his  letter  of  July  21,  1544,  to  Francesco  Lioni  in 
Venice  (VIII,  291).  I  do  not  know  whether  any  of  these  are  Nos.  7  and  18 
of  the  Galleria  Colonna  or  still  other  panels  the  whereabouts  of  which  is 
unknown  to  me.  The  composition  of  the  ' '  Venus ' '  can  be  traced  in  a  number 
of  pictures  too  numerous  to  mention,  an  example  of  which  is  the  "Death  of 
Adonis,"  ascribed  to  Sebastiano  del  Piombo,  in  the  Uffizi. 

Reprod.    Fig.  123 ;  photo.  Alinari ;  Braun  41284 ;  Brogi  11033. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  277,  291-295  (long  note  by  Milanesi  on  the  present 
panel)  ;  VII,  277;  Borghini,  ed.  1730,  p.  395;  Varchi,  op.  cit.,  p.  134;  2781; 
Catalogue  de  la  R.  Galerie  de  Florence,  p.  154 ;  Gazette  des  beaux-arts,  XIII, 
2e  per.;  Thode,  Michelangelo,  Krit.  Unters.,  II,  324-331;  Law,  The  Royal 
Gallery  of  Hampton  Court,  1898,  p.  110;  Catalogue  de  la  Galerie  Colonna, 
Rome,  p.  6 ;  Brinton,  Renaissance,  1908,  p.  187  f . ;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  325 ;  II,  138, 
145;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175;  Dessins,  pp.  21,  33,  35,  72,  94,  95,  137,  169,  208,  232, 
305,  331.  See  also  above. 


1578.     MADONNA  AND  LITTLE  ST.  JOHN 

The  Madonna,  seen  to  the  knees,  is  seated  three-quarters  right,  her  head 
almost  profile ;  her  hair  is  auburn  and  wound  in  a  thick  coil  around  her  head. 
On  her  right  knee,  slightly  raised,  sits  the  Christ  Child  also  turned  three- 
quarters  right,  his  head  slightly  bent  over  towards  the  left  is  seen  full  face; 
his  right  arm  is  extended  left,  his  left  laid  on  the  shoulder  of  St.  John ;  his 
hair  is  blond;  the  Madonna's  right  hand  rests  on  his  breast.  To  the  right, 
St.  John  turned  three-quarters  right,  his  hand  raised  to  the  Madonna  whose 
cheek  is  laid  against  his  forehead;  his  hair  is  brown;  his  right  arm  is  bent 
round  the  Christ  Child,  his  left  hand  laid  on  the  Christ  Child 's  left  knee ;  the 
Madonna's  left  arm  encircles  St.  John,  her  hand  on  his  left  elbow.  The 
Virgin  wears  a  green  skirt,  a  scarlet  bodice  and  overskirt;  a  yellowish  grey 
scarf  is  passed  round  her  right  arm  and  across  the  body  of  the  Infant ;  behind 
her,  thrown  over  a  chair,  is  a  mantle  of  blue-green  and  red  lined  with  a  lighter 
green.  The  background  is  almost  black. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .86,  w.  .73. 

This  panel,  which  was  left  unfinished  by  Pontormo, 
remained  until  1907  in  the  store-rooms  of  the  Uffizi.  It  was 

145 


PONTORMO 

in  a  ruined  state  and  only  after  an  exhaustive  restoration  could 
it  be  hung  in  the  Gallery.  It  still  retains,  however,  quite  evident 
traces  of  our  master's  hand.  The  composition  was,  it  would 
seem,  derived  from  or  suggested  by  a  lost  drawing  or  picture 
of  Da  Vinci's.  It  belongs,  therefore,  to  the  group  of  Pontormo 's 
Leonardesque  pictures  although  it  is  later  than  the  San  Michele 
Visdomini  altar-piece  or  the  "Farinola  Madonna."  The  little 
St.  John  owes  much  to  Michelangelo's  *  Hondo"  of  the  "Holy 
Family,"  now  in  the  Uffizi.  The  same  figure  should  also  be 
compared  with  the  St.  John  in  Pontormo 's  panel  in  Palazzo 
Corsini,  Florence  (No.  141). 

Condition :  completely  repainted  by  Lucarini. 
Date:  1526-1528. 

Reprod.    Photo.  Perazzi;  fig.,  article  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Gamba,  Quadri  nuovamente  esposti  agli  Uffizif  Bollettino  d'arte, 
I  (1907),  20-22. 

PORTRAIT  OF  THE  YOUNG  COSIMO  I 

Bust  figure  seen  in  profile  to  left;  he  wears  a  brown  coat  with  white 
collar;  his  hair  is  brown  and  curly;  the  flesh-tints  are  freshly  laid  in;  the 
background  is  a  greenish  grey. 

Oil  on  a  beechwood  panel.    H.  .47,  w.  .31. 

Not  exhibited.  This  portrait,  which  is  little  more  than  a 
"frottis,"  was  discovered  by  Conte  Gamba.  It  is  in  all  likeli- 
hood a  sketch  for  the  lost  portrait  mentioned  by  Vasari  (VI, 
282)  as  executed  while  Jacopo  was  at  work  at  Castello.  Cosimo, 
who  was  born  in  1519,  is  represented  as  about  eighteen  years 
of  age.  The  present  panel  would  seem  to  date,  then,  from  about 
1537-1538  —  precisely  the  years  in  which  Jacopo  began  his 
work  at  Castello.  Vasari  used  this  sketch,  or  the  finished  por- 
trait made  from  it,  for  his  likeness  of  Cosimo  in  the  following 
frescoes  of  the  Sala  di  Cosimo  I,  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio: 
(1)  allegorical  subjects  to  left  and  right  of  "Cosimo  in  Elba" 
(photo.  Alinari  4458)  ;  (2)  "The  Captives  at  Montemurlo" 
(Alinari  4463);  (3)  allegories  to  left  and  right  of  "Cosimo 
among  His  Architects  and  Engineers"  (Alinari  4462)  ;  (4)  alle- 
gories to  left  and  right  of  "Cosimo  Sending  Succour  to  Serra- 

146 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

valle"  (Alinari  4460)  ;  (5)  "Cosimo  Elected  Duke  of  Florence" 
and  in  the  allegories  to  the  left  and  right  of  the  same.  For  a 
copy  of  another  portrait  of  the  first  Grand  Duke  by  Pontormo, 
see  Catalogue  of  Attributed  Pictures,  Jarves  Collection,  No. 
78  (100). 

Condition:  unfinished  and  damaged. 

Date:  1538-1543. 

Drawing:  sketch,  Uffizi  6528  verso  (photo.  Perazzi;  fig.,  article  cited 
below  ;D.  G.  U.,  pi.  XXV). 

Reprod.    Photo.  Perazzi ;  fig.,  article  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  282;  Borghini,  ed.  1730,  p.  396;  Gamba,  Rivista 
d'arte,  1910,  pp.  125-127;  Dessins,  pp.  11,  35,  40,  74,  133. 

PORTRAIT  OF  COSIMO  IL  VECCHIO 

Seated;  seen  to  the  knees,  the  torse  turned  three-quarters  left,  the  head 
profile  left.  He  is  clean  shaven  and  wears  a  red  cloak  edged  with  fine  brown 
fur  and  a  cap  of  lighter  red ;  his  hands  are  clasped  in  his  lap ;  the  flesh-tints 
are  pale  and  cadaverous.  The  chair  is  a  warm  brown,  the  background  a  dark 
greenish  grey.  A  small  laurel  grows  on  the  left  side,  the  leaves  of  which  are 
a  brown-green.  Wound  round  the  stem  of  this  tree  is  a  narrow  scroll  bearing 
the  inscription:  VNO  AVVJLSO  •  NO  •  DEFIC|IT  ALITER;1  behind  the 
head  and  shoulders,  on  the  back  of  the  chair :  COSM  •  MED  |  ICES  •  P  •  P  •  P  • 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .86,  w.  .65. 

One  of  the  great  imaginative  creations  of  Florentine 
portraiture;  the  modelling  of  the  face  and  hands  is  exquisite. 
Here  Cosimo  has  all  the  dignity  of  a  noble  and  revered 
ancestor  (cf.  Bartolomeo  Scala,  Carmina  illustrium  Poetarum 
Italorum,  VIII,  489).  The  prototype  of  this  portrait  was 
undoubtedly  a  medal,  but  it  is  difficult  to  say  whether  Pontormo 
worked  from  a  medal  of  which  an  example  survives  or  from 
a  variant  of  which  we  do  not  possess  a  specimen.  There  are 
four  known  medals  that  represent  Cosimo : 

I.  A  medal  with  the  inscription:    COSMUS  MEDICES 
DECEETO    PUBLIC.    P.    P.      Reverse:    PAX.    LIBER- 
TASQUE.  PUBLICA;  a  seated  figure  of  a  woman  with  the 
word,  FLORENTIA. 

II.  A  similar  medal  with  PUBLICO  instead  of  PUBLIC. 
(engrav.  Litta,  fasc.  22;  Supino,  II  medagliere  mediceo,  p.  22, 

id,  VI,  143. 

147 


PONTORMO 

No.  20 ;  Fabriczy,  Medaillen  d.  italienischen  Renaissance,  p.  55, 
fig.  87 ;  idem,  Repertorium,  XXIV,  313 ;  Armand,  Medailleurs 
italiens,  2e  ed.,  1, 10 ;  Bode,  Florentiner  Bildhauer,  p.  257) .  An 
example  in  the  Kaiser-Friedrich  Museum,  the  Bargello,  and  the 
Dreyfus  Collection,  Paris. 

III.  A  small  replica  of  No.   II.     Cf.  J.   Friedlander, 
Italienischen  Scliaumunzen,  Jalirb.  d.  k.  preuss.  Kunstsamml., 

II  (1881),  239-241,  pi.  XXVII,  No.  3;  Trapesnikoff,  Die  Por- 
trdtdarstellungen  der  Mediceer  des  XV  Jahrhunderts,  pi.  II,  3 ; 
Supino,  p.  22;  Armand,  II,  23.     Examples  in  the  Kaiser- 
Friedrich  Museum,  and  in  the  Bargello  in  gold,  silver,  and 
bronze.     This  is  perhaps  the  gold  medal  mentioned  in  the 
Medicean  inventories  of  the  fifteenth  century  (Miintz,  Les  coll. 
d.  Medicis  au  XVe  siecle,  p.  74) . 

IV.  The  same  with  MAGNUS.  COSMUS.  MEDICES. 
P.  P.  P.  and  the  same  reverse  as  the  preceding.    Cf .  Museum 
Mazz.,  I,  xx,  4;  Tresor  de  numismatique:  Med.  ital.,  I,  xx,  1; 
Friedlander,  pi.  XXVII,  No.  4;  Miintz,  Precurseurs  de  la 
Renaissance,  p.  135 ;  Supino,  p.  22,  No.  21 ;  Heiss,  Medailleurs 
de  la  Renaissance,  II,  9 ;  I,  pi.  i,  2 ;  Armand,  II,  23.    An  example 
in  the  Kaiser-Friedrich  Museum  and  in  the  Bargello  where  it 
is  ascribed  to  Michelozzo.1 

Goethe  and  Heinrich  Meyer  (Jenaische  Allgemeine 
Literatur-Zeitung,  1810,  Vol.  I)  ascribed  No.  I  without  reason 
to  Donatello,  No.  II  equally  without  reason,  to  Michelozzo. 
Supino  and  Armand  ascribe  No.  Ill  also  to  Michelozzo.  Fried- 
lander  believes  that  all  four  were  made  for  Lorenzo  de'  Medici 
by  Nicolaus  Florentinus  whose  real  name  was  perhaps  Niccolo 
di  Forzore  Spinelli  (1430-1514).  It  was  in  all  likelihood  No. 

III  that  was  reproduced,  not  long  after  it  was  struck,  in  three 
manuscripts  that  are  now  in  the  Laurenziana:    1.  Aristotelis 
Logica,  loanne  Argyropylos  interprete  (Bandinius,  Catalogus 
Codicum  latinorum,  III,  3;  D'Ancona,  La  miniatura  fiorentina, 
II,  394,  No.  796)  in  which  the  effigy  of  Cosimo,  profile  right, 
appears  in  a  medallion  of  a  gold-coloured  monochrome  in  the 

1  There  is  another  medal  dating  from  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century  with  the  same 
obverse  as  No.  IV;  on  the  reverse,  three  interlaced  rings  and  the  word  SEMPER. 

148 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

middle  of  the  right  side  of  the  title-page.  On  the  same  page, 
which  has  been  reproduced  by  Miintz  (Les  Precurseurs,  p.  158), 
there  is  a  similar  medallion  of  Piero.  2.  Aristotelis  Opera 
quaedam,  loanne  Argyropylos  interprete  (Bandinius,  III,  225 ; 
D'Ancona,  II,  395).  This  work  is  dedicated  to  Piero.  The 
medallion  of  Cosimo  represents  him  in  a  red  mantle  and  red 
biretta.  3.  IOHANNIS  NESII,  De  moribus  ad  Petrum 
Laurentii  f.  Dialogi  IV  (Bandinius,  III,  144;  D'Ancona,  II, 
454  f.).  In  the  initial  "C"  Cosimo  is  represented  in  profile 
in  a  violet  vest  and  red  cap.  Medal  No.  Ill  could  not  have  been 
struck  before  March  16,  1465,  the  date  of  Cosimo 's  death,  since 
the  title  "  Pater  Patriae"  was  a  posthumous  honour.  The 
miniature  of  manuscript  No.  3  must  have  been  executed  before 
1469  in  which  year  Piero  died.  We  see,  therefore,  that  the 
medals,  the  first  three  of  which  are  practically  of  the  same  date, 
are  themselves  derived  from  an  earlier  representation  of  Cosimo 
that  has  since  been  lost.  They  are  in  turn  the  source  of  a 
number  of  portraits  of  Cosimo  other  than  the  three  miniatures 
we  have  just  mentioned.  Medal  No.  IV  itself  dates,  in  the 
opinion  of  some  critics,  from  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century 
and  is  derived  from  medal  No.  III.  A  fourth  immediate 
derivative  of  these  medals  is  the  medallion  in  gilded  bronze  on 
the  cover  of  a  late  fifteenth  century  manuscript,  FR.  TOMMASO 
SARDI,  L'Anima  pellegrina,  poema  in  terza  rima,  Rome, 
Bibl.  Corsini,  Cod.  55.  K.  1.  A  fifth  derivative,  and  earlier  than 
the  last,  is  the  medal  in  relief  in  " gesso"  and  gilt  that  one  sees  in 
Botticelli's  "Portrait  of  a  Man,"  now  in  the  Uffizi  (No.  1154). 
It  is  derived  in  all  probability  from  medal  No.  I.  Friedlander 
even  goes  so  far  as  to  believe  that  Botticelli's  portrait,  which 
is  a  work  of  his  earliest  period,  represents  Nicolaus  Florentinus 
himself  holding  his  medal  of  Cosimo.  A  sixth  derivative  is  the 
late  fifteenth  century  marble  relief  ascribed  to  Verrocchio,  now 
in  the  Kaiser-Friedrich  Museum  (No.  104;  Trapesnikoff,  pi. 
Ill),  which  comes  from  the  Orlandini  Collection  (Bode, 
Italienische  Portrdtskulpturen  des  15  Jahrhunderts,  p.  38; 
Bode  und  Tschudi,  Beschreibung  der  Bildwerke,  pi.  VII).  A 
seventh  derivative  is  the  sixteenth  century  terra-cotta  relief  in 

149 


PONTORMO 

the  Old  Sacristy  of  San  Lorenzo,  Florence,  where  the  face  is 
turned  to  the  right  (Trapesnikoff,  pi.  IV,  1)  and  of  which  the 
poor  and  empty  bust  portrait  of  Cosimo  ascribed  to  Bronzino 
in  the  Uffizi  is  an  exact  copy  even  to  the  colouring.  This  latter 
portrait  miniature  (photo.  Alinari  459 ;  Trapesnikoff,  pi.  IV,  2 ; 
Young,  The  Medici,  pi.  Ill)  dates  from  about  1553  and  is 
labelled  COSMUS  MEDICES  P.  P.  P.  It  differs  from 
Pontormo's  portrait  in  structure  and  modelling  as  well  as  in 
many  small  details.  An  eighth  derivative  is  the  cameo,  Uffizi 
No.  1083,  which  was  copied  from  medal  No.  III.  A  ninth 
derivative  is  the  porphyry  relief  by  Francesco  del  Tadda 
(H.  19,  w.  14  in.;  Wood  Brown,  p.  113,  fig.,  p.  39),  mounted 
on  an  oval  slab  of  green  serpentine  of  Prato  and  bearing  on  the 
chamfer  of  the  bust:  OPA  DI  FRANC0  DA  FIESOLE,  which 
was  once  in  the  Uffizi  and  is  now  in  the  magazine  of  the  Bargello. 

Pontormo's  portrait  is  then  by  no  means  the  first  work 
of  art  derived  from  these  medals.  It  is  most  closely  related  to 
medal  No.  Ill ;  and  since  Goro  Gheri,  for  whom  it  was  painted, 
was  secretary  to  Lorenzino,  it  is  not  inconceivable  that  he 
obtained  for  Pontormo  access  to  a  fine  cast  of  that  medal, 
perhaps  in  precious  metal,  such  as  was  undoubtedly  preserved 
in  the  collections  of  the  Medici.  It  should  be  noted,  however, 
that  our  portrait  differs  from  all  surviving  medals  in  the  shape 
of  the  ear,  the  way  in  which  the  cap  touches  the  same,  the  tilt 
of  the  head  and  the  contour  of  the  eye.  These  differences  may 
have  arisen,  quite  naturally,  in  idealizing  and  elaborating  the 
features  merely  suggested  in  the  prototype. 

In  Vasari's  time  our  panel  was  in  the  house  of  Ottaviano 
de'  Medici  in  the  possession  of  his  son  Messer  Alessandro. 
Later  it  was  in  the  Uffizi,  and  in  the  eighteenth  century  it  was 
removed  to  Cosimo 's  cell  at  San  Marco  where,  in  1912,  Ales- 
sandro Pieroni's  modified  copy  (purplish  brown  cloak,  red  cap ; 
h.  1.30,  w.  1.10)  was  substituted  and  the  original  again  placed 
in  the  Uffizi. 

The  present  panel  is  the  prototype  of  most  of  the  later 
representations  of  Cosimo  among  which  the  following  are 
known  to  me.  (a)  Vasari's  full-length  portrait  of  Cosimo,  in 

150 


AUTHENTIC  PICTUEES 

the  Chapel  of  Leo  X,  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio.  (b)  The  portraits 
of  Cosimo  in  Vasari's  frescoes  in  the  Camera  di  Cosimo  il 
Vecchio,  Palazzo  Vecchio:  " Cosimo  Going  into  Exile"  (Alinari 
4407) ;  " Cosimo 's  Return  from  Exile,"  " Cosimo  with  Brunel- 
leschi  and  Ghiberti"  (Alinari  4413);  "  Cosimo  with  Santi 
Bentivogli  Poppi";  " Cosimo  with  Philosophers  and  Artists." 
Cf.  Vasari,  "Ragionamenti";  Filippo  Moise,  Illustrazione  del 
Palazzo  de'  Priori,  Firenze,  1843;  Giuseppe  Conti,  II  palagio 
del  Comune  in  Firenze,  1905;  Cosimo  Conti,  La  prima  reggia 
di  Cosimo  1, 1893,  p.  140.  (c)  Altissimo's  bust  portrait  (profile 
left  in  red  cap  and  mantle)  in  the  corridor  between  the  Pitti 
and  the  Uffizi.  (d)  Paggi'sC?)  portrait  in  the  same  corridor 
(modifications  in  the  chair  and  length,  inscription  omitted), 
(e)  The  portraits  used  as  decorative  motives  in  the  ceiling  of 
the  Long  Gallery  of  the  Uffizi  by  Cosimo  Ulivelli,  Angiolo  Gori, 
Jacopo  Chiavistelli,  Bernardino  Pocetti  and  others,  (f)  The 
portrait  in  the  possession  of  the  Societa  Colombaria,  Florence, 
(g)  The  portrait  in  the  collection  of  the  Erzherzog  Ferdinand 
von  Tirol,  Hofmuseum,  Vienna,  which  belonged  to  a  gallery 
of  portraits  of  famous  men  similar  to  that  collected  by  Paolo 
Giovio  at  Como  (Kenner,  Die  Portratsammlung  des  Erzherzogs 
Ferdinand  v.  Tirol,  Jahrb.  kunsthist.  Samml.  d.  Allerh. 
Kaiserhauses,  Vienna,  XVIII  (1897),  145.  (h)  The  late 
sixteenth  century  copy  bearing  the  inscription  COSIMO  • 
MEDICI  -P-P-,  now  in  the  Thaw  Collection,  New  York, 
(i)  The  miniature  once  in  the  Colworth  Collection  (No.  41) 
and  sold  at  Christie's  in  1892.  (j)  Allegrini's  engraving  in 
Eegiae  familiae,  which  is  a  modified  form  of  Pontormo's  por- 
trait with  the  inscription:  "Cosmus  cognomento  Pater  Patriae 
Joannis  Medic,  et  Piccardae  Bueriae  F.  Ex  Coenobio  Divi 
Marci  Florentinae. "  (k)  The  poor  engraving  in  Allegrini's 
Serie  di  Eitratti  di  uomini  illustri,  Florence,  1768-1770,  III, 
tav.  52,  which  bears  the  inscription:  "Preso  da  un  Quadro  in 
tavola  esistente  nella  Spezeria  del  Convento  di  S.  Marco  di 
Firen6.  Tommaso  Gentili  del.  F.  Allegrini  inci.  1769."  (1)  The 
poor  woodcut  (bust  figure)  in  Paolo  Giovio 's  Elogia  Virorum 
bellica  virtute  illustrium,  Basel,  1575,  p.  131  (Cf.  Miintz,  Le 

151 


PONTORMO 

Musee  de  Portraits  de  Paul  Jove,  Paris,  1900,  Memoires  de 
rinstitut  de  France,  XXXVI,  Paris,  1901) .  (m)  The  modified 
engraving  by  Antonio  Perfetti  1819  (drawing  by  Pietro 
Ernimi)  printed  in  Florence  by  Luigi  Bardi  e  Compagno, 
Galleria  di  Firenze,  II,  pi.  XLVIIL  (n)  The  engraving  in 
Rosini's  Pittura  italiana,  V,  77.  (o)  The  line-engraving  (bust 
figure)  in  Inghirami's  Storia  della  Toscana,  XVII,  tav.  CIII, 
No.  4,  as  well  as  a  number  of  later  engravings.  To  this  list  may 
be  added,  although  only  on  conjecture,  the  portrait  mentioned 
in  the  Guardaroba  of  the  Palazzo  Vecchio,  in  the  Inventory  of 
1553  (C.  Conti,  La  prima  reggia,  p.  138  f).  For  engravings  of 
other  portraits  of  Cosimo,  see  Vine.  Follini,  Iconografia 
universale,  Florence,  XT,  3. 

Condition:  excellent;  there  are  a  few  worm-holes  in  the  panel  which 
has  split  somewhat  along  the  right  side ;  a  small  piece  has  been  added  at  the 
top ;  the  old  varnish  has  been  removed  recently  by  skilful  restoration. 

Date :  1518-1519. 

Reprod.  Fig.  42.  See  above.  A  poor  engraving  by  Borde  in  Litta, 
fasc.  22;  photo.  Brogi  14817;  Alinari;  Anderson;  Trapesnikoff,  pi.  IX; 
University  Prints,  No.  99,  series  C. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  264 ;  Molini,  Galleria  di  Firenze,  Vol.  II,  S.  I,  p.  5 ; 
Cruttwell,  Florentine  Churches,  p.  168;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  175;  Catalogue  de  la 
R.  Galerie  de  Florence,  Florence,  1864,  p.  150;  Waetzoldt,  Die  Kunst  des 
Portrats,  Leipzig,  1908,  p.  65.  See  also  above. 


FRANKFORT 

Stadel  Institute 

14A.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUNG  WOMAN  WITH  A  DOG 

She  is  seated  in  a  Savonarola  chair,  and  turned  three-quarters  left,  the 
head  almost  full  face;  she  looks  at  the  spectator.  Her  hair  is  brown,  neatly 
parted,  a  thick  roll  of  it  held  in  an  ornamental  net  that  encircles  her  head; 
eyebrows  finely  pencilled ;  eyes  brown,  the  right  smaller  than  the  left ;  nostrils 
wide ;  ears  high  and  pointed ;  chin  full ;  neck  column-like.  She  wears  a  scarlet 
cloth  dress  cut  square  at  the  neck,  large  puffs  at  the  shoulders,  dark  green 
velvet  sleeves,  full  white  chemisette  with  high  embroidered  collar  made  of 
two  pieces,  small  frills  at  the  wrists.  In  her  hair,  a  gold  circle  with  a  filigree 
star  in  the  centre ;  around  her  neck  a  gold  chain  of  heavy  ornamental  links ; 
around  her  waist  a  narrow  black  and  gold  woven  band ;  on  the  upper  joint  of 
the  ring  finger  of  the  right  hand,  a  high  diamond  ring ;  on  the  little  finger  of 

152 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

the  left  hand,  a  ruby  ring;  around  her  right  wrist  and  lying  across  her  lap, 
a  dark  bead  chaplet  ending  in  a  large  tassel  enclosed  in  gold  filigree ;  in  the 
bend  of  her  right  arm,  a  little  brown  and  white  dog  sits  facing  the  spectator. 
The  chair  on  which  she  sits  is  seen  in  profile  and  is  ornamented  with  a  bronze 
mask,  a  handle,  two  large  nails  and  a  green  fringe.  The  background  forming 
a  shallow  niche  is  dark  grey  on  the  left,  light  grey  on  the  right ;  flat  pilasters 
on  either  side;  behind  the  sitter,  a  low  table  on  which  two  books  bound  in 
parchment  with  dark  ribbon-fastenings. 
Oil  on  poplar  wood.  H.  .89,  w.  .70. 

From  the  Riccardi,  Fesch,  Le  Brun  and  Mailand  Collec- 
tions; bought  in  1882  (Frankfurter  Kunstverein) .  Once 
thought  to  be  a  lady  of  the  family  of  the  dukes  of  Urbino. 
On  the  back  of  the  panel,  in  pencil,  an  illegible  inscription: 
"Anton  . . .  rato|  . . .  o,"  and  a  round  branded  seal  on  which  the 
following  letters:  DO  OGA|  LOGDI|  TOME(<?)  which 
Weizsacker  reads:  MA|  LOD.III|  IM  . . .  Ascribed  to  Bron- 
zino  by  the  author  of  the  Mailand  Catalogue  who  compares  it 
with  a  " Portrait  of  the  Duke  of  Urbino,"  once  in  the  Pourtales 
Collection  (No.  114),  which  he  also  considers  to  be  a  Bronzino, 
but  which  was  anciently  attributed  to  Sebastiano  del  Piombo 
and,  by  the  author  of  the  Pourtales  Catalogue,  to  Andrea  del 
Sarto.  The  attribution  of  the  present  panel  to  Bronzino  was 
retained  in  the  earlier  Frankfort  catalogues  and  by  various 
critics.  The  portrait  was  first  correctly  attributed  to  Pontormo 
by  Berenson  who  is  followed  by  Waetzoldt  and  the  latest 
catalogue  of  the  gallery.  This  is  one  of  the  most  charming  and 
characteristic  portraits  that  our  master  has  left  us.  It  is 
dignified  and  gracious,  of  a  large  simplicity  and  penetrating 
intellectuality.  The  pose  and  spacing  were  perhaps  suggested 
by  a  lost  drawing  of  Michelangelo's;  cf.  the  sheet  in  the  British 
Museum  (Frey,  184). 

Condition:  excellent;  slightly  retouched  and  judiciously  varnished. 
Date:  1534-1545. 

Drawings:  Uffizi  414  and  17769  bear  a  superficial  resemblance  to  this 
portrait  with  which,  however,  they  have  no  connection. 

Reprod.  Fig.  127;  poor  engraving  by  Monzies,  Mailand  Catalogue, 
facing  page  14 ;  photo.  Bruckmann ;  Braun. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  de  tableaux  anciens  composant  la  collection  de  feu 
M.  Mailand,  Salle  Drouot,  May,  1881,  p.  14,  No.  16;  Weizsacker,  Catalog  der 

153 


PONTORMO 

Gemalde-galerie  des  Stadelschen  Kunstinstituts  in  Frankfurt  am  Main, 
Frankfurt,  1900,  pp.  53  f. ;  Stadelsches  Kunstinstitut,  Verzeichnis  der 
Gemdlde,  Frankfurt,  1910,  p.  5 ;  idem,  ed.  1914,  ibid.;  Waetzoldt,  Die  Kunst 
des  Portrait,  Leipzig,  1908,  p.  219;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  323;  II,  154;  B.  F.  P.  R., 
p.  176 ;  Schulze,  Bronzino,  p.  Ixi ;  Dessins,  pp.  89,  288. 


GENOA 

Palazzo  Bianco 

6.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH 

Seen  to  just  below  the  waist,  turned  three-quarters  left.  He  has  brown 
eyes  that  look  left;  longish  brown  hair.  He  is  beardless  and  wears  a  pink 
doublet,  finished  at  the  throat  with  a  small  white  frill,  at  the  wrists  with  large 
cuffs  turned  back  and  lined  with  fur ;  a  silk  mantle  of  brighter  pink  than  the 
doublet  is  thrown  in  rich  folds  over  the  left  shoulder;  at  the  waist,  a  cord 
in  the  form  of  a  belt  from  which  a  black  velvet  bag  with  a  dark  silver  mount 
hangs  open  showing  an  embroidered  handkerchief.  The  left  hand  rests  on 
the  hip,  the  two  middle  fingers  touching ;  in  the  right  hand,  a  pair  of  gloves ; 
on  the  head,  a  small  round  scarlet  cap.  Background,  green-black. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .86,  w.  .63. 

Formerly  No.  24 ;  left  to  the  gallery  in  the  Galliera  bequest ; 
ulterior  provenance  unknown;  not  mentioned  by  Vasari.  The 
right  eye  slightly  smaller  than  the  left  is  characteristic  of 
Pontormo's  draughtsmanship;  cf.  among  others  the  Frankfort 
" Portrait  of  a  Young  Woman,"  the  portrait-drawing  of  a  girl, 
in  Chantilly,  the  " Portrait  of  a  Woman,"  in  Turin,  the  " Por- 
trait of  a  Girl,"  in  the  Widener  Collection.  The  hands  in  the 
present  portrait  recall  those  of  the  ruined  "Portrait  of  a 
Magistrate"  (Borghese,  No.  74)  ;  the  drapery  is  close  to  that 
of  the  man  kneeling  in  the  foreground  of  Andrea's  " Assump- 
tion" (Pitti,  No.  191)  and  that  of  the  man  to  the  extreme  left 
of  Andrea's  panel  of  the  "Life  of  Joseph"  (Pitti,  No.  87) ; 
the  pink  shot  with  yellow  of  the  mantle  is  not  unlike  that  of 
the  dress  of  the  Magdalen  in  Andrea's  "Disputa"  (Pitti, 
No.  172),  the  drapery  of  the  two  saints  in  the  foreground  of 
Andrea's  "Assumption"  (Pitti,  No.  191)  and  the  robes  of 
certain  figures  in  Andrea's  "Deposition"  (Pitti,  No.  58).  The 
same  colour  was  also  used  by  Rosso  for  the  drapery  of  the  saint 

154 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

in  the  foreground  of  his  " Madonna  and  Saints"  (Pitti,  No. 
237). 

Condition :  excellent ;  cracked  slightly  by  the  warping  of  the  boards. 

Date:  1516-1521. 

Reprod.    Fig.  41 ;  photo.  Brogi  11502 ;  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  Jacobsen,  Le  Gallerie  Brignole-Sale-Defferrari  in  Genova, 
Archivio  storico  dell'  arte,  II  (1896),  p.  120;  Catalogo  di  Palazzo  Bianco  e 
Rosso,  Genova,  1909,  p.  34 ;  idem,  2d  ed.,  p.  59 ;  idem,  Orlando  Grosso,  Milan, 
p.  47 ;  Suida,  Genua,  1906,  p.  142 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176. 


KEIR,  DUNBLANE,  SCOTLAND 

Stirling  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  BARTOLOMEO  COMPAGNI 

Half-length ;  seated,  three-quarters  left,  in  an  arm  chair  before  a  table ; 
the  head  turned  a  little  less  than  three-quarters  left;  the  eyes  look  at  the 
spectator.  The  right  hand,  lightly  holding  a  quill-pen,  rests  on  the  table,  the 
left  upon  his  left  thigh;  on  the  third  finger,  a  jewelled  ring.  He  wears  a 
long  beard  and  moustache  and  is  dressed  in  a  dark  coat  with  large  sleeves 
and  embroidered  collar;  at  his  wrists,  embroidered  white  frills;  on  his  head, 
a  black  cap ;  in  his  lap,  a  handkerchief.  The  arm  of  the  chair  ends  in  a  winged 
cupid's  head;  on  the  table  are:  seal-ring,  sealing-wax,  paper-cutter,  open 
quill-case,  ink-pot  and  two  folded  letters,  the  seal  of  the  uppermost  of  which 
is  broken ;  on  it  one  reads :  A1  Magr°ap°  bartolomeo  Compagni . . .  o 
Honerariusj  In  Firenze;  beside  these  lie  sheets  of  paper  on  which  he  has  just 
written :  I»c  meo  os . . .  mo|  Per  lamore  uoleua ...  |  ho  meso  quanto  quella  . .  ,| 
comanda  ei  sono  . . .  The  background  is  a  flat  niche,  on  the  left,  a  pilaster, 
on  the  right,  an  engaged  column  on  the  base  of  which :  49  AT  AT ;  at  the  base 
of  the  pilaster,  a  shelf  on  which  lie  official  seals,  a  packet  of  papers,  a  document 
with  a  large  seal  of  a  bust  seen  in  profile  left;  to  this  seal  two  ribbons  are 
affixed. 

Oil. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date:  1534-1545. 

Provenance  unknown;  bought  in  Italy,  sometime  before 
1825,  by  Charles  Stirling  in  whose  catalogue  of  1826  it  appears 
as  "Portrait  of  a  Consul."  The  person  addressed  as  Jacopo 
in  the  letter  that  the  sitter  is  engaged  in  writing  is  evidently 
Pontormo  himself. 

Reprod.    Fig.  126;  photo,  for  Capt.  Archibald  Stirling. 
Bibl.    B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  177. 

155 


PONTORMO 

LONDON 

Mond  Collection 

A  CONVERSATION 

To  the  left,  a  man,  dressed  in  a  crimson  robe,  scarlet  leggings,  buff  shoes 
and  pale  sea-green  mantle  and  cap,  seated  profile  right;  to  the  right  another 
man,  similarly  dressed  in  a  robe  of  grass-green  with  a  mantle  of  pale  rose  and 
a  scarlet  cap,  seated  in  an  arm-chair  profile  left,  his  left  hand  on  the  arm  of 
the  chair,  his  right  raised ;  behind,  two  figures  facing  of  which  one  sees  little 
more  than  the  heads.  The  figure  to  the  right  is  dressed  in  olive-green;  the 
figure  to  the  left,  in  orange-crimson.  The  man  in  the  middle  background  is 
dressed  in  dark  grey.  The  woodwork  is  orange-brown,  the  foreground,  warm 
yellow-brown,  the  background,  which  is  made  up  of  the  intersection  of  a 
groined  roof  and  a  wall,  is  grey. 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  .35,  w.  .24. 

Provenance  unknown;  discovered  and  attributed  to  Pon- 
tormo  by  Costa.  The  stout,  thick-set  figures  should  be  compared 
with  the  same  type  of  figure  in  the  Pitti  ''Adoration  of  the 
Magi."  The  colour  and  the  touch  recall  the  Uffizi  " Birth- 
plate,"  which  is  of  the  same  date. 

Condition:  slightly  damaged. 
Date :  1516-1521. 

Reprod.  A  replica  in  the  Methuen  Collection ;  J.  P.  Richter,  Catalogue 
of  the  Mond  Collection,  London,  1910,  II,  pi.  19. 

Bibl.    Catalogue  cited  above,  II,  449 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176. 


National  Gallery 

1131.     JOSEPH  IN  EGYPT 

The  composition  is  complicated.  To  the  left,  a  palace  at  the  door  of 
which  Pharaoh  appears  surrounded  by  his  attendants.  In  the  foreground 
left,  a  flight  of  eight  steps  with  two  landings  on  which  Joseph  and  his  people 
in  attitudes  of  supplication.  To  the  right,  seated  on  a  triumphal  car  drawn 
by  naked  children,  Joseph  is  again  represented  stooping  toward  a  man  who 
kneels  beside  the  car  and  presents  a  petition.  Farther  to  the  right,  part  of 
a  circular  edifice  up  the  front  of  which  runs  a  bracketed  stair.  Toward  the 
top  of  this  staircase  Joseph  again  appears  leading  one  of  his  sons.  Another 
child  is  received  by  his  mother  on  the  landing  above.  The  upper  part  of  the 
circular  building  is  open  disclosing  a  hall  or  porch  in  which  Joseph  is  repre- 
sented at  the  bedside  of  his  dying  father  to  whom  he  presents  the  children, 

156 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Ephraim  and  Manasseh.  In  the  second  plane,  at  the  middle  of  the  picture, 
a  dense  group  of  figures ;  behind  these,  a  smaller  group  around  a  little  mound ; 
in  the  background,  trees  and  two  gable-roofed  houses.  There  are  three  statues 
on  high  pedestals  in  the  picture.  They  represent  Mars,  Venus,  and  Cupid. 

The  colour-composition  is  somewhat  as  follows :  Foreground,  beginning 
on  the  extreme  right ;  man  kneeling,  light  violet  breeches,  yellow  jerkin,  white 
sleeves;  blond  boy  standing  with  back  turned  and  legs  wide  apart,  red  legs, 
violet  skirt,  yellow  jerkin;  boy  (Bronzino)  seated  on  steps,  dark  brown  cloak; 
three  "putti,"  white  drapery  with  violet  lights;  old  man  kneeling,  light  blue; 
man  to  the  extreme  left,  darker  blue  of  the  same  tone  with  dark  brown  drapery 
about  the  waist,  dark  red  cap  in  hand.  Second  plane,  beginning  on  the 
extreme  left ;  man,  bright  red ;  old  man  in  front  of  latter,  light  yellow-brown, 
white  sleeves  and  turban;  old  man  whose  head  and  shoulders  show  between 
the  last  two  figures,  light  blue ;  young  man  who  faces  the  old  man  with  turban, 
dark  violet-brown  mantle,  yellow  tunic ;  old  woman  with  clasped  hands,  deep 
pink,  white  scarf  and  head-dress.  In  the  little  group  in  the  second  plane 
at  the  middle  of  the  picture,  reds  and  light  violets  predominate.  The  figure 
seated  on  the  base  of  the  column  to  the  right,  violet  drapery,  yellow  jerkin, 
red  cap ;  man  on  lowest  step  of  stairs  to  the  right,  red  robe  and  cap ;  second 
figure  mounting  the  stairs  leading  a  child,  violet  cloak,  dull  red  stockings, 
red  turban;  child,  light  green  dress;  woman  at  top  of  stairs,  red;  child  who 
advances  to  meet  her,  green;  woman  half-hidden  by  column,  red.  In  the 
group  on  the  platform  of  the  circular  building  the  same  tones  are  distributed. 
The  group  in  third  plane  at  the  middle  of  picture:  pale  green,  violet  and 
white.  The  figures  in  the  background  are  red  or  red  and  white.  The  land- 
scape, light  brown;  the  architecture,  pale  lavender-grey;  the  pillar  and 
pedestal  in  the  foreground  right,  pale  brown.  Marked  in  lower  left  corner: 
JACOMO  DAPONTORMO  —  inscription  which  probably  dates  from  the  last 
half  of  the  sixteenth  century.  On  the  scroll  held  by  the  man  kneeling  in 
lower  right  corner,  a  legend  which  I  have  not  been  able  to  read  in  its 
entirety : . . .  ci  dj  fiso  sej  i  ispeto  . . .  nel  . . .  nella  da  una  . . . 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  .44,  w.  .49. 

This  picture,  on  which  Vasari  lavishes  the  highest  praise, 
was  painted  for  the  famous  room,  in  Casa  Borgherini  in  Borgo 
SS.  Apostoli,  presented  to  Pierfrancesco  Borgherini  by  his 
father  on  the  occasion  of  the  former's  marriage  to  Margherita, 
daughter  of  Roberto  Acciaiuoli.  It  was  originally  placed  in 
a  corner  to  the  left  of  the  entrance  and  formed  part  of  a  general 
scheme  of  decoration  which  involved  other  pictures  and  "cas- 
soni"  by  Pontormo,  Andrea,  Franciabigio,  Bacchiacca  and 
Granacci  (Vasari,  V,  342  f.).  The  house  afterwards  passed 
into  the  hands  of  the  Rosselli  (once  Del  Turco)  family 
(Baldinucci,  IV,  209 ;  Vasari,  IV,  531,  n.).  Milanesi  states  that 
the  pictures  painted  by  Jacopo  for  Borgherini  were  sold  in  1584 
to  the  Grand  Duke  Francesco  by  Niccolo  di  Giovanni  Borgherini 

157 


PONTOKMO 

for  ninety  ducats  (Archivio  di  Stato,  Depositeria  Generale, 
Eecapiti  di  cassa,  filza  995).  He  identifies,  however,  the  pic- 
tures in  question  with  two  panels,  now  in  the  Uffizi,  which  were 
long  ascribed  to  Pontormo  but  are  really  by  Granacci.  Our 
picture  was  once  in  the  possession  of  Giovan  Gherardo  de' 
Eossi,  was  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  (No.  194)  in  1873 
and  was  bought  by  the  National  Gallery  at  the  Duke  of 
Hamilton's  sale  at  Christie's,  June,  1882,  as  an  " Allegory" 
for  £315  out  of  the  interest  of  the  " Clarke  Bequest."  The 
little  boy  seated  on  the  steps  in  the  foreground  is  Bronzino 
(Vasari,  VI,  261).  Even  at  an  early  date  the  iconographic 
explanation  of  this  picture  seems  to  have  become  confused. 
Vasari  himself  mistook  the  group  to  the  left  for  Joseph 
receiving  Jacob  and  his  brethren.  It  was  Richter  who  first 
correctly  interpreted  the  subject;  cf.  Genesis,  xlvii,  1-6,  13-26; 
xlviii,  1-14.  The  meaning  of  the  group  of  men  huddled  in  the 
middle  distance  is  found  in  the  verse:  "Wherefore  shall  we 
die  before  thine  eyes,  both  we  and  our  land?"  Buildings  in 
classic  style  were  generally  considered  in  the  Middle  Ages  and 
the  Renaissance  to  be  characteristic  of  Egypt  from  which 
country  the  art  of  Greece  was  supposed  to  be  derived  (Richter, 
39  f.).  The  statues  that  adorn  the  buildings  furnish  further 
proof  that  the  scene  is  meant  for  Egypt,  in  as  much  as  legends 
current  in  the  Middle  Ages  (Tischendorf,  Evang.  Pseudo- 
Matth.,  Chaps.  XXII,  XXIII)  had  induced  artists  to  use  them 
as  a  symbol  of  that  country.  Richter  believed  that  the  portrait 
of  the  young  Bronzino  made  him  appear  to  be  about  ten  years 
of  age.  He  therefore  placed  this  canvas  in  1512,  at  the  very 
beginning  of  Pontormo 's  career  —  at  least  six  years  too  early. 
His  error  is  repeated  by  Jacobsen  who  also  considered  the 
signature  to  be  genuine.  Schubring  seems  to  continue  Vasari 's 
mistaken  explanation  of  the  subject  and  he  identifies  the 
picture  with  a  "lettuccio"  representing  "Giuseppe  che  serve 
Faraone"  which,  however,  Vasari  distinctly  states  was  painted 
for  Borgherini  by  Granacci.  Schubring  turns  this  difficulty 
with  ease  by  remarking  that  Vasari  frequently  confuses  these 
two  painters.  We  might  notice  in  passing  that  two  panels  by 

158 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Bacchiacca  representing  the  "Life  of  Joseph,"  and  painted  for 
Borgherini,  are  in  the  National  Gallery  (Nos.  1218  and  1219). 
For  the  other  pictures  executed  by  Pontormo  for  Borgherini, 
see  under  Panshanger. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date:  1518-1519. 

Drawing :  Berenson  thinks  that  Uffizi  6537  is  a  study  for  the  drapery  of 
the  right  arm  of  the  figure  to  the  extreme  left.  I  do  not  feel  that  the  identifi- 
cation is  convincing.  In  the  Louvre  there  is  a  poor  pen  and  ink  drawing 
(No.  1725),  ascribed  to  Andrea  but  really  dating  from  about  1575,  which 
is  a  copy  by  an  unknown  hand  of  the  present  composition. 

Document:  see  above. 

Reprod.  Photo.  Hanfstaengl,  National  Gallery,  220;  fig.,  Poynter, 
National  Gallery,  II,  99;  fig.,  Vasari,  trans,  de  Vere,  VII,  158. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  V,  26,  343 ;  VI,  261,  455 ;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730, 
p.  393;  Richter,  Art  of  the  National  Gallery,  pp.  36  f. ;  Catalogue  of  the 
Collection  of  the  Duke  of  Hamilton,  London,  1882,  p.  101 ;  Hamilton  Palace 
Collection,  Illustrated  Priced  Catalogue,  London,  1882,  pp.  52,  100 ;  Poynter, 
op.  cit.,  II,  98 ;  Cook,  Handbook,  I,  32 ;  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  the  National 
Gallery,  1906,  p.  457 ;  idem,  81st  ed.,  1913,  pp.  554  f. ;  Graves,  Loan  Exhibi- 
tions, II,  942 ;  Art  Sales,  1888,  II ;  Muntz,  Renaissance,  Paris,  1895,  III,  499 ; 
Jacobsen,  Italienische  Gem'dlde  in  der  National-galerie  zu  London,  Reperto- 
rium,  XXIV  (1901),  p.  365;  Frizzoni,  Arte  italiana  del  rinascimento,  1891, 
pp.  255  f.;  B.  F.  D.,  II,  142;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176;  Dessins,  34,  68,  139,  331. 


LUCCA 

Pinacoteca 

75.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH 

Half-length ;  full  face ;  the  head  turned  slightly  right.  He  stands  beside 
a  greyish  table  placed  to  the  left  on  which  his  right  hand  rests,  his  left  hand 
on  his  hip.  He  is  beardless  and  has  bushy  auburn  hair  and  brown  eyes.  He 
wears  a  dark  green  coat  with  sleeves  of  the  same  colour  over  which  is  thrown 
an  ample  light  red  mantle ;  at  his  neck  a  white  shirt  and  collar  show ;  his  hat 
is  a  dark  bluish  green;  the  background,  dark  green. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .85,  w.  .61. 

Provenance  unknown ;  once  at  Poggio  Imperiale ;  now  the 
property  of  the  Istituto  di  Belle  Arti.  Erroneously  believed  to 
be  a  portrait  of  Giuliano  de'  Medici.  On  the  back  of  the 
panel  one  reads:  "Dalla  guardaroba  genle  2485." 

159 


PONTORMO 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date:  1529-1530. 

Drawing:  Berenson  thinks  that  Uffizi  452  (fig.  38)  is  probably  a  study 
for  this  portrait,  but  the  drawing  seems  to  me  to  date  from  ten  years  earlier. 

Reprod.    Fig.  115;  photo.  Alinari  8459. 

Bibl.  Trapesnikoff,  Die  Portrdtdarstellungen  der  Mediceer,  Strassburg, 
1909,  p.  77;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  324;  II,  138;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176. 


MILAN 

Collection  of  Prince  Trivulzio 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  BOY  WITH  A  BOOK 

Three-quarter  length.  He  stands  turned  three-quarters  left  leaning 
against  a  narrow  low  wooden  shelf;  his  eyes  look  at  the  spectator.  He  has 
dark  curly  hair,  dark  wide-set  eyes,  broad  flat  nose,  thin  eyebrows.  His  left 
hand  rests  on  the  edge  of  the  shelf,  his  right  holds  against  his  hip  a  large  open 
book.  He  wears  a  black  cap  and  a  dark  costume  of  stuff  with  a  knotted  sur- 
face; the  sleeves  have  large  puffs  at  the  shoulders;  the  lower  sleeve  is  very 
long  and  of  dark  velvet;  the  front  of  the  jacket  is  fastened  with  laces  the  ends 
of  which  are  encased  in  metal  tips ;  about  the  waist,  a  tight,  narrow  belt  tied 
with  a  bow  in  front ;  about  the  hips  a  broad,  black,  buckled  sword-belt  which 
hangs  lower  on  his  left  side.  Light  background. 

Oil  on  wood. 

A  fine  example  of  Pontormo's  work  in  portraiture  during 
the  first  part  of  the  decade  of  the  twenties,  which  I  regret  to  say 
that  I  know  only  from  a  photograph,  in  spite  of  a  written 
application  for  permission  to  see  the  original  and  a  special 
journey  made  to  Milan  for  that  purpose. 

On  the  book  I  have  made  out  in  a  fragmentary  manner  the 
following  verses : 

Famosi  Frondi  de'  Cra . . .  santi 

Per  non  so  qual  del  Ciel  f  ero  Pia  . . . 

Rado  hoggi  s '  orna  Cesare  o  Poeta 

Merce  del  guasto  Hondo  &  pien  derrori 
Chi  sara  mai . . .  segnamente  honesi 

H  od . . .  che  in  Voi  si  dolcemente  aqueta 

I  vianj  &  le  tempeste  'e  'n . . .  lieta 

Ogni  anima  gentil  del  Volgo  fuori! 

160 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Et  chi  sia  poi . . .  degnamente  ancora 
Adorar  possa  &  quanto  si  conuiene 
Lalta  vertu  ch'  e  nel  bel  nostro  inuolta 

lo  da  che  prima  nasce  1'  Aurore 

Fin  che  di  naduo  al'  oriente  uiene, 

V  adoro  e  'inchino  humil  solo  Vna  uolta. 

Ed... 

Ama  gentil  dal  f ante  cag . . . 

0  sol  gis  a  honestate  in  ... 

Torre  in  alto  . . .  fo  og 

0  fiamma mai 

Ti  ama  neve io  mi 

Opiacer  onde  1'ali  al  bel  uer  ergo 

Che  luce  soura  quanti  il  sol  ne  . . . 
Del  vostro  nome  se  mie  rime 

Fassin  si  si  1 ...  ge  haurei  pien  Io 

La  sana  . . .  tiade  . . .  poc  . . . 
Per  che  portar  nel  posto  . . . 

Parti  del  mondo .... 

Ch  . . .  pennin  . . .  e'l . . .  cerco. 

Date:  1521-1522. 

Reprod.    Fig.  48 ;  photo.  Anderson  12840. 


OLDENBURG 

Augusteum 

19.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

Three-quarter  length.  She  is  seated,  almost  facing,  in  an  arm  chair  of 
reddish  wood,  her  hazel  eyes  looking  straight  at  the  spectator;  her  auburn 
hair  is  enclosed  in  a  net.  She  wears  a  green  velvet  dress  cut  low  at  the  neck, 
the  sleeves  tied  to  the  bodice  with  little  bows  the  ends  of  which  are  encased 
in  gold  work;  a  decolletee  chemisette  of  embroidered  white  linen  with  an 
open  turned  down  collar;  white  ruffles  at  the  wrists.  In  her  hair,  a  circlet 
of  chased  beads  of  gold,  a  pearl  necklace  at  her  throat,  a  gold  chain  hanging 
from  her  shoulders;  around  her  waist,  a  heavy  gold  chain  ending  in  a  tassel 
which  she  holds  with  the  first  and  little  fingers  of  her  left  hand ;  on  the  third 
finger  of  the  same  hand,  a  ring  with  a  green  stone.  Her  right  elbow  rests 
on  a  light  reddish  yellow  octagonal  table  ornamented  with  black  arabesques; 
the  fingers  of  her  right  hand  keep  her  place  in  a  small  book  which  lies  on  the 
table;  it  is  bound  in  red  leather,  tooled  in  gold  with  two  red  ribbons  instead 
of  clasps.  Background,  a  brown  curtain  with  green  fringe;  a  fold  of  the 

161 


PONTOEMO 

same,  seen  in  shadow,  is  draped  across  the  upper  right-hand  corner  of  the 
picture. 

Oil  on  wood.    Oval;  h.  1.12,  w.  .83. 

Acquired  through  Miindel  from  the  Blaesel  Collection  in 
Paris  in  1870.  Once  ascribed  to  Bronzino  and  erroneously  held 
to  be  a  portrait  of  a  member  of  the  Medici  family.  The  identity 
of  the  sitter  and  the  ulterior  provenance  are  unknown. 

Condition:  heavily  varnished;  the  boards,  which  are  three  centimetres 
thick,  are  badly  warped ;  between  them  are  vertical  cracks. 

Date:  1535-1545. 

Reprod.  Fig.  129;  photo.  Oncken;  Bredius  und  Schmidt-Degener,  Die 
Grossherzogliche  Gemdlde-galerie  im  Augusteum  zu  Oldenburg,  Oldenburg, 
1906,  pi.  VIII. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  cited  above,  p.  8 ;  Kurzes  Verzeichnis,  p.  3 ;  B.  F.  P.  R., 
p.  176. 


PANSHANGER 

Collection  of  Lady  Desborough 

32.     JOSEPH  DISCOVERING  HIMSELF  TO  HIS  BRETHREN 

Composition  of  more  than  twenty-five  figures.  To  the  left,  a  dais  on 
which  Joseph  sits;  his  brethren  kneel  before  him.  To  the  right,  a  raised 
circular  space  enclosed  with  a  marble  balustrade ;  in  the  centre  of  the  space, 
a  square  pedestal  on  which  a  seated  statue.  The  background,  trees  and  rolling 
hills. 

The  colour-scheme  is  somewhat  as  follows :  figure  standing  to  the  extreme 
left,  dark  yellowish  pink;  blond  figure  behind  the  latter,  darkest  red;  figure 
on  the  left  kneeling  profile  right,  red  shirt,  light  blue  sleeves,  purplish  yellow 
skirt;  figure  on  dais  (Joseph),  dark  reddish  pink,  grey  sleeves,  blue  skirt. 
In  the  group  before  Joseph,  beginning  with  figure  farthest  back  and  farthest 
to  the  left :  dark  blue  and  red ;  figure  to  the  latter 's  right,  white  sleeves,  dark 
yellow  mantle;  blond  figure  bowed  low  in  front  of  last  mentioned  figure, 
blue  mantle;  figure  kneeling  nearly  profile  left  with  hands  crossed  on  breast, 
white  sleeves,  sage-green  skirt;  two  little  figures  farther  back  seen  over  the 
latter 's  shoulders,  dark  yellow  and  dark  red;  blond  figure  in  foreground 
seen  three-quarters  from  behind,  blue  shirt,  white  sleeves,  reddish  pink 
mantle;  old  man  behind  him,  green  tunic,  purplish  red  mantle;  bowed  figure 
with  hands  covering  his  eyes,  yellow  mantle,  greyish  purple  tunic;  blond 
youth  seen  just  above  the  latter  and  standing  profile  left,  purplish  mantle, 
white  sleeves;  three  men  to  the  right  of  the  latter  figure,  yellow  and  white, 
purplish  grey  and  dark  pink ;  figure  next  to  right  in  background,  dark  pink ; 

162 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

statue,  grey-green;  figure  with  sack  seated  on  the  steps,  yellow,  pink  tunic; 
sack,  white-yellow;  blond  figure  descending  steps  with  a  sack  on  shoulder, 
grey- white  tunic ;  boy  walking  left  in  front  of  steps,  light  blue ;  figure  seated 
on  the  parapet  above  him  and  seen  from  behind,  dark  green,  pinkish  red,  light 
red  cap;  figure  next  to  right,  dark  pinkish  red;  figure  with  an  ass  beside 
him,  dark  yellowish  pink ;  the  banner,  grey.  The  foreground  is  dark  yellowish 
brown,  the  stone  grey-green  and  yellowish  purple,  the  landscape  and  sky, 
dark  grey-green  and  blue-green.  On  the  dais:  ECCE|  SALUS|  MUD;  on 
the  pedestal  to  the  right:  VNITIO)  RI . . .  TI  TI;  on  the  banner:  ECCE| 
SALVATORI  MUNDI. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .35,  w.  .42. 

Exhibited  (No.  163)  in  Manchester  in  1857.  Ascribed  to 
Andrea  by  most  critics  including  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  and 
their  editors.  They  remark  that "  nothing  can  be  more  animated 
than  this  composition,  more  energetic  and  lively  than  the 
attitudes,  more  perfect  and  airy  than  the  colour.  It  is  the  quick 
and  able  production  of  a  pencil  in  full  consciousness  of  its 
strength."  It  is,  however,  an  authentic  Pontormo  for  which 
I  have  had  the  good  fortune  to  discover  two  drawings.  Like 
the  two  following  pictures  of  this  collection  it  is  a  "cassone" 
panel  and  formed  part  of  the  decoration  of  Pierfrancesco 
Borgherini's  bridal  chamber  in  his  house  in  Borgo  SS.  Apostoli, 
although  one  cannot  say  whether  it  was  originally  the  front 
of  a  coffer  or  an  ornament  of  the  bed  or  of  the  wainscoting  of 
the  walls.  Pierfrancesco 's  marriage  took  place  in  1515  but 
Pontormo 's  pictures  cannot  have  been  finished  before  1517. 
During  the  siege  of  Florence,  while  Borgherini  was  in  Lucca, 
Giovambattista  della  Palla,  wishing  to  get  possession  of  the 
furnishings  of  the  room  in  question  in  order  to  sell  them  to  the 
King  of  France,  obtained  permission  from  the  Signoria  to 
acquire  them  but  was  prevented  from  so  doing  by  the  energetic 
defence  that  Borgherini's  wife  made  of  her  most  cherished 
possessions.  The  note  of  Milanesi  (V,  26)  to  the  effect  that 
in  1584  Niccolo  di  Giovanni  Borgherini  sold  the  Pontormo 
panels  to  the  Grand  Duke  Francesco  for  ninety  ducats  may 
very  well  refer  to  this  and  the  following  two  pictures  as  well 
as  to  the  "Joseph  in  Egypt"  of  the  National  Gallery,  although 
Milanesi  erroneously  supposed  that  his  document  referred  to 
the  panels  of  the  "Life  of  Joseph,"  in  the  Uffizi,  which  he 

163 


PONTOKMO 

believed  to  be  by  Pontormo  but  which  are  really  by  Granacci. 
See  "  Joseph  in  Egypt,"  under  National  Gallery,  London. 

Condition :  good,  although  darkened  with  old  varnish. 

Date :  1517-1518. 

Drawings :  for  the  figure  kneeling  to  the  extreme  left,  a  study  from  the 
nude,  Uffizi  6542  verso  (fig.  28;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  for  the  figure  descending 
the  steps  to  the  right,  Uffizi  6692  (fig.  25;  photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

Document:  Archivio  di  Stato,  Depositeria  Generale:  Recapiti  di  cassa, 
filza  995. 

Eeprod.    Fig.  26. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  V,  26,  343 ;  VI,  261,  455 ;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed.  1730, 
p.  393;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Dent,  III,  513;  ed.  Murray,  VI,  202; 
Graves,  Century  of  Loan  Exhibitions,  III,  1197 ;  Exhibition  of  Old  Masters, 
Graf  ton  Galleries,  1911,  p.  50 ;  Fry  and  Brockwell,  Catalogue  of  an  Exhibition 
of  Old  Masters,  1911,  p.  36 ;  Phillips,  Art  Journal,  1906,  p.  1 ;  Dessins,  34,  39, 
67,  142,  329. 

33.  THE  BAKER  LED  OUT  TO  EXECUTION 

Composition  of  fifteen  figures.  In  the  background,  the  wall  of  a  house 
with,  to  the  left,  a  statue  at  the  foot  of  a  flight  of  steps  leading  up  to  a  room 
on  the  right. 

The  colour-composition  is  somewhat  as  follows:  in  the  foreground  left, 
three  figures  about  a  table ;  of  these  the  figure  kneeling  with  his  back  turned 
wears  a  light  blue  mantle,  yellow  stockings  and  cap,  in  his  left  hand,  a  large 
reddish  purse;  the  woman  facing  him,  who  raises  a  saucer  to  her  lips,  has 
a  dark  green  sleeve,  white  head-dress  and  scarf;  the  old  man  seated  profile 
left  wears  a  light  blue  turban,  yellowish  pink  mantle  and  reddish  pink 
drapery.  The  table-cloth  is  grey-white,  the  column  and  statue,  purplish  grey. 
In  the  group,  second  plane  to  right:  blond  figure  to  extreme  right,  bluish 
white  sleeves  and  shirt,  pinkish  stockings ;  the  baker,  faded  pink  shirt,  greyish 
white  sleeves  and  stockings ;  the  tall  prominent  figure  behind  the  latter,  yellow 
shirt,  yellowish  stockings  with  pinkish  lights  in  them.  In  the  group  on  the 
steps:  the  first  figure  to  the  left  (kneeling),  light  pink  mantle,  white  sleeves 
and  waist-band,  yellowish  white  vest,  pink  stockings;  the  figure  that  seizes 
the  latter,  green  sleeves;  the  lower  of  the  two  figures  descending  the  steps, 
dark  violet  mantle,  greyish  white  legs;  uppermost  figure  on  the  steps  is 
blond  and  wears  yellowish  white  shirt  and  pinkish  tights.  Figures  in  the 
door  of  the  room  above :  figure  on  the  left,  blue  vest  and  red  legs ;  figure  lying 
down,  dark  greyish  pink;  figure  to  the  right,  reddish  yellow  shirt,  reddish 
stockings.  The  walls  are  grey-green,  the  stairs  a  lighter  tone  of  the  same 
colour,  the  pilasters,  purplish  grey,  the  ground,  grey-green. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .58,  w.  .50. 

Exhibited  (No.  221)  at  Burlington  House  in  1881 ;  a  second 
time  with  the  following ;  a  third  time  with  the  following  at  the 
Grafton  Galleries  (Nos.  33  and  35)  in  1911.  Originally 

164 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

ascribed  to  Andrea;  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  (III,  585), 
followed  by  Hutton,  Phillips,  Berenson  and  others,  correctly 
to  Pontormo.  Waagen  thought  that  the  subject  was  perhaps 
" Saint  Roch  Distributing  Alms,"  but  the  episode  that  the 
picture  really  illustrates  is  to  be  found  in  Genesis,  xxxvii,  36. 
Phillips  considers  this  and  the  following  panel  to  be  in  "  a  style 
of  portentous  exaggeration ...  an  energetic,  arrogant,  self- 
conscious  manner/'  and  adds  that  "they  are  identical  in  style 
with  'Joseph  in  Egypt'  of  the  National  Gallery  and  may  well 
belong  to  the  same  series."  It  is,  of  course,  perfectly  clear  that, 
like  No.  32  of  this  collection,  they  are  "cassone"  decorations 
and  were  painted  at  the  same  time  as  the  National  Gallery 
picture  for  Pierfrancesco  Borgherini.  See  the  preceding  and 
the  following  and  under  London,  National  Gallery. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date:  1517-1518. 

Drawing :  for  one  of  the  figures  descending  the  stairs,  a  study  from  the 
nude,  Uffizi  6690  (fig.  29;  photo.  Houghton). 

Reprod.    Fig.  27. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  V,  343 ;  VI,  261 ;  Waagen,  Treasures  of  Art,  1854,  III,  12 ; 
Graves,  op.  cit.,  II,  942;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  1864-1866,  III,  585;  Fry 
and  Brockwell,  catalogue  cited,  p.  36 ;  Phillips,  Daily  Telegraph,  October  18, 
1911 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176 ;  Dessins,  34,  39,  67,  237,  256. 

35.     JOSEPH  SOLD  TO  POTIPHAR 

Composition  of  twenty-eight  figures.  The  scene  takes  place  before  a 
palace  with  high  arched  vestibule,  the  entrance  of  which  has  columns  on 
either  side ;  in  front  of  this  entrance,  a  terrace  on  which,  to  the  right,  a  statue 
of  "Charity." 

The  colour-composition  is  somewhat  as  follows:  youth  on  horseback  to 
left,  pinkish  red  robe  and  cap ;  man  behind  him  on  horseback,  red  shirt,  blue 
mantle,  grey-blue  cap;  youth  in  foreground  left,  with  his  back  turned, 
blond  hair,  light  yellow  jacket,  pink  stockings;  figure  beside  him  bending 
down,  yellow  shirt,  violet  stockings;  man  behind  the  latter  figure,  red  shirt, 
blue  mantle,  grey-blue  cap;  boy  in  foreground  profile  right,  yellow-grey 
tunic;  youth  whose  head  and  shoulders  show  above  the  latter,  yellowish 
orange  tunic ;  figure  in  second  plane  behind  the  latter,  dark  violet  tunic ;  old 
man  in  foreground  right,  facing  left,  yellow  shirt,  pinkish  mantle,  white 
head-dress;  child  to  his  right,  pinkish  red  drapery;  figure  above  the  latter, 
blue,  with  violet-grey  cap.  In  the  background:  figure  to  extreme  left,  dark 
violet;  figure  seen  through  the  left  window,  red  and  brown;  two  figures  on 
horseback,  palest  blue  and  violet-brown;  figure  in  the  portal,  violet-brown; 
old  man  walking  to  right,  pale  blue  tunic,  light  violet  cap;  man  descending 

165 


PONTORMO 

steps,  green ;  statue,  grey- white ;  old  man  descending  steps  in  front  of  statue, 
pinkish  red  vest,  green  drapery,  violet  stockings ;  boy  walking  away  to  right 
behind  the  parapet,  yellow-grey  cloak.     The  foreground  and  background, 
grey-green  with  here  and  there  purplish  lights. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  .58,  w.  .50. 

See  the  preceding. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date :  1517-1518. 

Drawings :  sketch  of  the  lower  part  of  the  figure  descending  the  upper 
stairs  to  the  right,  Uffizi  6556  (fig.  31 ;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  study  for  the  youth 
who  walks  away  to  the  right  on  the  marble  terrace  to  the  right,  Uffizi  6692 
verso  (fig.  32;  photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

Eeprod.    Fig.  30. 

Bibl.  See  preceding  and  Catalogue  of  an  Exhibition  of  Old  Masters, 
Graf  ton  Galleries,  p.  38  f . ;  Dessins,  34,  39,  67,  83,  239,  256. 

"IL  FATTORE  DI  SAN  MARCO" 

Three-quarter  length,  standing ;  nearly  life-size ;  the  torse  turned  three- 
quarters  left;  the  head  nearly  full  face  and  inclined  slightly  to  the  left;  the 
eyes  look  at  the  spectator.  He  wears  a  large  black  hat  and  a  green-black 
robe,  with  large  sleeves,  open  at  the  front  showing  a  pinkish  red  lining  and 
a  white  shirt;  the  right  arm  is  bent,  the  hand  thrust  into  the  opening  of  the 
mantle ;  the  left  arm  extended  at  side,  the  thumb  thrust  in  a  low  belt.  Back- 
ground, grey-green  with  a  shadow  to  the  right. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .94,  w.  .71. 

Ascribed  to  Andrea  —  ascription  confirmed  by  Crowe  and 
Cavalcaselle  who  found  it  " masterly  and  bold  in  handling." 
Gamba,  who  erroneously  gives  the  title  as  "Pastore  di  San 
Marco,"  believes  it  to  be  a  Puligo,  although  it  is  quite  obviously 
a  rather  early  and  striking  Pontormo.  Exhibited  at  Burlington 
House  (No.  153)  in  1881  as  an  Andrea,  and  at  the  Grafton 
Galleries  (No.  64)  in  1909-1910.  There  is  an  old  replica  in  the 
Palazzo  Ricasoli  in  Florence. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date:  1525-1530. 

Reprod.    Photo.  Braun  37398 ;  fig.,  article  by  Gamba  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Waagen,  Treasures  of  Art,  1854,  III,  11 ;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle, 
1864-1866,  III,  585;  idem,  ed.  Dent,  III,  513;  idem,  ed.  Murray,  VI,  201; 
Catalogue  of  the  National  Loan  Exhibition,  London,  1910,  p.  96;  Catalogue 
of  the  National  Loan  Exhibition,  Ballantyne  &  Co.,  p.  64 ;  Gamba,  Di  alcuni 
ritratti  di  Puligo,  Rivista  d'arte,  VI  (1909),  280;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176. 

166 


AUTHENTIC  PICTUBES 

PARIS 

Jacquemart- Andre  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

Half-length;  turned  three-quarters  left;  she  looks  at  spectator.  In 
her  left  hand,  a  book  which  lies  on  a  table  to  the  left,  her  second  finger  between 
the  leaves;  her  right  hand  half  closed,  the  index  finger  pointing  towards  the 
spectator.  She  wears  a  dark  dress;  over  her  head  and  shoulders,  a  double 
white  veil.  On  the  violet-brown  table,  a  handkerchief ;  to  the  extreme  left  one 
sees  the  head  and  forepaws  of  a  little  brown  and  white  dog.  Dark  olive-green 
background. 

Oil  on  wood  prepared  with  a  layer  of  ' '  gesso. ' ' 

Provenance  unknown;  acquired  as  a  Bronzino;  now  cor- 
rectly ascribed  to  Pontormo  of  whose  later  work  it  is  an 
excellent  specimen. 

Condition :  slightly  damaged  but  practically  unrestored ;  cracked  on  the 
right  side  and  along  the  top;  along  the  left  side  the  paint  has  peeled  for 
a  distance  of  about  two  centimetres. 

Date :  1540-1550. 

Reprod.    Fig.  151 ;  photo.  Bulloz. 


Louvre 

1240.     HOLY  FAMILY 

In  the  centre,  the  Virgin  seated,  three-quarters  to  right,  her  head  three- 
quarters  left,  in  the  lap  of  St.  Anne  who  is  seen  full  face.  The  Madonna 
holds  against  her  right  shoulder  the  Infant  Jesus  who  stands  full  face  on 
her  knee.  His  head  is  turned  three-quarters  right;  he  looks  at  the  Madonna. 
Under  this  central  group,  clouds.  On  either  side,  standing  figures:  to  the 
left  and  above,  St.  Sebastian,  his  head  profile  right,  his  neck  pierced  by  an 
arrow;  he  holds  a  palm;  below  in  the  foreground,  St.  Peter,  three-quarters 
right,  holding  in  his  right  hand  the  keys;  to  the  right,  above,  the  penitent 
thief,  profile  left,  holding  a  large  cross ;  in  the  foreground  below,  St.  Benedict, 
profile  left,  who  points  with  his  left  hand  to  the  Christ  Child.  Below  the 
clouds  at  the  Madonna's  feet,  a  medallion  of  small  figures  —  the  Signoria  of 
Florence  proceeding  with  trumpeters,  mace-bearers,  and  "  tavolaccini "  to  the 
convent  of  St.  Anne. 

The  Madonna  wears  a  red  tunic  and  mauve  head-dress;  a  green-blue 
mantle  falls  about  her  knees.  St.  Anne's  head-dress  is  white  of  a  violet  tone, 
her  mantle  a  grey-lavender.  St.  Sebastian  has  light  brown  hair  and  wears 
a  dark  mauve  mantle.  St.  Peter  is  dressed  in  a  blue-green  shirt  and  light 

167 


PONTORMO 

red  mantle ;  the  penitent  thief  in  a  red  mantle ;  St.  Benedict  in  a  grey  mantle. 
In  the  medallion,  reds,  blues  and  mauves  predominate  under  a  green-blue 
sky.  The  cloud  under  the  Virgin's  feet  is  mauve.  The  background,  a  very 
dark  grey. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  2.28,  w.  1.76. 

Vasari  (VI,  272  f.)  states  that  the  officers  of  the  Signoria 
ordered  this  altar-piece  for  the  nuns  of  St.  Anne  in  Verzaia, 
whose  convent  (founded  in  1318)  was  once  outside  the  San 
Frediano  gate.  His  statement  explains  the  medallion  at  the 
feet  of  the  Virgin.  The  members  of  the  Signoria  went 
annually  (Richa,  IV,  222)  in  solemn  procession  to  this  convent 
on  the  26th  of  July  in  commemoration  of  the  successful  rebellion 
of  the  people  against  the  tyrant  Gualtieri  of  Brienne,  Duke  of 
Athens.  The  revolt  began  on  the  26th  of  July,  1343.  Milanesi 
refers  to  this  fact.  A  misinterpretation  of  his  note  on  our 
panel  would  seem  to  have  led  certain  critics  to  give  its  date  as 
1543  (Berenson,  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176 ;  Seymour  de  Ricci,  Description, 
p.  43;  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit.,  p.  47).  Conte  Gamba  erroneously 
places  it  in  1524  (D.  ,G.  U.,  p.  3).  It  was  painted,  however,  in 
the  years  immediately  preceding  the  downfall  of  the  Republic, 
probably  in  1528.  After  leaving  their  original  convent  the  nuns 
occupied  successively  several  buildings  (Cronica  di  Buonac- 
corso  Pitti,  p.  4,  note)  among  them  those  of  the  hospital  of 
Sant'  Eusebio  de'  lebbrosi  sul  Prato  where  Richa  saw  our 
picture  on  the  main  altar  of  the  church  called  then  Sant'  Anna 
sul  Prato.  It  was  brought  to  the  Louvre  by  Napoleon.  The 
composition,  which  Gamba  finds  "ammucchiata,"  recalls,  in 
the  central  group,  Leonardo's  " Madonna  and  St.  Anne"  of  the 
Louvre  and,  in  the  standing  saints,  many  of  Fra  Bartolommeo's 
larger  pictures.  The  St.  Sebastian  resembles  the  Sebastian 
from  Diirer's  workshop,  now  in  the  archbishop's  palace  at  Ober 
St.  Veit  near  Vienna. 

Condition :  badly  cleaned  but  not  seriously  injured. 

Date :  about  1528. 

Drawings:  a  finished,  squared  study,  in  pen  and  bistre,  for  the  whole 
composition,  Uffizi  460  (fig.  105 ;  photo.  Braun,  Florence  133  and  F.  M.  C. ; 
B.  F.  D.,  pi.  CLXXI).  In  the  same  collection  (No.  13890,  photo.  Pini  1322) 
there  is  a  late  sixteenth  century  copy  (h.  .271,  w.  .197)  of  this  drawing.  It 

168 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

is  also  in  pen  and  bistre.  Berenson  (B.  F.  D.,  I,  320;  II,  150)  considers 
Uffizi  6681  to  be  a  study  for  the  Madonna's  head.  In  my  opinion  this  latter 
drawing  is  a  sketch  by  Bronzino  after  a  lost  picture  by  Pontormo  for  which 
Uffizi  6729  is  perhaps  the  original  study. 

Documents :  The  books  of  the  Signoria  for  the  period  from  which  this 
panel  dates  have  perished. 

Keprod.    Fig.  104 ;  photo.  Braun  11240 ;  Landon,  VI,  pi.  XX. 

Bibl.  Vasari,VI,  272  1;  Richa,  IV,  220  ff.;  Borghini,  II  Riposo,  ed. 
1730,  p.  484;  Notice  des  tableaux  des  ecoles  primitives,  1814,  No.  96,  p.  81; 
Filhol,  XVI,  21-24;  Catalogue  Villot,  No.  157,  p.  92;  Catalogue  Tauzia,  No. 
142 ;  Notice  des  tableaux  exposes  dans  la  galerie  du  Musee  royal,  Paris,  1826, 
pp.  218  f. ;  Jacobsen,  Repertorium,  XXV  (1902),  pp.  185  f. ;  Pietro  Passerini, 
Storia  degli  stabilimenti  di  beneficenza  di  Firenze,  Firenze,  1853,  125  ff. ; 
Passerini,  Curiositd  storico-artistiche  fiorentine,  art.  Degli  Orti  Oricellari} 
Firenze,  1866,  p.  3  ff. ;  Miintz,  Renaissance,  Paris,  1895,  III,  499;  Guido 
Carocci,  III.  fior.,  1906,  p.  96  f . ;  Seymour  de  Ricci,  Description,  p.  40 ;  B.  F.  D., 
I,  320 ;  II,  338 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  176 ;  Gamba,  D.  G.  U.,  1912 ;  Dessins,  pp.  21,  22, 
35,  40,  56,  71,  97,  103,  104,  115,  160,  163,  230,  284,  342. 

1241.     PORTRAIT  OF  AN  ENGRAVER  OF  PRECIOUS  STONES 

Half-length;  turned  three-quarters  to  the  right;  the  head  turned  a 
little  to  left;  eyes  look  three-quarters  to  left.  He  is  clean  shaven;  his  long 
dark  hair  falls  about  his  ears.  He  wears  a  four-cornered  black  hat  with  raised 
lappets,  a  dark  coat  with  full  sleeves  and  fur  collar;  at  his  throat,  a  small 
embroidered  ruche.  In  his  right  hand  he  holds  a  burin.  In  front  of  him 
and  to  the  right,  the  handle  of  a  dagger  (?)  in  which  is  set  a  jewel.  Dark 
background. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .69,  w.  .50. 

From  the  collection  of  Louis  XIV  (Catal.  Le  Bran,  1683, 
No.  285)  ;  once  at  Versailles  (Catal.  Paillet,  1695),  in  the  Petite 
Valerie  du  Roi  (Catal.  du  ler  nov.  1695;  Catal.  Bailly,  1709)  ; 
then  at  the  Surintendance,  in  the  Salon  du  Directeur  des 
Batiments  (Catal.  Jeaurat,  1760)  ;  described  by  Lepicie  (1752). 
Villot  conjectured  without  foundation  that  the  person  repre- 
sented is  Giovanni  delle  Corniole  (1470-1516).  This  is 
probably  the  earliest  known  portrait  by  Pontormo.  The 
influence  of  Andrea  is  manifest,  but  already  the  touch  of  intro- 
spection in  the  eyes  could  only  be  Jacopo's.  Miintz  finds  the 
colouring  "pousse  au  noir"  —  a  quality  we  of  course  owe,  not 
to  Pontormo,  but  to  the  discoloration  of  old  varnish.  Salle  VI. 
A.  Nord. 

Condition :  good  but  much  darkened. 
Date :  about  1516. 

169 


PONTOKMO 

Reprod.  Fig.  10 ;  engraved  by  Potrel ;  photo.  Braun  11241 ;  Filhol,  II, 
pi.  83;  Landon,  VI,  pi.  21;  Vasari,  trans,  de  Vere,  VII,  174  (in  colour). 

Bibl.  Filhol,  Galerie  du  Musee  Napoleon,  XVI,  21-24 ;  Catalogue  Villot, 
No.  158,  p.  93;  Catalogue  Tauzia,  No.  143;  Lepicie,  I,  47;  Engerand,  Inven- 
taire,  I,  37 ;  Notice  des  tableaux  du  Musee  royal,  pp.  218  f . ;  Miintz,  Renais- 
sance, p.  499,  Laf enestre,  No.  1241 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176 ;  Seymour  de  Ricci, 
op.  cit.,  pp.  40  f. 


PHILADELPHIA 

Johnson  Collection 

83.     PORTRAIT  OF  ALESSANDRO  DE'  MEDICI 

Half-length  seated  figure  turned  three-quarters  left.  In  his  left  hand 
he  holds  a  sheet  of  paper  on  the  corner  of  a  table,  in  his  right  hand  a  stylus 
with  which  he  draws,  on  the  paper  just  mentioned,  the  head  of  a  woman.  He 
is  beardless  and  has  a  swarthy  complexion ;  he  wears  a  black  cloak  and  a  biretta 
with  lappets.  The  background  is  a  wall  and  door  ajar;  to  the  extreme  left 
it  is  a  rich  brown  melting  into  dark  grey,  behind  the  head  dark  red  and, 
where  the  door  stands  open,  light  grey. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .97,  w.  .79. 

Mentioned  and  described  by  Vasari  (VI,  278)  who  states 
that  Pontormo  first  made  a  miniature  of  the  Duke  "per  piu 
commodita"  and  then  the  portrait.  The  former,  once  in  the 
Guardaroba  of  Cosimo  I,  has  disappeared.  The  latter,  of  which 
all  trace  was  lost  for  more  than  three  hundred  years,  I  have 
had  the  good  fortune  to  identify  with  the  present  panel.  In 
the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century  even  the  Medici  family  did 
not  know  what  had  become  of  this  portrait,  and  sometime 
before  1568  the  Grand  Duke  offered  a  reward  for  information 
as  to  its  whereabouts.  Several  years  later  his  offer  brought 
the  Eegent  Ferdinando  a  letter  (November  23,  1571)  from  a 
certain  Costantino  Ansoldi,  a  former  servant  of  Alessandro's, 
to  whom  the  latter  had  entrusted  the  bringing-up  of  his  natural 
son,  Giulio  de'  Medici.  This  interesting  document  is  still 
preserved  in  the  Florentine  Archives  and  was  first  printed  by 
Gualandi  who  did  not  connect  it  with  Pontormo  because  in 
his  transcription  the  painter's  name  appears  as  Jacopo  da 
Ponte.  Carnasecchi,  who  perceived  its  relation  to  Vasari 's 

170 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

description  of  Pontormo's  portrait  of  Alessandro,  reprinted  it 
in  the  Rivista  d' arte,  although  he  was  unaware  that  the  portrait 
still  survives.  From  it  we  learn  several  new  facts.  Our  por- 
trait was  painted,  it  would  seem,  in  Palazzo  Pazzi  just  after 
the  death  of  Clement  VII,  Alessandro 's  father,  for  whom  he 
is  represented  in  mourning  attire.  Later  on  Alessandro  gave 
Costantino  the  portrait  as  a  reward  for  good  service,  and  he 
in  turn  gave  it,  after  the  Duke's  death,  to  Taddea  Malespina. 
Such,  at  least,  is  the  old  courtier's  story,  in  regard  to  which  we 
should  add  by  way  of  comment,  that,  according  to  Vasari,  it 
was  Alessandro  himself  who  gave  the  picture  to  Taddea. 
Costantino  goes  on  to  say  that,  by  making  inquiries  of  Giulia 
Malespina,  a  daughter  of  Taddea 's  who  lived  in  Ferrara,  he 
found  that,  at  the  death  of  Taddea,  the  panel  had  passed  into 
the  hands  of  Alberico  Cybo,  lord  of  Massa  and  husband  of 
Ricciarda  Malespina,  Taddea 's  sister.  With  this  information 
he  forthwith  went  to  Pisa  and  laid  his  case  before  Giulio, 
Alessandro 's  son,  who  promised  to  help  him  and  who  was 
actually  able  to  induce  the  Lord  of  Massa  to  hand  over  the 
picture.  But  instead  of  giving  it  in  turn  to  Costantino  so  that 
he  might  present  it  to  the  Grand  Duke  and  claim  the  reward 
offered  for  finding  it,  Giulio  had  a  wretched  copy  made  which 
was  begun  by  Vincenzo,  painter  to  Giulio,  and  finished  by 
Salvio,  painter  to  Cavalier  Somo.  This  copy  Costantino 
indignantly  refused  to  accept.  The  identification  of  our  panel 
with  Pontormo's  long  lost  portrait  rests  not  only  upon  the  fact 
that  it  corresponds  exactly  to  the  descriptions  of  the  work  given 
by  Costantino  and  Vasari  but  also  upon  the  striking  resemblance 
it  bears  to  other  known  portraits  of  Alessandro.  We  may 
compare  it  with  Vasari 's  portrait  of  the  Duke,  now  in  the 
Umzi  (No.  1281),  which  Pontormo  himself  criticized  at  the 
young  Vasari 's  request  (VII,  657)  and  which  the  latter 
describes  in  a  letter  to  Ottaviano  de'  Medici;  with  Bronzino's 
portrait  of  Alessandro,  now  in  Bergamo;  with  the  modified 
replica  of  the  latter,  until  recently  in  the  Thode  Collection, 
at  Heidelberg;  with  a  "bottega"  copy  of  the  Bergamo  panel, 
now  in  the  corridor  between  the  Umzi  and  the  Pitti  and  labelled 

171 


PONTOKMO 

in  lettering  of  the  sixteenth  century  ALEX  •  MED  •  FLOR  • 
DUX  •  I  •  LAURENS  •  F  -  Bronzino's  portrait  of  the  Duke,  its 
replicas  and  its  copy  are  all  derived  from  the  present  panel 
which  is  also  the  prototype  of  Vasari's  likeness  of  Alessandro 
in  the  fresco  of  "Clement  Crowning  Charles  V,"  Sala  di 
Clemente  VII,  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio  (photo.  Alinari  4429). 
The  date  of  our  portrait  falls  in  the  interval  between  the  death 
of  Clement  and  the  assassination  of  Alessandro.  But  these 
terminal  dates  are  brought  nearer  together  by  two  additional 
facts:  the  Duke  is  represented  in  mourning  and  Vasari  dis- 
tinctly states  that  the  panel  was  contemporaneous  with  the 
"Venus  and  Cupid."  It  can,  therefore,  only  have  been  painted 
in  the  autumn  of  1534  or  in  the  spring  of  1535.  From  an 
iconographical  point  of  view  it  is  an  important  document  and 
will  serve  as  a  criterion  with  which  we  may  compare  other 
likenesses  of  the  Duke.  These  are  not  very  numerous.  A 
portrait  (No.  96)  described  as  "Alexandre  de  Medicis"  (h.  17, 
w.  13  in.),  ascribed  to  Bronzino  and  once  in  the  Nesselrode 
Collection,  was  sold  at  the  Fifth  Avenue  Art  Galleries  on  April 
6, 1911.  It  had  formed  part  of  the  Brandus  Galleries  and  passed 
into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Walter  Armann.  Another  portrait  of 
Alessandro,  "bust  figure,  wearing  armour  partly  covered  by  a 
cloak"  (panel,  25|  by  13  in.)  went  at  the  Doetsch  sale  (No.  156) 
for  thirteen  guineas.  It  came  from  the  Orleans  Gallery,  was 
ascribed  to  Bronzino,  although  seemingly  only  a  poor  "bottega" 
copy  of  a  lost  original,  and  bore  the  inscription :  ALE  SANDER  • 
MED  •  FLOR  •  D  •  I  •  (Catalogue  of  the  Doetsch  Collection,  p. 
45).  There  was,  according  to  Frizzoni,  a  poor  copy  of  the 
Bergamo  copy  in  the  collection  of  Lord  Dudley,  in  London. 
Kenner  mentions  a  bust  portrait,  turned  slightly  to  the  left, 
in  the  collection  of  Ferdinand  von  Tirol  (No.  385)  inscribed 
on  the  back:  ALEXANDER  •  MEDICI  •  FLORENTIE  • 
(SCIL  •  DUX)  ;  cf.  Jahrbuch  d.  kunsthis.  Samml.  d.  Allerhoch. 
Kaiserhauses,  XVIII  (1897),  153.  The  medal  of  the  Duke 
ascribed  to  Domenico  di  Polo  in  the  Lanna  Collection  is 
derived  from  Vasari's  portrait  of  Alessandro,  now  in  the 
Uffizi  or  from  a  similar  lost  portrait.  Cf .  also  Vasari,  V,  384. 

172 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Four  medals  of  the  Duke  by  Cellini  are  known  and  two  others 
have  been  ascribed  to  him.  We  also  have  three  with  the  mark 
$  which  Fabriczy  attributes  to  Domenico  di  Polo;  one  by  an 
unknown  artist  of  the  second  quarter  of  the  sixteenth  century ; 
one  by  Francesco  da  San  Gallo  bearing  the  date  MDLXX ;  one 
from  the  end  of  the  century  bearing  on  the  reverse  a  rhinoceros, 
which  Cicognara  thought  to  be  the  work  of  Francesco  dal 
Prato.  These  last  are,  of  course,  of  no  iconographical  signi- 
ficance. Francesco  dal  Prato 's '  *  medaglia ' '  was  really  a  circular 
bas-relief  that  with  others  was  part  of  the  ornamentation  of 
the  Fortezza  da  Basso,  in  Florence  (Vasari,  VII,  43).  Cf. 
Catalogue  de  la  collection  Spitzer,  Paris,  1893,  p.  233 ;  Armand, 
Medailleurs  italiens,  2e  ed.,  I,  141,  147,  151,  157;  II,  150,  151; 
Litta,  Famiglie  italiane,  No.  17;  Catalogue  von  Lanna,  p.  13, 
15, 153, 154. 

Condition:  recently  restored;  several  vertical  furrows  have  formed 
where  the  panel  has  shrunk  but  the  paint  has  not  been  seriously  broken, 
although  cracked  here  and  there. 

Date:  1534-1535. 

Document:  A.  S.  F.,  Carteggio  mediceo  del  Principato,  filza  567,  c.  187 
and  225. 

Reprod.  Fig.  124.  Battista  Franco  made  a  copy  of  this  portrait  which 
has  been  lost  (VI,  575) ;  fig.,  Johnson  Catalogue,  p.  283;  fig.,  Eassegna  d'arte, 
article  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  278,  575;  VII,  657;  Gualandi,  Nuova  raccolta  di 
letter ef  III  (1856),  62  f.;  Carnasecchi,  Rivista  d'arte,  V  (1909),  No.  1; 
F.  M.  Clapp,  Rassegna  d'arte,  XIII  (1913),  63-66;  Frizzoni,  La  Galleria 
Morelli  in  Bergamo,  Bergamo,  1892,  p.  19;  Archivio  storico,  V  (1893),  222; 
Johnson  Catalogue,  p.  45. 


POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

The  Great  Hall  in  the  Royal  Villa 

LUNETTE:  VERTUMNUS  AND  POMONA 

The  composition  is  pierced  in  the  centre  by  a  bull's-eye  window  and  the 
figures  are  arranged  on  two  parapets. 

Right  half  of  the  lunette,  lower  parapet :  to  the  left,  a  woman  reclining 
from  right  to  left,  her  back  turned;  her  complexion  is  pale;  she  wears  a 
light  blue  head-dress,  a  grey-violet  dress,  a  red  drapery  across  her  arms, 

173 


PONTORMO 

her  white  under-sleeves  rolled  up  at  the  elbows.  To  the  right,  a  woman 
reclining  from  right  to  left  facing;  she  has  an  olive  complexion  and  light 
brown  hair  in  which  a  violet  bow  and  she  wears  an  olive-green  dress  with 
white  scarf  and  violet  sleeves;  her  left  elbow  rests  on  an  orange  drapery. 
Right  half  of  the  lunette,  upper  parapet :  to  the  left,  a  nude  child  with  blond 
hair  seated  facing,  his  right  foot  on  the  parapet,  his  left  leg  hanging  down; 
he  holds  up,  by  a  light  blue  ribbon,  the  great  garland  of  green  leaves  and 
golden  fruit  which  passes  under  the  bull's-eye  and  of  which  the  other  end 
is  held  up  by  the  nude  boy,  on  the  same  parapet,  on  the  other  side  of  the 
lunette.  To  the  extreme  right,  on  the  upper  parapet,  a  woman  seated  astride 
of  the  wall,  her  right  arm  extended  downward  at  her  side,  her  hand  upon 
the  parapet,  her  left  arm  raised,  her  hand  grasping  a  laurel  branch;  she  is 
fair  and  wears  a  red  dress  with  light  blue  sleeves,  a  white  kerchief  and  white 
head-dress. 

Left  half  of  the  lunette,  lower  parapet:  a  youth  seated  facing  on  an 
orange  drapery,  his  legs  extended  to  the  right;  he  supports  himself  on  his 
right  hand,  his  left  hand  grasping  the  handle  of  a  basket;  he  is  dressed  in 
a  light  mauve  tunic  with  white  under-sleeves  and  green  leggings ;  at  his  waist 
a  grey  wallet;  to  his  left,  a  light  orange-coloured  dog.  To  the  extreme  left, 
an  old  peasant  seated  nearly  full  face,  his  legs  drawn  up  in  front  of  him, 
his  left  hand  on  his  right  knee,  his  right  hand  on  a  basket  which  is  placed 
to  his  right;  he  is  dark  complexioned  and  wears  a  yellow  jacket  and  white 
under-shirt  that  falls  between  his  knees.  Left  half  of  the  lunette,  upper 
parapet:  a  nude  blond  boy  turned  slightly  to  the  left  and  seated  astride  of 
the  parapet;  his  right  hand  rests  on  the  top  of  the  wall  beside  him,  his  left, 
extended  downward,  holds  the  pale  blue  ribbon  of  the  garland  that  passes 
under  the  bull's-eye.  To  the  left,  a  nude  youth  seated  on  the  parapet  against 
a  green  bush;  his  legs  are  spread  apart  and  his  body  bent  back  to  the  left; 
his  right  elbow  rests  on  top  of  the  wall  beside  him,  his  left  hand  is  raised 
to  a  laurel  branch  above  his  head ;  he  has  brown  curly  hair ;  under  him  there 
is  a  violet  drapery,  one  end  of  which  he  holds  up  in  his  left  hand.  At  the 
top  of  the  bull's-eye  to  right  and  left,  a  "putto"  seated  on  laurel  branches 
that  spring  from  the  upper  circumference  of  the  window.  The  "putto,"  to 
the  left,  holds  an  ensign  on  which,  letters  now  illegible;  the  "putto,"  to  the 
right,  holds  a  standard  on  which :  I  •  V  •  P  •  P.  On  a  decorative  cartouche 
over  the  centre  of  the  bull's-eye:  STVDIV)  QVIBVS  ARVA|  TVERI;  on 
a  round  cartouche  under  the  bull's-eye:  GLO|V:S;  on  the  lower  parapet  to 
the  extreme  left :  I  •  F  •  P  •  The  parapets  are  yellow-grey ;  the  background, 
dim  mountains  and  clouds  seen  through  a  pale  blue-violet  summer  haze. 

Fresco.  Lunette,  h.  4.61,  w.  9.90.  The  bull's-eye  with  its  decorative 
frame  is  3.20  in  diameter.  p 

Pontormo's  masterpiece  in  mural  painting.  The  decora- 
tion of  the  Great  Hall  was  undertaken  at  the  instance  of  Leo  X 
in  memory  of  his  father,  Lorenzo.  Paolo  Giovio,  who  in  1519- 
1521  was  in  Florence  in  the  train  of  Cardinal  Giulio  de'  Medici, 
selected  the  subjects  to  be  treated  (V,  195).  He  evidently 
suggested  to  Jacopo  the  somewhat  unusual  one  of  Vertumnus 

174 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

and  Pomona.  Earlier  representations  of  the  myth  do  exist  in 
Italian  art  as,  for  example,  in  the  "Hypnerotomachia  Poli- 
phili"  of  Frate  Francesco  Colonna,  written  in  "italiano 
maccheronico"  in  1467  and  printed  in  Venice,  "decembri  MID 
aedibus,"  by  Manutius  with  woodcuts  ascribed  to  Giovanni 
Bellini  and  Sandro  Botticelli,  in  which  the  deities  are  repre- 
sented in  triumphal  cars.  The  story  is  found  in  Ovid  (Met.  B. 
14,  623-697)  and  no  divinity  more  fitting  than  Pomona  —  "qua 
nulla  Latinas,  Inter  Hamadryadas  coluit  sollertius  hortos" — 
could  have  been  chosen  to  preside  over  a  villa  and  its  gardens. 
It  will  be  noticed  that,  in  certain  details,  Pontormo  follows 
Ovid  closely.  In  the  fresco  there  is  a  wall  that  separates  her 
garden  from  the  world  —  "pomaria  claudit  intus."  And 
Vertumnus,  who  went  through  a  thousand  changes  to  win 
Pomona,  is  represented  here  as  a  reaper  and  has  a  basket  at 
his  side : 

1 l 0  quoties  habitu  duri  messoris  aristas 
Corbe  tulit,  verique  fuit  messoris  imago !" 

In  Pontormo 's  work  the  types  and  costumes  are,  of  course, 
unaffected  by  any  mere  archeological  accuracy.  He  followed 
his  fancy  with  a  free  hand. 

Ottaviano  de'  Medici  was  appointed  superintendent  of 
the  work  at  Poggio,  and  Andrea  di  Cosimo  and  Franciabigio 
decorated  and  gilded  the  ceiling  (V,  195).  The  latter  painted 
on  one  of  the  side-walls  "The  Triumph  of  Cicero,"  and  Andrea 
del  Sarto  painted  on  the  other  "Ca3sar  Receiving  Tribute" 
(V,  36),  which  was  finished  by  Alessandro  Allori  in  1580.  To 
Pontormo  was  assigned  the  decoration  of  the  end-walls,  the 
upper  parts  of  which  are  in  the  form  of  lunettes.  He  began 
with  the  lunette  of  the  interior  wall.  Just  after  it  was  finished 
Leo  X  died  and  the  work  was  suspended.  Crowe  and  Caval- 
caselle  expressed  the  quite  amazing  opinion  that  both  Andrea's 
and  Franciabigio 's  work  at  Poggio  is  far  above  Pontormo 's. 

After  the  siege  of  the  city  Clement  VII  wished  to  complete 
the  decoration  of  the  Hall  and  gave  Pontormo  a  commission 
for  the  entire  undertaking  (VI,  275  f.).  But  Jacopo  never  got 

175 


PONTOEMO 

beyond  preparing  his  cartoons,  which  later  passed  in  part 
into  the  possession  of  Lodovico  Capponi.  These  represented 
' 'Hercules  and  Anteus,"  "Venus  and  Adonis,"  and  "Nudes 
Playing  at  Calcio."  A  large  drawing  (completely  ruined)  for 
the  latter  cartoon  is  now  in  the  Uffizi  (No.  13861).  The 
decoration  of  the  Hall  was  finally  finished  by  Alessandro  Allori 
to  whom  in  great  part  its  present  appearance  is  due. 

Condition:  Although  thoroughly  cleaned  and  restored  by  Alessandro 
Allori,  and  retouched  on  several  later  occasions,  it  is  comparatively  uninjured. 
Allori  speaks  of  his  restoration  in  his  "Ricordi"  (Supino,  Biblioteca  delta 
rivista  d'arte,  Firenze,  1908,  pp.  28  f.)  :  "1582.  Ricordo  questo  di  18  di 
settembre  come  e  restata  finita  la  sala  del  Palazzo  del  Poggio  a  Caiano  detto 
il  Salone,  luogo  di  S.  A.  S.  doue  ho  lavorato  piu  mesi  in  diuersi  tempi  auendo 
rif  atto  molte  braccia  e  lauato  e  netto  tutto  quello  che  ui  era  f  atto  sino  a  tempo 
di  papa  Leone  X;  e  ui  lauoro  Andrea  del  Sarto,  Jacopo  da  Puntormo,  e 
Francesco  Bigio ; ...  La  pittura  che  f ece  m°  Jacopo  da  Puntormo  fu  uno 
arco  sopra  la  porta  e  finestre  che  guardano  verso  Firenze,  il  quale  ho  rinetto 
e  lauato  e  rif  atto  1'  aria." 

Date:  1519-1521. 

Drawings:  possible  first  thoughts  for  the  whole  composition,  Uffizi  454 
(fig.  73;  photo.  Pini;  Alinari;  B.  F.  D.,  pi.  CLXX;  fig.,  Vita  d'arte,  57, 
p.  5;  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit.) ;  Uffizi  455  (fig.  74;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  first  ideas 
for  the  same,  Uffizi  6660  verso  (fig.  53;  photo.  Houghton;  fig.,  Vita  d'arte,  57, 
p.  6) ;  Uffizi  6742  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

For  individual  figures;  right  half  of  the  lunette,  lower  parapet:  first 
idea  for  the  woman  to  the  left,  Uffizi  6557  (fig.  54 ;  photo.  Houghton ;  F.  M.  C. ; 
D.  G.  U.,  pi.  IX) ;  finished  study  for  the  same,  Uffizi  6673  recto  (fig.  55 ; 
photo.  Houghton)  ;  for  the  woman  to  the  right,  sketches  for  the  whole  figure, 
Uffizi  6515  verso  (fig.  57;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  Uffizi  6514  (fig.  56;  photo. 
Houghton;  F.  M.  C.) ;  Uffizi  6544  (fig.  59;  photo.  Houghton);  Uffizi  6555 
(fig.  60;  photo.  Houghton) ;  finished  study,  Uffizi  6673  verso  (fig.  58;  photo. 
F.  M.  C.) ;  first  ideas  for  the  boy  to  the  left,  upper  parapet,  Uffizi  6512; 
Uffizi  6646  (fig.  65 ;  photo.  Houghton)  ;  Uffizi  6669  recto  and  verso  (figs.  67 
and  68;  photo.  Houghton;  F.  M.  C.) ;  Uffizi  8976  recto  (fig.  Vita  d'arte,  57, 
pi.  II)  ;  8976  verso  (idem,  pi.  VIII)  ;  first  ideas  for  the  woman  to  the  right, 
upper  parapet,  Corsini  124243  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  Uffizi  6557  (photo. 
Houghton ;  F.  M.  C. ;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  IX) ;  first  thought  for  the  head  and  shoulders 
of  the  same,  Uffizi  6632  (photo.  Houghton;  Pini;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  II)  ;  possible 
first  idea  for  the  drapery  of  the  same,  Uffizi  6667  verso ;  first  thought  for  the 
drapery,  Uffizi  6437  recto  and  verso;  study  for  the  folds  of  the  drapery, 
Uffizi  6519  verso;  finished  study  for  the  drapery,  Uffizi  6530  (photo.  Hough- 
ton)  ;  sketch  for  the  right  leg,  Uffizi  6728  verso;  first  thought  for  the  whole 
figure,  Uffizi  6662  verso  (fig.  62;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  finished  study  for  the 
upper  part  of  the  figure,  Uffizi  6531  (fig.  63;  photo.  Houghton);  finished 
study  for  the  head,  Uffizi  6547  (fig.  64;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  first  ideas  for  the 
"putto"  to  the  right  above  the  bull's-eye,  Corsini  124240  (photo.  F.  M.  C.) ; 

176 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Uffizi  6660  (photo.  Houghton;  F.  M.  C.;  fig.,  Vita  d'arte,  57,  p.  9)  ;  jotting 
for  the  head  of  same,  Uffizi  6728  verso. 

Left  half  of  the  lunette,  lower  parapet :  study  for  the  arm  of  the  youth 
to  the  right,  Uffizi  6559  recto  (fig.  70;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  possible  first  thoughts 
for  the  peasant  (Vertumnus)  to  the  left,  Uffizi  6515  (photo.  Houghton; 
F.  M.  C.) ;  Uffizi  6599  (photo.  Houghton)  ;  Uffizi  6685  recto  (fig.  71 ;  photo. 
Houghton)  ;  Uffizi  6685  verso;  first  thoughts  for  the  same,  Uffizi  6530  verso 
(photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  Uffizi  6590  (photo.  Houghton)  ;  finished  study  for  the 
head,  Uffizi  6579  (fig.  72 ;  photo.  Houghton)  ;  finished  study  for  the  boy  to 
the  right,  upper  parapet,  Uffizi  6651  (fig.  69 ;  photo.  Houghton)  ;  possible 
first  thoughts  for  the  youth  to  the  left,  upper  parapet,  Uffizi  6632  (photo. 
Houghton;  Pini;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  II)  ;  Uffizi  6634  (photo.  Pini)  ;  first  idea  for 
the  "putto"  to  the  left  over  the  bull's-eye,  Uffizi  6660  (photo.  Houghton; 
F.  M.  C. ;  fig.,  Vita  d'arte,  57,  p.  9)  ;  sketches  for  the  same,  Uffizi  6511  and 
6559  verso;  study  for  the  same,  Uffizi  6661  (fig.  66;  photo.  Houghton). 

Reprod.  Fig.  50 ;  fig.  51,  right  half  of  the  lunette ;  fig.  52,  left  half  of 
the  lunette;  photo.  Perazzi;  Alinari  29442,  29443,  29444;  fig.,  Vita  d'arte,  57. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  V,  36,  195 ;  VI,  265 ;  Borghini,  II  Biposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  393 ; 
Allegrini,  Pitture,  Firenze,  1751 ;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  310-312,  314,  n.,  316,  317 ;  II, 
138,  139,  140,  141,  142,  143,  144,  145,  146,  148,  149,  150,  153 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p. 
175 ;  Alessandro  Allori,  Ricordi,  28  f . ;  Dessins,  20,  34,  39,  55,  56,  68,  98,  99,  100, 
101,  114,  118,  121,  122,  123,  124,  125,  128,  131,  135,  136,  138,  141,  142,  144, 
146,  147,  151,  152,  153,  154,  155,  165,  171,  173,  175,  176,  177,  180,  181,  185, 
186,  195,  196,  197,  203,  206,  207,  212,  213,  214,  215,  218,  220,  221,  224,  227, 
232,  233,  236,  261,  262,  264,  270,  271,  272,  273,  278,  282,  283,  292,  307,  328, 
329 ;  On  Certain  Drawings,  8  f .,  20  f . ;  Jacobsen,  Repertorium,  XXI,  282 ;  Di 
Pietro,  Due  disegni  di  Jacopo  da  Pontormo,  Vita  d'arte,  57,  1912;  D.  G.  U., 
p.  2. 


PONTORMO 

San  Michele 


ST.  MICHAEL 


Full-length;  turned  three-quarters  right;  head  three-quarters  left;  the 
eyes  look  at  the  spectator;  weight  on  left  leg,  the  right  leg  bent,  the  foot 
resting  on  the  shoulder  of  a  "putto"  seated  on  the  ground.  In  the  saint's 
left  hand,  a  pair  of  balances ;  in  his  raised  right  hand,  a  broad  sword ;  behind 
him  one  dimly  sees  his  great  grey-white  wings.  He  wears  a  greenish  silvery 
cuirass,  cubitiere,  grey  purplish  chausses,  orange-yellow  greaves,  and  a  purplish 
grey  drapery  which  passes  over  the  left  shoulder  and  across  the  waist;  his 
white  tunic  puffed  at  the  shoulder  is  visible  on  the  right  arm.  He  has  dark 
brown,  curly  hair.  The  "putto"  seated  between  his  feet  is  turned  three- 
quarters  right ;  his  right  arm  extended  at  his  side,  his  left  hand  extended  up 
and  to  the  right  holding  a  globe;  his  right  leg  bent,  his  left  extended  right; 
his  head  inclined  on  his  left  shoulder,  the  eyes  looking  up.  Dark  background. 

Oil  on  wood  covered  with  a  thin  layer  of  "gesso."  H.  1.80,  w.  (at 
bottom)  .55;  (at  top)  .70. 

177 


PONTORMO 

Mentioned  by  Vasari  (VI,  259).  This  panel  which 
occupies  the  space  to  the  right  of  the  shrine  is  a  pendant  to 
the  following  which  occupies  the  space  to  the  left.  Originally 
on  the  altar  of  the  Madonna. 

Condition:  darkened  and  chipped  here  and  there  but  practically 
unharmed.  The  panel  was  cut  in  the  seventeenth  century  to  fit  the  gilded 
frame  of  the  altar-shrine.  This  reduction  of  the  picture  sacrificed  part  of  the 
scales,  the  left  forearm,  part  of  the  left  wing,  right  forearm  and  hand  of 
St.  Michael  as  well  as  the  back  of  the  "putto." 

Date:  1518-1519. 

Drawings:  finished  study  for  the  legs  of  the  saint,  Uffizi  6506  (fig.  40; 
photo.  Pini;  Houghton;  Perazzi;  F.  M.  C. ;  fig.,  Rivista  d'arte,  III,  149); 
the  right  foot  is  studied  again  on  the  same  sheet;  the  hands  of  the  saint  are 
sketched  on  Uffizi  6571  (fig.  37;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  for  which,  see  the  following. 

Documents:  The  earliest  books  of  this  parish  that  now  remain  in  the 
church  date  from  1664;  the  earliest  in  the  Florentine  Archives,  from  1533. 
The  church  belonged  to  Santo  Stefano  dei  Cavalieri  di  Pisa.  Perhaps  among 
the  records  of  the  latter  church,  some  of  which  are  in  the  Archives  of  Pisa, 
documentary  evidence  about  this  picture  might  be  found. 

Reprod.    Fig.  36;  photo.  Perazzi;  fig.,  article  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  259;  Odoardo  H.  Giglioli,  II  San  Giovanni  Evange- 
lista  ed  il  San  Michele  dipinti  da  Pontormo  per  la  chiesa  di  San  Michele  a 
Pontormo  presso  Empoli,  Rivista  d'arte,  III,  146;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  314;  II,  141; 
B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176 ;  Dessins,  pp.  11,  34,  39,  47,  68,  118,  161. 

ST.  JOHN  THE  EVANGELIST 

Full-length ;  nearly  profile  right ;  the  head  nearly  full  face  and  inclined 
on  the  right  shoulder ;  the  eyes  gaze  up  and  left ;  weight  on  right  leg,  the  left 
crossed  over  the  right,  the  toes  only  of  the  foot  resting  on  the  ground;  the 
right  arm  bent  and  raised  to  a  large  tablet  on  which  he  writes  with  a  quill. 
He  is  bald  and  wears  a  long  white  beard.  He  is  dressed  in  a  tunic  and 
voluminous  dark  green  mantle  gathered  in  great  folds  about  the  hips;  the 
lining  of  this  mantle  is  red;  a  white  tunic  shows  at  the  wrists.  Background, 
grey-green. 

Oil  on  wood  covered  with  a  thin  layer  of  "gesso."  H.  1.80,  w.  (at 
bottom)  .55,  (at  top)  .70. 

Mentioned  by  Vasari;  pendant  to  the  preceding.  Origi- 
nally on  the  altar  of  the  Madonna. 

Condition:  chipped  here  and  there  along  the  edges  and  on  the  robe 
and  feet;  darkened  with  varnish  and  smoke.  The  panel  has  been  cut  down 
to  fit  the  space  to  the  left  of  a  seventeenth  century  carved  and  gilded  frame 
of  the  altar-shrine ;  part  of  the  tablet,  right  hand  and  left  side  of  the  figure 
were  sacrificed  on  that  occasion. 

178 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

Date :  1518-1519. 

Drawing :  finished  study  for  the  whole  figure,  Uffizi  6571  (fig.  37 ;  photo. 
F.  M.  C.;  fig.,  Rivista  d'arte,  III,  148;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  I).  On  the  same  sheet 
one  finds  a  study  that  Berenson  believes  to  be  for  the  left  hand  of  our  St. 
John.  It  is,  however,  for  the  left  hand  of  St.  Michael ;  ef .  the  preceding. 

Documents :  see  the  preceding. 

Reprod.    Pig.  35 ;  photo.  Perazzi ;  fig.,  article  cited  above. 

Bibl.  See  above  and  B.  F.  D.,  II,  144;  D.  G.  U.,  p.  1;  Dessins,  pp. 
11,  34,  39,  47,  68,  107,  161. 


ROME 

Galleria  Borghese 

75.     LUCRETIA 

Bust  figure,  the  shoulders  almost  full  face,  the  head  turned  three- 
quarters  right.  She  has  an  olive  complexion,  dark  auburn  hair  with  golden 
lights,  almost  black  eyes,  lips  delicately  tinted.  A  dull  green  drapery  is 
thrown  over  her  left  shoulder.  She  wears  an  elaborate  head-dress  of  gilded 
bronze  with  golden  lights.  On  the  left  side  of  this  ornament  one  can  trace 
a  pattern  of  black  enamel  or  inlaid  steel;  at  the  top  two  "putti"  support  a 
medallion  on  which  is  a  little  pyramid.  In  her  left  hand  she  holds  upright  a 
damascened  dagger  with  a  bronze  handle  and  a  steel  blade.  The  background 
is  greenish  black.  In  the  lower  right  corner,  the  inventory  number  420. 

Oil  on  slate.    H.  .56,  w.  .43. 

From  the  original  Borghese  Collection.  Ascribed  to 
Bronzino  in  the  catalogue  and  by  Morelli,  Schulze  and 
-Lafenestre.  Berenson  gives  it  tentatively  to  Pontormo, 
although  there  seems  to  be  no  reason  to  question  its  authen- 
ticity. It  should  be  compared  with  Bronzino 's  " Cleopatra" 
that  hangs  in  the  same  collection  —  a  picture  which  seems  to 
have  been  suggested  by  a  drawing  of  Michelangelo's,  now  in 
Casa  Buonarotti  (BB.  1655;  Thode,  Krit.  Unters.,  II,  342)  and 
in  which  the  influence  of  Pontormo  is  hardly  discernible. 

Condition:  damaged  here  and  there;  on  the  hand  some  of  the  "impasto" 
has  fallen. 

Date :  1529-1530. 

Reprod.  Fig.  119 ;  photo.  Moseioni ;  Brogi  15881  (as  Bronzino)  ;  Gowan's 
Art  Books,  Masterpieces  of  Bronzino,  No.  18. 

Bibl.  Lafenestre,  Rome,  p.  14;  Venturi,  Galleria  Borghese,  1893; 
Morelli,  op.  cit.,  p.  130 ;  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176. 

179 


PONTORMO 

408.     PORTRAIT  OF  CARDINAL  SPANNOCCHI  CERVINI 

Three-quarter  length.  He  is  seated  in  a  Dante  chair  and  is  turned 
three-quarters  left;  he  has  curly  dark  brown  hair  and  beard  and  is  growing 
bald ;  he  wears  a  scarlet  watered  silk  robe  and  cape,  his  purple  cassock  showing 
at  neck  and  wrists,  embroidered  white  sleeves  and  white  collar;  on  his  head 
a  scarlet  biretta.  In  front  of  him,  a  table  covered  with  a  carpet  of  black  and 
yellow  arabesques  on  a  red  ground  and  bordered  with  a  black  and  white 
pattern  picked  out  in  yellow,  red,  and  green;  in  his  hands,  resting  on  the 
table  before  him,  he  holds  a  book  on  which  is  inscribed  at  the  top  of  the  page 
and  half  hidden  by  his  thumb:  JP°|  ...MO;  farther  down  the  page  one 
perceives  a  large  K  and  VNA . . .  M,  but  the  rest  is  illegible.  On  the  upper 
part  of  the  opposite  page  one  reads:  MARIO  ( ?).  To  the  right  of  the  book 
a  silver  bell  with  figures  —  a  Charity  and  a  Pelican  —  in  relief  and  a  red 
woven  handle  ending  in  three  tassels.  Behind  the  sitter,  to  the  left,  the  wall 
of  the  room  is  made  up  of  small  black  panels,  framed  in  light  wood,  with  a 
small  pattern  in  "tarsia"  or  in  Spanish  stamped  leather  on  which  is  repeated 
three  times  the  arms  of  the  Spannocchi  of  Siena  and  of  the  Cervini.  Above 
these  panels,  the  grey-green  stone  cornice  of  the  room.  On  the  right  in  the 
background,  a  Renaissance  cupboard  with  pediment,  ionic  pilasters  surmounted 
by  masques,  four  drawers  and  two  doors. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.03,  w.  .84. 

Provenance  unknown;  not  mentioned  by  Vasari;  long 
ascribed  to  Raphael.  Morelli  was  the  first  to  notice  that  this 
portrait  is  clearly  a  Pontormo,  although  strangely  enough  he 
compared  it  with  the  unauthentic  full-length  portraits  of  Cosimo 
Vecchio  and  Cosimo  I  (once  Uffizi  1267  and  1270,  and  really 
by  Vasari),  which  are  now  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio.  The  pose 
he  thought  was  inspired  by  Raphael's  " Portrait  of  Leo  X," 
now  in  the  Pitti.  We  might  note  in  passing  that  the  red  of 
the  robe  and  the  table-cloth  is  characteristic  of  our  master. 
Venturi  identified  the  personage  represented  by  determining 
the  ownership  of  the  arms  on  the  wall  to  the  left.  The  only 
cardinal  between  1480  and  1550  who  had  a  right  to  the  arms 
of  the  Spannocchi  and  Cervini  families  was  Marcello  Cervini 
degli  Spannocchi  afterwards  Pope  Marcellus.  He  was  born  at 
Montepulciano  in  1501  and  educated  in  Casa  Spannocchi.  He 
went  to  Rome  in  1523  and  in  1539  he  accompanied  Alessandro 
Farnese  on  a  diplomatic  mission  to  France  and  the  Low 
Countries.  On  his  return  to  Rome  he  was  made  cardinal.  He 
administered  the  dioceses  of  Nicastro,  Reggio,  and  Gubbio,  and 
in  1545  he  was  made  one  of  the  presidents  of  the  Council  of 

180 


AUTHENTIC  PICTUBES 

Trent  —  a  position  that  he  seems  to  have  held  until  1547.  He 
was  elected  pope  on  April  9,  1555.  This  portrait  was  probably 
painted  in  Rome  between  1540,  when  Cervini  returned  from  his 
diplomatic  missions,  and  1545  when  he  left  Rome  for  Trent. 
That  Pontormo  was  in  Rome  during  these  years  we  know  from 
various  drawings  of  Roman  antiquities  which  bear  his  hand- 
writing and  are  now  in  the  Louvre.  The  realism  of  the  back- 
ground indicates  the  interior  of  a  Spannocchi  or  a  Cervini 
palace.  Yenturi  correctly  places  this  panel  about  1540.  He 
notes  that  Passavant,  recalling  La  descrizione  di  Roma  moderna, 
1727,  p.  497,  thought  it  to  be  a  portrait  of  a  Cardinal  Borgia, 
although  he  was  in  doubt  whether  it  represented  Pietro 
Ludovico,  cardinal  of  Santa  Maria  in  Via  Lata,  or  Francesco 
Borgia.  Both  were  created  cardinals  in  1500  by  Alessandro  VI. 
But  the  technique  of  the  portrait  makes  Passavant 's  supposition 
quite  untenable,  since  the  former  died  in  1512  and  the  latter 
in  1511.  Moreover,  the  church  did  not  allow  its  functionaries 
to  wear  beards  until  1527.  Passavant  drew  attention  to  the 
Turkish  carpet  which  covers  the  table,  finding  it  similar  to  the 
table-cover  that  one  sees  in  Raphael's  " Portrait  of  Inghirami." 
This  carpet  has  also  been  more  recently  identified,  and  not  too 
convincingly,  with  a  Turkish  rug  in  the  collection  of  von  Tucker, 
once  Bavarian  minister  to  the  Quirinal.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle 
felt  that  the  head  and  hands  recall  Raphael,  but  they  found  that 
the  colouring,  especially  the  red,  was  not  his.  They  gave  the 
picture  to  Pierin  del  Vaga. 

Condition :  retouched  here  and  there. 
Date :  1540-1545. 

Reprod.  Fig.  130;  photo.  Anderson;  Alinari  7990;  Braun  43018;  fig., 
Klassicher  Bilderschatz,  No.  976;  Lafenestre,  Rome,  p.  44;  Rusconi,  La  Villa, 
il  Museo  e  la  Galleria  Borghese,  p.  118 ;  Die  Galerien  Europas,  I,  No.  88  (in 
colour)  ;  Tappeti  de'  dipinti  dei  secoli  XV  e  XVI,  L'Arte,  IV  (1901), 
Appendix  3,  p.  3,  fig.  3 ;  Kunstgeschichte  in  Bildern,  III,  94,  4 ;  small  woodcut, 
Reinach,  Reper.,  I,  661. 

Bibl.  Morelli,  op.  cit.,  pp.  128-130;  Venturi,  catalogue  cited  above; 
Miintz,  Renaissance,  III,  p.  499,  Passavant,  Raphael,  II,  350;  Lafenestre, 
Rome,  p.  45;  Frizzoni,  Giovanni  Morelli  e  la  critica  moderna,  Arch.  stor. 
d'arte,  1897,  p.  87;  Rusconi,  op.  cit..  B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  176.  For  Marcellus,  see 
Polydorus,  De  vita,  gestis  et  moribus  Marcelli  II  Papae,  Rome,  1744. 

181 


PONTORMO 


Galleria  Corsini 

577.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Bust  figure;  shoulders  turned  slightly  left,  head  three-quarters  right. 
He  has  a  pale  complexion  and  dark  eyes,  scant  brown  beard  and  darker  hair ; 
he  wears  a  black  coat  with  a  soft  linen  collar  embroidered  in  yellow.  The 
background,  dark  olive-grey  across  the  upper  left  corner  of  which  the  folds 
of  a  curtain  sweep. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .63,  w.  .46. 

From  the  original  Corsini  Collection.  The  identity  of  the 
sitter  has  not  been  determined.  Ascribed  in  the  catalogue  to 
the  "Scuola  del  Pontormo."  It  is,  however,  by  the  master 
himself,  though  in  its  present  ruined  state  it  is  the  feeblest  of 
the  authentic  portraits. 

Condition:  disastrously  cleaned  and  completely  restored;  numerous 
small  vertical  cracks. 

Reprod.    Photo.  Moscioni  21533. 


Palazzo  Barberini 

83.     PYGMALION  AND  GALATEA 

To  the  left  Galatea  stands  on  a  block  of  stone;  she  is  turned  three- 
quarters  right,  her  right  hand  raised  to  her  shoulder,  her  left  holding  up  the 
deep  pink  drapery  that  hangs  from  her  hips ;  her  hair  is  dark ;  she  looks  at 
the  spectator.  On  the  right  Pygmalion  kneels  profile  left,  his  hands  raised 
and  clasped  before  him;  his  hair  is  dark;  he  looks  in  adoration  at  Galatea. 
He  wears  a  blue  jerkin,  a  yellow  scarf  round  his  hips,  dark  pink  hose,  dark 
stockings  and  shoes.  On  the  brown  ground  beside  him  lie  hammer  and 
sculptor's  tools.  In  the  centre  of  the  picture,  a  three-sided  altar  of  greyish 
purple  stone  which  bears  the  inscription:  NIHILV)  VT|  VEN|VS,  and  on 
which  a  grey  bull  is  sacrificed.  The  altar  is  ornamented  on  the  right  side 
with  a  scroll  supported  by  two  hermae  as  caryatids,  on  the  left  side  by  two 
larger  gaines,  the  nearer  of  which  represents  Venus  holding  an  apple,  the 
farther,  Paris  who  gazes  at  her,  his  arm  resting  on  her  shoulders.  On  the 
right  of  the  altar,  an  urn  of  "rosso  antico"  ornamented  with  lions'  heads.  To 
the  left  of  Galatea,  a  stool  on  which  sculptor's  tools.  The  background  is  a 
hilly  landscape  with,  on  the  left,  a  winding  river,  two  small  figures  and  a 
house,  on  the  right,  a  small  bare  tree;  the  general  tone  of  the  distance  is 
greenish  brown.  The  sky  is  green,  the  horizon  red.  Red  flames  and  grey 

182 


DESIGNS  FOR  TAPESTEIES 

smoke  rise  from  the  altar.    On  the  lower  left  side  of  the  panel :  F.  16.    On  the 
back,  an  illegible  note  in  ink. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .79,  w.  .62. 

Mentioned  by  Vasari  as  painted  by  Bronzino  and  as  once 
forming  the  cover  of  the  portrait,  now  lost,  that  Pontormo 
painted  of  Francesco  GKiardi  during  the  siege  of  Florence. 
Only  the  altar  and  certain  accessories  suggest  the  hand  of 
Bronzino.  Vasari,  to  whom  the  latter  probably  told  the  story 
of  the  painting  of  this  panel,  misinterpreted  Bronzino 's  part 
in  it  and  gave  him  credit  for  the  whole  composition,  the  greater 
part  of  which  is  indubitably  by  Pontormo.  The  picture 
belonged  to  the  original  Barberini  Collection,  as  is  shown  by 
the  mark  F.  16,  and  was  long  ascribed  to  Baldassare  Peruzzi. 
Morelli  was  the  first  to  recognize  here  the  hand  of  Jacopo; 
Berenson  follows  Morelli 's  attribution.  Goldschmidt,  who 
incorrectly  gives  the  number  as  16,  repeats  Vasari 's  error  in 
ascribing  the  whole  composition  to  Bronzino. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date :  1530-1531. 

Reprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  275 ;  Laf enestre,  Rome,  p.  150 ;  Morelli,  Borghese  and 
Doria  Pamfili  Galleries,  1900,  p.  30 ;  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit.,  p.  55 ;  B.  F.  P.  R., 
p.  176 ;  Dessins,  pp.  35,  71,  118,  340. 


Palazzo  Quirinale 

TAPESTRY:  LAMENTATION  OF  JACOB 

In  the  foreground,  Jacob  dressed  in  a  loose  tunic  kneels  three-quarters 
right,  his  shoulders  turned  three-quarters  left,  his  head  profile  left,  his  hands 
clasped  before  his  face.  Behind  him  a  figure  in  a  tunic  that  falls  from  the 
shoulders  stands  full  face,  his  head  profile  left,  his  right  arm  extended  down- 
ward at  his  side,  and  displays  the  bloody  cloth;  his  raised  left  hand  points 
to  the  right.  To  the  left  and  above,  a  woman's  figure,  full  face,  her  head 
profile  left ;  she  is  dressed  in  a  dark  robe  and  wears  a  scarf  on  her  hair ;  with 
her  two  hands  extended  on  either  side  she  holds  up  the  bloody  cloth.  In 
the  background,  a  hillock  over  which  the  heads  of  various  spectators  are 
visible.  To  the  right,  a  tree;  in  the  middle  ground,  above  and  to  the  left,  a 
smaller  tree ;  in  the  extreme  foreground,  various  plants.  The  border  consists, 
at  the  top,  of  fruit,  with  masks  at  either  upper  corner ;  on  either  side,  bunches 

183 


PONTORMO 

of  fruit  and  leaves  with  two  "putti"  who  gather  them,  seated  astride  of 
terms;  below  these,  masks  and  flowers;  along  the  bottom  of  the  border,  a 
garland  of  fruit. 

Designed  by  Pontormo  and  woven  by  Giovanni  Rost; 
mentioned  by  Vasari  (VI,  283)  who  states  that  the  composition 
pleased  neither  the  Grand  Duke  nor  the  Flemish  weavers. 
Vasari  states  elsewhere  (VII,  599)  that  the  commission  for  the 
first  designs  for  the  tapestries  which  were  to  adorn  the  Sala 
de'  Dugento  was  given  to  Pontormo.  This  statement  is  denied 
by  Conti  (Ricerche  storiche)  who  thinks  that  Bronzino  began 
work  on  designs  for  the  weavers  in  1545,  Salviati  in  1547, 
Pontormo  in  1548,  and  Bacchiacca  in  the  same  year.  Geisen- 
heimer  (Bollettino  d'arte,  II  (1909),  137-147),  quoting  a  letter 
of  the  Maggiordomo  to  Cristiano  Pagni  (Cart.  Med.  375,  p.  58; 
December  18,  1545;  Milanesi,  Spoglie  dell'  archivio  mediceo, 
p.  94)  that  accompanied  what  he  believes  to  have  been  the  first 
tapestry,  woven  according  to  the  communication  in  question 
from  a  design  of  Bronzino 's,  places  the  completion  of  the  first 
tapestry  of  the  series  about  October  20,  1546,  which  is  the  date 
of  the  first  definite  contract  between  the  ducal  government  and 
Rost  and  Kracher,  the  weavers  (A.  S.  P.,  Rogati  di  Ser  Giov. 
Batt.  Giordani,  G  299,  127  t.,  132  r.).  Irrefutable  evidence, 
nevertheless,  exists  that  Rost  began  work  somewhat  earlier 
than  has  been  generally  supposed.  In  the  books  of  the 
Guardaroba  (Debitori  e  Creditori,  No.  10, 1544-1553)  under  the 
date  of  September  11, 1545,  we  read :  "M°  Janni  reost  fiamigho 
tappeziere  A  642";  and  a  little  farther  on  we  find  another  entry 
of  the  same  642  ducats.  Moreover,  there  is  in  the  contract  made 
with  the  weavers  in  October,  1546,  a  reference,  afterwards 
cancelled,  to  two  tapestries  then  on  the  looms  and  almost 
finished.  These  were  delivered  in  August  and  September,  1547, 
and  the  subjects  represented  show  that  they  were  not  woven 
from  cartoons  by  Pontormo.  The  documents  make  it  clear  that 
both  Bronzino  and  Salviati  were  in  the  employ  of  the  Medici 
in  1544  and  1545  (Guardaroba,  No.  10,  pp.  10,  29,  29  v.,  33,  35,  37, 
60,  65),  although  it  is  important  to  remember  that,  at  that 
moment,  Salviati  was  at  work  on  the  "sala  della  cappella  del 

184 


DESIGNS  FOR  TAPESTRIES 

palagio  ducale."  If  Bronzino  furnished  the  first  cartoons  for 
the  projected  series  of  tapestries  he  did  so  before  going  to  Rome, 
for  a  letter  of  his  to  Cosimo,  dated  April  30,  1548  (Filza  273; 
Gaye,  II,  368),  makes  it  evident  that  he  did  not  earnestly  turn 
his  attention  to  designing  the  remainder  of  the  tapestries 
included  in  his  commission  until  after  that  date.  On  May  15 
he  wrote  to  the  Grand  Duke  another  letter  which  leads  one  to 
believe  that  he  had  been  paid  in  part  for  his  cartoons  before 
he  left  Florence.  All  things  considered,  I  am  inclined  to  think 
that  Vasari's  story  (VI,  283  f.;  VII,  28,  599),  in  regard  to  the 
sequence  of  the  various  cartoons,  is  fairly  consistent.  It  is, 
in  all  likelihood,  more  trustworthy  than  some  of  the  "elenchi," 
especially  those  that  date  from  the  administration  of  Tanay  de' 
Medici  which  only  began  in  1555.  The  present  subject  does 
not  appear  in  the  first  lists  of  tapestries  delivered,  but  I  am 
led  to  conjecture  from  the  marked  similarity  of  Pontormo's 
and  Bronzino 's  earliest  designs  for  the  weavers  that  Pontormo's 
cartoons  dated  from  the  very  beginning  of  the  enterprise, 
although  they  were  not  woven  until  after  several  of  Bronzino 's 
had  been  carried  to  completion  on  the  looms.  This  tapestry 
with  a  number  of  others  belonging  to  the  same  series  was  sent 
to  Rome  from  Palazzo  Pitti  in  1887.  The  composition  is  in  part 
made  up  of  motives  derived  from  Michelangelo's  Doni  "Holy 
Family,"  Pontormo's  own  "Adoration  of  the  Magi,"  now  in 
~the  Pitti,  his  "Deposition"  of  the  Capponi  Chapel,  and  his 
design  for  the  "Death  of  Abel"  of  the  choir  of  San  Lorenzo 
which  is  now  known  to  us  only  in  his  preparatory  study 
(Uffizi6739). 

Date  of  cartoon :  1545-1546. 

Documents :  A.  S.  F.,  Guardaroba  F.  15,  pp.  91  t.,  94  t.    See  also  above. 

Reprod.  Fig.,  Bollettino  d'arte,  III  (1909),  140;  Keuller,  op.  cit.  infra, 
pi.  XXVI. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  see  above;  Geisenheimer,  article  quoted  above;  Conti, 
Ricerche  storiche  sull'  arte  degli  arazzi  a  Firenze,  Firenze,  1875,  pp.  48,  97, 
99  f. ;  idem,  Prima  reggia,  Firenze,  1893,  pp.  94,  206 ;  Miintz,  Collections  des 
Medicis;  idem,  Histoire  generale  de  la  tapisserie,  p.  63 ;  Gaye,  loc.  cit.;  Lensi, 
Palazzo  Vecchio,  Firenze,  1911,  p.  129;  Rigoni,  Catalogo  della  R.  Galleria 
d' Arazzi,  Firenze,  1884,  pp.  IX,  74  f. ;  Keuller,  Tapisseries  historiees  a 
I'  exposition  nationale  beige  de  1880. 

185 


PONTOKMO 

TAPESTRY:  JOSEPH  AND  POTIPHAR'S  WIFE 

In  the  foreground  right  Potiphar's  wife  stands  draped  in  a  light  tunic 
and  a  large  mantle,  her  left  arm  extended  at  her  side,  her  right  hand  grasping 
the  folds  of  Joseph's  mantle;  her  head  is  turned  three-quarters  left,  a  tress 
hangs  over  her  right  shoulder  and  crosses  her  breast.  To  the  left  stands 
Joseph,  nearly  full  face,  wrapped  in  a  voluminous  mantle.  Behind  Potiphar's 
wife,  the  head  and  shoulders,  turned  three-quarters  left,  of  a  negress.  Behind 
Joseph,  the  upper  part  of  the  face  of  a  servant.  In  the  background,  the  canopy 
of  a  bed,  hung  from  a  Renaissance  ceiling,  behind  which  to  the  right  the  head 
and  shoulders  of  a  servant  are  visible.  The  border  corresponds  to  that  of  the 
preceding  with  certain  modifications;  at  the  bottom  the  garland  is  made  up 
of  different  kinds  of  fruit. 

Mentioned  by  Vasari;  woven  by  Karcher.  First  cited  in 
the  list  of  July  15,  1549,  again  on  August  3,  1549,  and  again 
on  October  27,  1553  (A.  S.  F.,  Guardaroba,  No.  27) :  "Nota  de 
tutte  1'arrazzerie  condotte  in  guardaroba  di  S.  eca  da  mro 
Niccholas  carchra  dal  di  che  comincio  di  lauorare  per  S.  Eca 
sino  adesso.  n°  6.  U°  panno  della  fuga  di  iosef  dalla  donna  di 
phutifar."  Of.  the  remarks  on  the  preceding. 

Date  of  the  cartoon :  1545-1546. 

Reprod.    Fig.  136;  fig.,  article  in  the  Bollettino  d'arte  cited  above. 

Bibl.    See  above. 


TAPESTRY:  BENJAMIN  AT  THE  COURT  OF  PHARAOH 

In  the  centre  Joseph  seated  on  a  dais  and  turned  three-quarters  left, 
his  head  full  face,  his  left  arm  extended  to  the  right.  Before  him  and  to  the 
left,  Benjamin  seen  nearly  full  face,  his  right  leg  bent,  his  arms  raised  to 
the  left  above  his  head,  his  right  hand  held  by  the  right  hand  of  Joseph.  In 
the  foreground  right  Judah  kneels  seen  from  behind,  his  arms  lifted  in  sup- 
plication. To  the  right  of  Joseph,  a  servant  seen  from  behind  who  looks 
down  and  to  the  right.  To  the  left  of  Joseph,  a  servant  seen  full  face,  his 
head  profile  right,  his  left  arm  reached  out  to  the  cup  of  Benjamin  which 
is  held  by  another  servant  who  occupies  the  upper  part  of  the  composition 
and  who  is  turned  profile  right,  her  head  full  face.  The  background  is  the 
wall  of  a  room  in  a  palace.  The  border  is  practically  identical  with  that  of 
the  preceding. 

Vasari  mentions  (VI,  284;  VII,  599)  only  two  cartoons 
for  tapestries  furnished  by  Pontormo.  But  in  the  list  of  the 
seven  tapestries  which  had  been  delivered  up  to  July  15,  1549 
(Guardaroba,  F.  15,  pp.  91  v.  and  94  v.)  another  tapestry  of  the 
same  dimensions  as  the  present  composition  is  mentioned  and 

186 


DESIGNS  FOR  TAPESTRIES 

given  to  Pontormo:  "Panno  simile  disegno  di  Pont'olmo 
detto  la  coppa  di  Josef  —  lungo  8.  L.  4. "  This  might  well  be 
our  tapestry  which  displays,  even  to  the  minutest  details,  all 
the  characteristics  of  the  other  two  tapestries  woven  from 
cartoons  by  Jacopo  and  none  of  the  qualities  exhibited  by  those 
known  to  have  been  woven  from  designs  by  Bronzino,  such  as 
the  " Family  of  Jacob  in  Egypt"  (Quirinal)  or  those  still 
preserved  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio.  We  must,  however,  note  that 
the  list  mentioned  above  speaks  of  a  "Cattura  di  Beniamino"  — 
a  title  that  fits  the  present  design  even  better  than  "Coppa  di 
Josef."  But  this  second  tapestry  is  ascribed  to  Bronzino,  and 
I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  the  entry  in  question  really  refers 
to  Bronzino 's  "Cattura  di  Simeone."  In  any  case,  the  present 
subject  might  easily  have  been  described  by  a  careless  clerk  as 
a  "Coppa  di  Josef"  and  the  cartoon  of  our  tapestry,  if  not 
actually  by  Jacopo,  was  directly  inspired  by  him.  Of  this  we 
have  abundant  proof  in  a  drawing  (Uffizi  6593),  for  the  figure 
(reversed)  to  the  extreme  right,  which  is  undoubtedly  a  Pon- 
tormo (Dessins,  pp.  172  f.).  There  is,  of  course,  another 
explanation  that  might  be  advanced:  the  preparation  of  the 
numerous  cartoons  included  in  the  commission  given  to  Bronzino 
was  a  great  burden  and  his  letters  show  that  he  was  compelled 
to  hand  over  the  manual  part  of  it  to  Raffaello  da  Colle  (VII, 
599).  May  it  not  be  possible  that  the  subject  of  this  tapestry 
was  among  those  assigned  to  Bronzino,  but  that  he  utilized  for 
it  drawings  already  made  by  Jacopo  before  the  dissatisfaction 
of  the  Duke  and  the  weavers  caused  the  latter  to  forego  further 
participation  in  this  enterprise  ? 

Date :  1546-1553. 

Drawing :  for  the  figure  seen  from  behind  to  the  extreme  right  (reversed), 
Uffizi  6593  (fig.  135;  photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

Documents.    See  above  and  the  preceding  two  numbers. 

Eeprod.    Fig.  134 ;  fig.,  article  cited  above. 

Bibl.    See  above  and  the  preceding;  also  Dessins,  pp.  35,  74,  172,  173. 


187 


PONTORMO 

VIENNA  : 

Belvedere 

48.     PORTRAIT  OF  AN  OLD  LADY 

Three-quarter  length;  turned  slightly  left;  seated  in  a  chair  the  arms 
of  which  are  carved.  She  holds  in  her  left  hand  a  book,  the  index-finger 
between  the  leaves ;  her  right  hand  rests  on  the  arm  of  the  chair.  She  wears 
a  dark  fur-lined  dress  with  fur  collar  open  at  the  throat  between  the  lapels 
of  which  a  white  chemisette,  also  open  at  the  throat,  is  visible;  on  head  and 
brow,  a  transparent  veil.  Dark  background,  in  the  upper  right  corner  of 
which  the  inscription :  AN  •  AET  •  LXXIL 

Oil  on  poplar  wood.    H.  1.09,  w.  .92. 

Provenance  unknown;  first  mentioned  in  Rosa's  catalogue 
of  1804  (III,  13,  No.  15)  as  "Unknown."  Albrecht  Krafft 
(1837)  believed  it  to  be  by  an  unidentified  Dutch  artist. 
Erasmus  Engerth  gave  it  to  Andrea  del  Sarto.  Hermann  Voss 
has  recently  suggested  that  it  is  the  work  of  some  one  associated 
with  Vasari.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  and  Berenson  ascribe  it 
to  Pontormo  of  whose  later  manner  in  portraiture  it  is  an 
admirable  example  full  of  penetration  and  dignity. 

Condition :  good ;  a  vertical  crack  between  the  boards  on  the  right  side ; 
a  small  piece  added  on  the  right  and  at  the  bottom;  slightly  restored  here 
and  there. 

Date:  1550-1556. 

Reprod.    Fig.  150;  photo.  Bruckmann,  1905. 

Bibl.  Catalogues  of  1895  and  1896,  p.  21;  of  1907,  p.  16;  Engerth, 
Verzeichnis,  p.  294 ;  Voss,  Zeitschrift  f.  bildende  Kunst,  1912,  p.  44,  n. ;  Crowe 
and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  509;  ed.  Borenius,  VI,  196;  B.  F.  P.  R., 
p.  177. 


YERKES  COLLECTION 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUNG  WOMAN 

Half-length ;  seated  in  an  arm  chair  before  a  table,  she  is  turned  three- 
quarters  to  the  left  and  looks  at  the  spectator.  Her  hair  is  bound  in  an 
ornamental  gold  net  and  she  wears  a  crimson  gown  cut  low  with  large  puffed 
sleeves,  a  white  lace  chemisette  open  at  the  throat  and,  at  her  wrists,  frills. 
She  has  a  ring  on  the  ring-finger  of  her  left  hand  and  on  the  forefinger  of 

188 


AUTHENTIC  PICTURES 

her  right  hand,  and  round  her  neck,  a  small  gold  chain.  The  table  is  covered 
with  a  red  cloth  on  which  lies  an  open  book  in  which  one  reads :  CANTO  at 
the  head  of  two  pages  of  illegible  verse  printed  in  two  columns  of  four  stanzas 
each  to  the  page,  each  stanza  consisting  of  eight  lines ;  at  the  further  end  of 
the  table  lies  a  bunch  of  carnations  ( ?).  Her  right  hand  rests  on  the  right- 
hand  page,  her  left  on  the  corner  of  the  table.  Behind  her,  a  looped-up 
curtain. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.40,  w.  .67.     (Catalogue  gives  h.  35£  in.,  w.  26£  in.) 

Falsely  ascribed  to  Bronzino.  Provenance  and  present 
whereabouts  unknown.  As  Berenson  noted  as  long  ago  as  1906, 
this  is  a  fine  and  characteristic  work  of  our  master's. 

Condition:  slightly  damaged;  a  small  piece  has  been  added  at  the  top. 

Date:  1534-1545. 

Reprod.    Fig.  131 ;  fig.,  catalogue  de  luxe  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  from  Collection  of  Charles  T.  Yerkes,  Chicago,  Chicago, 
1893 ;  Catalogue  of  Paintings  and  Sculpture  in  the  Collection  of  Charles  T. 
Yerkes,  Boston,  1904;  Catalogue  de  Luxe  of  Ancient  and  Modern  Paintings 
Belonging  to  the  Estate  of  the  Late  Charles  T.  Yerkes,  New  York,  1910; 
Berenson,  Le  pitture  italiane  nella  raccolta  Yerkes,  Rassegna  d'arte,  VI 
(1906),  35. 


189 


CATALOGUE  RAISONNE 

OF 
PICTURES  ATTRIBUTED  TO  PONTORMO 


CATALOGUE  RAISONNE 

OF 
PICTURES  ATTRIBUTED  TO  PONTORMO 


ALNWICK  CASTLE 

Collection  of  the  Duke  of  Northumberland 

VIRGIN  AND  CHILD 

A  replica  of  pictures  in  the  collection  of  the  Earl  of  Northbrook  and  at 
Hampton  Court.  Ascribed  to  Andrea;  believed  to  be  a  Pontormo  by  Crowe 
and  Cavalcaselle.  I  have  not  seen  this  picture. 

Bibl.    Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  "Button,  1911,  III,  514;  ed.  Borenius,  VI,  202 

ASSISI 

ST.  AGATHA 

Medallion;  bust  figure,  turned  three-quarters  to  right;  she  looks  at  the  spectator; 
robe  open  at  neck  and  trimmed  with  white  frilling;  scarf  thrown  over  hair,  a  plait  of 
which  falls  over  left  shoulder;  in  her  left  hand,  the  pincers  of  her  martyrdom. 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo  but  not  authentic;  once  in  the  Constantini 
Collection,  Florence;  later  in  that  of  Mr.  Perkins,  at  Assisi.  Companion 
piece  to  the  following;  its  present  whereabouts  is  unknown  to  me. 

Photo.  Eeali. 

ST.  LUCIA 

Medallion;  bust  figure,  turned  three-quarters  to  the  left;  she  looks  at  spectator; 
robe  open  at  neck  and  edged  with  white;  sleeve  of  lighter  stuff;  hair  elaborately  arranged 
and  bound  with  a  ribbon;  a  plait  falls  over  right  shoulder;  in  her  left  hand,  on  a  plate, 
she  holds  her  eyes. 

Same  remarks  as  for  preceding. 
Photo.  Eeali. 

193 


PONTORMO 

AVIGNON 

Musee  Calvet 

516.     YOUNG  WOMAN  DRESSING 
OU  on  wood.    H.  .75,  w.  .81. 

Attributed  to  Pontormo;  not  mentioned  by  Berenson;  bought  in  1836 
at  Lyons  from  M.  Peyre.  I  have  not  seen  this  picture. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  des  tableaux  exposes  dans  les  galeries  du  Musee-Calvet  d' Avignon, 
Joseph  Girard,  Francois  Seguin,  Avignon,  1909,  p.  114;  Theodore  Gue"dy,  Musses  de  France, 
Paris,  Boulevard  Saint  Germain,  168,  p.  61. 

BALTIMORE 

Walters  Collection 

596.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

A  little  less  than  half-length;  over  the  head  and  most  of  the  forehead,  and  hanging 
down  on  the  shoulders,  a  veil  of  white  gauze.  She  wears  a  decollete'e  black  dress,  the  square 
opening  edged  with  the  same  gauze.  The  eyebrows  are  arched  and  thin.  Her  hands  rest 
on  a  table  in  the  lower  left-hand  corner  of  the  picture,  her  right  hand  hanging  over  the 
edge;  her  left  hand  rests  on  the  wrist  of  the  right  hand  at  the  base  of  the  bent  little  finger. 
Between  the  thumb  and  the  long  curved,  full,  but  slim,  forefinger  she  holds  a  dark  oval 
object  that  might  be  a  large  "intaglio."  The  neck  is  full  and  long.  The  background  is 
dark  green  at  the  top  shading  down  into  the  same  colour  as  the  dress. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  34J  in,  w.  27f  in. 

Bibl.    The  Walters  Collection,  p.  126. 

BERGAMO 

Pinacoteca  Lochis 

145.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN  HOLDING  A  ROLL  OF  PAPER 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .27,  w.  .19. 

Bibl.  La  Pinacoteca  e  la  Villa  Lochis  alia  Crocetta  di  Moszo,  presso  Bergamo,  2d  ed., 
Bergamo,  1858,  pp.  247  f. 

BERLIN 

A  Private  Collection 
MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Copy  of  the  picture  ascribed  to  Pontormo  in  the  Alte  Pinakothek,  Munich. 
See  also  Boston  Museum;  Castello;  Cenacolo  di  Foligno,  Florence;  Cook 
Collection,  London;  Hampton  Court;  Collection  of  Mr.  Vernon  Watney, 
Cornbury  Park,  Oxford. 

194 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

BOLOGNA 

Accademia 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

The  Madonna,  seen  to  the  knees,  stands  behind  a  wall;  she  is  turned  slightly  to  the 
right  and  holds  the  Christ  Child  about  the  waist  with  both  hands  and  gazes  down  at  him; 
she  wears  an  elaborate  head-dress.  The  Child  stands  on  the  parapet  and  is  seen  from 
behind,  the  head  profile  left.  In  the  background,  a  landscape  with,  left  and  right,  a  slim 
tree. 

Once  ascribed  to  Pontormo.  The  first  edition  of  the  Cicerone  preserved 
the  traditional  attribution  to  Jacopo,  but  von  Zahn  in  the  second  edition  gave 
this  picture  to  Bugiardini  of  whose  work  it  seems  to  me  to  be  an  authentic 
specimen.  The  long  narrow  ear,  the  carefully  modelled  nostril,  the  fulness 
about  the  eye,  the  hard  meagre  folds  of  the  drapery,  speak  eloquently  for 
Giuliano.  This  seems  to  be  the  picture  that,  in  this  collection,  Berenson 
ascribes  to  Franciabigio.  Still  other  critics  have  suggested,  it  would  seem, 
that  it  was  painted  by  Visino,  the  pupil  of  Albertinelli  (Vasari,  IV,  228). 

Bibl.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  444;  Cicerone,  2d  ed.,  Leipzig,  1874, 
III,  981. 


BOSTON 

Museum  of  Fine  Arts 

« 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.26,  w.  1.03. 

Copy  of  a  late  composition  by  Pontormo,  now  lost,  from  which  we  have 
~ various  derivatives.  Cf.  in  this  catalogue  under  Berlin,  Castello,  Florence, 
Hampton  Court,  London,  Munich.  This  picture  was  given  to  the  Museum 
by  Mrs.  S.  D.  "Warren.  Once  attributed  to  Bronzino;  later  to  Bernardino 
Lanini  with  a  query.  It  is  probably  the  work  of  Battista  Naldini.  The  date 
1561  appears  on  the  paper  which  is  held  by  St.  Elizabeth. 

BUDAPEST 

Museum  of  Fine  Arts 

181    (491).  HOLY  FAMILY 

In  the  centre:  the  Madonna  seated  on  the  ground,  turned  three-quarters  left,  her 
head  full  face,  her  eyes  looking  down,  her  right  hand  laid  beside  her,  her  left  arm  extended 
at  her  side,  the  hand  holding  a  swaddling-cloth  against  her  left  thigh.  Her  dress  is  open 
at  the  neck,  the  sleeves  turned  back  at  the  elbows;  on  her  head,  a  scarf  an  end  of  which 
hangs  down  on  her  right  shoulder.  Over  her  right  shoulder  a  voluminous  mantle  is  thrown 

195 


PONTORMO 

which  passes  behind  her  back  and  falls  to  the  ground  in  the  right  foreground.  The  Christ 
Child  is  seated  in  her  lap  turned  three-quarters  to  left;  he  holds  in  his  lap  a  vase  of 
flowers;  he  looks  down,  his  head  bent  forward;  curly  blond  hair.  In  front  of  him  to  the 
left,  the  little  St.  John  seen  from  behind,  turned  three-quarters  right;  he  kneels  before 
the  Infant  Jesus,  his  arms  outstretched,  having  just  presented  to  him  the  vase  of  flowers; 
he  has  curly  dark  hair;  a  large  scarf  passes  over  his  left  shoulder  and  is  tied  in  a  large 
knot  on  the  right  side,  an  end  of  it  falling  on  the  ground;  in  the  foreground  lie  his  bowl 
and  cross  of  reeds.  To  the  left  of  the  Virgin  one  sees  the  head  and  shoulders  of  St.  Anne. 
She  is  voluminously  draped  and  turned  three-quarters  to  right;  she  looks  at  the  Madonna, 
her  right  arm  folded  across  her  breast  under  her  mantle.  To  the  right  of  the  Virgin,  the 
head  and  shoulders  of  Joseph,  turned  three-quarters  left;  he  looks  over  the  Madonna's 
left  shoulder  at  the  little  St.  John;  he  is  slightly  bald  and  wears  a  beard.  All  the  figures 
except  St.  Joseph  have  haloes. 

This  altar-piece  is  ascribed  to  Pontormo  but  it  is  not  by  his  hand, 
although  in  many  details  it  betrays  his  influence.  It  comes  from  the 
Eszterhazy  bequest  and  belongs  to  a  small  group  of  unauthentic  pictures  the 
authorship  of  which  presents  a  problem  as  yet  unsolved. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Hanfstaengl  268. 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  1.26$,  w.  1.01. 

Bibl.  Az  Orssagos  Jceptdr  mutdrgyainak,  leird  lajstroma,  Budapest,  1904,  p.  258; 
Gabriel  de  T6rey,  Tableaux  anciens  du  Musee  des  Beaux-Arts  de  Budapest,  Budapest,  1906, 
p.  39;  idem,  ed.  1910,  p.  49. 


CASSEL 

Royal  Gallery 


PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 


He  stands  almost  full  face  beside  a  table  on  which  his  right  arm  and  hand  rest 
holding  his  gloves;  his  head  is  turned  three-quarters  left,  his  eyes  look  at  the  spectator; 
his  left  arm  slightly  bent  hangs  at  his  side,  his  thumb  in  his  low  belt;  brown  eyes,  thick 
short  brown  beard  and  moustache.  His  doublet  of  velvet  (f)  is  covered  with  a  light  net- 
like  pattern;  at  the  shoulders,  small  puffs;  the  collar  high  and  edged  with  a  white  ruff; 
sleeves,  white.  Around  his  waist,  a  narrow  belt  with  a  gold  clasp;  on  his  hip  one  sees 
an  elaborately  chased  sword-hilt.  He  wears  a  small  black  cap  with  a  white  feather  at  the 
back.  Background:  lighter  behind  the  figure  than  to  the  left. 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  1.05,  w.  .78. 

Formerly  erroneously  attributed  to  the  Florentine  School  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  Some  critics  have  ascribed  this  portrait  to  Pontormo  (Aubel, 
Verzeichnis,  p.  4)  of  whose  manner  and  touch  it  shows  no  trace.  It  has  also 
been  attributed,  without  reason,  by  Frizzoni  to  a  Dutch  master,  by  Bode  to 
a  Spanish  painter,  by  other  critics  to  Antonio  Moro,  and  by  still  others  to  a 
French  follower  of  Clouet.  The  most  probable  suggestion  as  to  its  authorship 
is  due  to  Mary  F.  S.  Hervey  (art.  cited  below)  who  considers  it  to  be  a 
genuine  example  of  the  work  of  the  Tudor  painter,  Gerlach  Flicke.  This 
attribution  is  followed  by  Lionel  Gust  who  believes  that  it  was  painted  after 
Flicke  came  under  the  influence  of  Clouet.  The  identity  of  the  sitter  has 
also  been  the  subject  of  considerable  discussion.  Justi  thinks  that  it  is  a 

196 


ATTKIBUTED  PICTURES 

portrait  of  Garcilaso  de  la  Vega.  He  finds  that  it  resembles  a  portrait  of  the 
soldier-poet  in  Valentin  Carderera's  Iconografia  espanola  (Madrid,  1855  and 
1864,  pi.  73)  which  has  for  its  prototype  an  oil  painting  once  in  the  possession 
of  the  Onate  and  later  in  that  of  Count  de  Valencia  de  Don  Juan.  Garcilaso 
was  a  knight  of  the  Alcantara  Order,  the  insignia  of  which  is  worn  by  the 
personage  represented  in  both  portraits.  He  was  the  second  son  of  Garcilaso 
de  la  Vega,  Comendador  of  Leon,  Lord  of  los  Arcos  and  Cuerva.  Born  in 
Toledo  in  1503,  he  visited  Italy,  was  present  at  the  siege  of  Florence,  was 
killed  in  battle  in  1536  and  buried  in  S.  Pedro  Martir  at  Toledo. 

Eeprod.  Photo.  Hanfstaengl;  fig.,  Burlington  Magazine,  XIX,  238;  Die  MeisterwerTce 
der  konigl.  Gemalde-galerie  su  Cassel,  p.  43;  article  by  Justi  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Kurses  Verzeichnis  der  Gemdlde  in  der  koniglichen  Galerie  zu  Cassel,  21st  ed., 
Cassel,  1911,  p.  38;  Katalog  der  konigl.  Gemalde-galerie  zu  Cassel,  p.  64;  Mary  P.  S. 
Hervey,  Notes  on  a  Tudor  Painter:  Gerlach  Flicke,  Burlington  Magazine,  XVII  (1910), 
71-79;  Lionel  Gust,  On  Two  Portraits  Attributed  to  Gerlach  Flicke,  Burlington  Magazine, 
XIX  (1911),  239;  Justi,  Ein  Bildnis  des  Dichters  Garcilaso  de  la  Vega,  Jahrbuch  d. 
konigl.  preuss.  Kunstsamml.,  XIV  (1893),  177-190. 


CITTA  DI  CASTELLO 

Pinacoteca  Comunale 

68.     VIRGIN  AND  CHILD  WITH  TWO  SAINTS 

Bibl.  Catalogo  della  Pinacoteca  comunale  di  Cittd  di  Castello,  Citta  di  Castello,  1912, 
p.  7. 

DIJON 

Musee 

PRESENTATION  IN  THE  TEMPLE 

Composition  of  nineteen  figures.  To  the  right,  the  Virgin  with  crossed  hands  climbs 
the  temple  stairs.  Five  steps  lead  to  a  stone  terrace  whence  to  the  right  other  steps  lead 
back  to  a  slate-coloured  arcade,  decorated  with  arabesques  and  garlands,  where  the  High 
Priest,  his  hands  uplifted,  stands.  He  is  accompanied  by  four  men;  to  his  right,  a  draped 
man  leans  out  of  an  arch;  to  the  left  of  the  arcade  under  another  arch,  three  more  men; 
below  these,  a  slab  inscribed:  M  Vc  XXI.  To  the  left  and  following  the  Virgin,  three 
women,  four  men  and  a  little  dog.  In  the  foreground  right,  two  men  who  gaze  at  the 
Virgin;  to  the  left,  a  crenelated  gateway  with  towers  through  which  we  catch  a  glimpse 
of  the  country-side;  further  to  the  left,  tower  and  arches  of  a  smaller  arcade. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .96,  w.  .81. 

In  general  conception  and  in  certain  details  such  as  the  form  of  the 
Virgin 's  hand  and  foot,  the  round  flattish  face  of  St.  Elizabeth,  the  treatment 
of  the  group  around  the  High  Priest,  the  purplish  grey  colour  of  the  arcade 
and  the  touch  of  landscape  in  the  background,  this  picture  reminds  one  of 

197 


PONTORMO 

Pontormo.    It  is  however  the  work  of  a  feeble  and  unknown  imitator.    Given 
to  the  Museum  in  1822  by  M.  de  Saint-Mesmin,  the  curator. 

Condition:  thoroughly  repainted. 

Date:  1521. 

Bibl.    Catalogue  du  Musee  de  Dijon,  Collection  Trimolet,  Dijon,  Dijon,  1883,  p.  8. 

DZIKOW 

GALICIA 

Tarnowski  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  AN  ELDERLY  LADY 

Half-length;  the  torse  nearly  full  face,  the  head  turned  three-quarters  left,  the 
eyes  look  at  the  spectator;  her  arm  is  bent  at  the  elbow  and  one  sees  part  of  the  ruff 
at  the  wrist.  She  wears  a  dark  bodice  cut  square  at  the  neck,  revealing  an  open  white 
lace  chemisette  with  turned  down  collar;  the  sleeves  have  a  puff  at  the  shoulder.  Around 
her  neck,  a  string  of  pearls;  her  hair,  parted  in  the  middle,  is  brushed  down  smoothly  on 
either  side;  she  wears  a  close-fitting  embroidered  cap  over  which,  at  the  top  of  the  head, 
passes  a  string  of  pearls.  Dark  background. 
Oil  on  wood.  H.  .25,  w.  .20. 

Provenance  unknown.  Exhibited  as  a  Bronzino  in  the  Portrait  Exhi- 
bition at  the  Hague  in  1903  (No.  lOa).  Attributed  by  certain  critics  to  an 
unknown  Dutch  master  of  the  early  seventeenth  century;  by  others  to  Bron- 
zino. Berenson  believes  it  to  be  an  example  of  Pontormo 's  later  work  in 
portraiture.  The  ear,  eyes,  and  mouth  are  undoubtedly  suggestive  of  certain 
characteristics  of  Jacopo's  draughtsmanship,  but  the  modelling  of  the  face 
is  unconvincing  and  seems  to  indicate  a  late  restoration  of  so  drastic  a  nature 
as  to  preclude  the  possibility  of  giving  a  final  verdict  on  the  authenticity  of 
this  panel. 

Condition:  much  repainted;  the  panel  seems  to  have  been  somewhat  cut  down. 
Date:   1534-1545. 
Eeprod.     Photo.  Bruckmann  1904. 

Bibl.  Schulze,  Bronzino,  p.  LXI;  B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  174;  C.  Hofstede  de  Groot,  Meister- 
voerke  der  Portrdtmalerei  auf  der  Ausstellung  im  Haag,  Miinchen,  1903,  p.  5. 


ENGLEWOOD 

NEW  JERSEY 

Platt  Collection 
PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Head  only;    turned  three-quarters  right.     He  wears  a   dark  hat  and  looks  at   the 
spectator.     The  colour  is  a  misty  grey  with  a  suggestion  in  it  of  a  subdued  olive-green. 
Oil  on  canvas. 

198 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

Unfinished  but  very  lightly  and  firmly  painted.  Originally  attributed  to 
Pontormo.  The  insistence  on  minor  passages  in  the  modelling  and  the  obvious 
naturalism  of  the  intention  speak  for  Salviati  to  whom  both  Berenson  and 
Mason  Perkins  have  recently  attributed  this  picture. 

Condition:  slightly  rubbed  and  scratched  but  practically  unharmed. 
Eeprod.    Frontispiece,  Eassegna  d'arte,  XI  (1911). 

Bibl.  Mason  Perkins,  Dipinti  italiani  nella  raccolta  Platt,  Eassegna  d'arte,  XI 
(1911),  3. 


ERFURT 

Stadtisches  Museum 
32.     VENUS  AND  CUPID 

Bibl.    Katalog  der  Gemalde  des  stddtischen  Museums,  Erfurt,  1909,  p.  8. 

FLORENCE 

Academy 
183.     PIETA 

The  Christ  is  seated  on  the  ground  profile  right,  the  head  and  shoulders  thrown  back 
three-quarters  right,  his  right  arm  extended  at  his  side.  Behind  him,  the  Madonna  seated 
full  face,  head  turned  three-quarters  left;  she  looks  at  the  Christ;  her  right  hand  supports 
his  shoulders,  her  left  is  laid  upon  his  left  forearm.  To  the  right  the  Magdalen  kneels 
facing;  her  head  turned  three-quarters  left  looks  at  the  Christ;  her  right  hand  is  laid  on 
his  right  knee,  her  left  raised  to  her  breast.  In  the  background  to  the  extreme  left,  the 
hill  of  Calvary  with  crosses  and  trees;  to  the  right,  a  little  town  in  a  valley  and  a  wooded 
hill;  in  the  foreground,  little  plants.  The  drapery  under  Christ  is  a  dark  greyish  green. 
The  Madonna  wears  a  red  tunic  of  which  one  sees  the  sleeves  and,  over  her  head,  a  brown 
mantle  at  the  edge  of  which  there  is  a  thread  of  gold.  The  Magdalen  has  light  brown 
hair;  her  bodice  is  dark  yellow,  her  skirt  brown,  her  mantle  bright  red.  The  landscape  is 
green  and  the  distance  dark  blue. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.15,  w.  1.00. 

Formerly,  and  in  the  catalogue  of  the  gallery,  ascribed  to  Bronzino. 
Vasari  mentions  (VII,  594)  that  "in  Santa  Trinita,  pur  di  Firenze,  si  vede, 
di  mano  del  medesimo  (Bronzino),  in  un  quadro  a  olio  al  primo  pilastro  a 
man  ritta,  un  Cristo  morto,  la  Nostra  Donna,  San  Giovanni,  et  Santa  Maria 
Madalena,  condotti  con  bella  maniera  e  molta  diligenza."  Richa  (Chiese 
fiorentine,  Lezione  XI,  p.  163)  also  speaks  of  a  "Pieta"  by  Bronzino  in  the 
same  church  but  he  seems  to  imply  that  it  was  in  fresco  and  near  the  sacristy. 
Milanesi  states  that  the  picture  referred  to  by  Vasari  was  removed  to  the 
Academy,  and  some  critics,  as  well  as  the  catalogue  cited  below,  have  identified 
it  with  the  present  panel,  although  to  dispose  of  such  a  supposition,  which  is 
repeated  by  Cruttwell,  we  have  only  to  notice  that  in  our  "Pieta"  St.  John 
does  not  appear.  Berenson  feels  that  we  have  here  a  Pontormo  for  which  the 

199 


PONTORMO 

drawing  Uffizi  6611  is,  in  his  opinion,  a  study  (B.  F.  D.,  I,  321;  II,  147),  but 
I  am  not  convinced  that  any  relation  exists  between  the  drawing  and  the 
picture.  The  latter  does  not,  in  fact,  seem  to  me  to  be  either  by  Pontormo  or 
by  Bronzino.  The  composition  is  clearly  inspired  by  the  "Pieta"  ascribed  to 
Andrea,  in  Vienna,  although  there  the  Madonna  is  attended  by  two  angels  and 
the  Magdalen  does  not  appear. 

Condition:  slightly  damaged,  especially  in  the  upper  right  corner;  darkened  with  old 
varnishes;  retouched  here  and  there;  a  vertical  crack  down  the  centre  of  the  panel. 
Date:  probably  not  earlier  than  1534  nor  later  than  1545. 

Documents:  A.  S.  F.,  Archivio  mediceo,  Classe  22,  Vol.  33,  c.  13  and  78  (February 
11,  1564) ;  idem,  c.  13  and  76  (January  27,  1564).  I  cite  these  documents  on  the  authority 
of  Signor  Giglioli  who  assures  me  that  they  refer  to  the  present  picture;  I  have  been 
unable  to  examine  them. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Alinari  1418;  Braun  42573. 

Bibl.  B.  F.  D.,  I,  321;  II,  147;  B.  F.  P.  B.,  p.  174;  Pieraccini,  Guida  della  B. 
Galleria,  p.  75;  Cruttwell,  Florentine  Galleries,  p.  264;  Dessins,  pp.  73,  185;  Schulze, 
op.  cit.,  p.  LXI. 


Annunziata 
ASSUMPTION 

Milanesi  in  his  chronological  table  of  Andrea's  work  (V,  67)  erroneously 
states  that  Pontormo  finished  this  composition  for  the  painting  of  which 
Andrea  signed  a  contract  on  June  16,  1515.  His  error  is  repeated  by  Borenius 
(Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  Murray:  London,  1914,  VI,  177).  The  fresco  is 
of  course  by  Rosso. 

Cappella  di  San  Luca 
HOLY  TRINITY 

Fresco. 

Bocchi  records  that  this  work  was  designed  by  Pontormo  and  executed 
by  Bronzino.  He  probably  preserves  in  this  statement  some  early  tradition 
in  regard  to  this  fresco  which  does  not,  however,  show  any  trace  either  of 
Pontormo 's  design  or  of  Bronzino 's  touch. 

Bibl.    Bocchi,  op.  cit.,  p.  464. 

Baciocchi  Collection 

JOSEPH  MADE  OVERSEER  IN  EGYPT 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo  but  showing  no  trace  of  his  hand.  This  panel  is 
a  modified  copy  of  part  of  Andrea's  panel  of  "Joseph  in  Egypt,"  now  in 
the  Pitti. 

200 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

Casa  Buonarotti 

60.     PORTRAIT  OF  VITTORIA  COLONNA 

Bust  figure  turned  three-quarters  left;  the  eyes  look  down;  golden  hair  bound  with 
a  reddish  violet  ribbon;  grey-green  dress;  black  background. 
Oil  on  tile.    H.  .49,  w.  .31. 

Schulze  considers  this  to  be  an  idealized  likeness  of  Michelangelo 's  famous 
friend  and  an  authentic  Pontormo.  It  is,  however,  erroneously  described  as 
a  portrait  of  Vittoria  Colonna  and  falsely  ascribed  to  Jacopo,  whose  modelling 
and  colour  it  in  no  way  suggests.  Of  it  D '  Achiardi  says :  ' '  Non  ha  nessun 
carattere  di  seria  attendibilita  iconografica. "  Cf.  the  portrait  by  Muziano, 
Galleria  Colonna,  Rome  (D'  Achiardi,  op.  cit.  infra,  fig.  39)  ;  that  noticed  by 
Campanari  (Ritratto  di  Vittoria  Colonna  dipinto  da  Michelangelo,  Londra, 
Molini,  1853)  which  is  probably  a  Venusti;  and  that  in  the  Uffizi  (photo. 
Alinari),  perhaps  a  copy  of  a  more  celebrated  original.  Another  portrait, 
said  to  be  of  Vittoria  Colonna  and  ascribed  to  Pontormo,  was  sold  at  the 
De  Beurnonville  sale  in  1881.  Its  whereabouts  is  unknown  to  me. 

Condition:  surface  badly  cracked  and  entirely  repainted. 

Reprod.  Photo.  Alinari  4565;  fig.,  article  by  Schulze  cited  below;  article  by 
Neoustroieff  cited  below,  pi.  54,  fig.  4. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  ed.  Gronau,  V,  114;  Frey,  Dichtungen,  p.  385;  Thode,  Michelangelo,  II, 
364;  D' Achiardi,  Sebastiano  del  Piombo,  pp.  200-204;  Steinmann,  Sixtinische  Kapelle,  II, 
506;  Schulze,  Die  Bildnisse  der  Vittoria  Colonna,  Monatshefte  f.  Kunstwissenschaft,  1910, 
pp.  239-241;  Cruttwell,  Florentine  Churches,  p.  61;  Neoustroieff,  Quadri  italiani  nella 
colleeione  von  Leuchtenberg,  L'  Arte,  VI  (1903),  pp.  330-332. 

Cenacolo  di  Foligno 

117.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

H.  1.20,  w.  1.00. 

Formerly  in  the  Galleria  Ferroni.  This  is  a  poor  copy  of  the  lost 
"Madonna"  by  Pontormo  of  which  the  picture  in  the  Alte  Pinakothek,  in 
Munich,  is  the  best  known  replica.  The  background  in  the  present  copy  has 
been  slightly  modified.  Cf.  in  this  catalogue,  under  Berlin,  Boston,  Castello, 
Hampton  Court,  London,  Munich  and  Oxford. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Brogi  17571  (as  a  Pontormo). 

Chiesa  delle  Stigmate 
PIETA 

The  Christ  lies  on  a  white  cloth,  his  feet  to  the  right.  The  Virgin  wears  a  deep  blue 
mantle  and,  about  her  head,  a  yellow  scarf.  At  the  feet  of  Christ,  two  weeping  angels, 
in  the  background  to  the  right,  the  hill  of  Calvary  and  two  small  figures. 

201 


PONTORMO 

Tentatively  ascribed  to  Pontormo.     This  picture  really  dates  from  the 
very  end  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

Keprod.     Photo.  Alinari  31039   (as  Pontonno?). 


Loeser  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  THE  POET  LUDOVICO  MARTELLI 

Three-quarters  length,  seated.  His  right  arm  rests  on  a  table  and  in  his  right  hand 
he  holds  a  sheet  of  paper.  In  his  left  hand,  which  rests  on  his  knee,  he  holds  a  pair  of 
gloves.  On  the  table,  an  ink-pot,  papers,  and  sprigs  of  laurel. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .87,  w.  .73. 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo.  A  replica,  the  whereabouts  of  which  is  unknown, 
is  said  to  have  existed  in  the  Palazzo  Strozzi. 

Condition:  excellent. 

A  SIBYL 

Bust  figure;  her  shoulders  nearly  profile  right.     Her  head,  seen  nearly  full  face,  looks 
at  the  spectator.    In  her  hand,  an  open  roll  of  parchment. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  .66,  w.  .52$. 

I  saw  this  and  the  preceding  picture  somewhat  fugitively  some  years  ago 
before  I  felt  that  I  could  say  definitely  whether  the  attribution  to  Pontormo 
seemed  to  me  justified.  Unfortunately  I  have  been  unable  to  re-examine 
them.  I  owe  the  details  that  I  give  to  the  courtesy  of  the  owner  and  of 
Signor  Gino  Sensani. 

Condition:  good. 


Palazzo  Corsini 

17.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Half -length;  seated  at  a  table  and  turned  three-quarters  left;  looks  at  spectator. 
He  has  a  reddish  brown  beard,  brown  hair  and  eyes.  He  wears  a  black  hat,  black  doublet 
with  slashed  sleeves.  An  account-book  lies  on  the  table  before  him,  the  middle  fingers  of 
his  left  hand  between  the  leaves.  On  the  little  finger  of  the  same  hand  he  wears  a  ring. 
In  his  right  hand  he  holds  a  quill  pen  with  which  he  has  just  been  writing.  On  the  open 
pages  of  the  book  one  sees  writing  which  is  indecipherable.  The  flesh-tones  are  brickish 
red,  the  background,  greenish  grey. 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  .94,  w.  .74. 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo,  but  neither  the  colouring,  the  modelling,  nor  the 
morphology  of  the  figure  are  his.  A  copy  of  this  portrait,  identical  in  size, 
passed  from  the  Lanfranconi  Collection,  which  was  sold  in  Cologne  in  1895, 

202 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

into  the  Sedelmeyer  Collection.    See  in  this  catalogue,  under  the  collections 
in  question. 

Condition :  darkened  with  successive  varnishings ;  a  crack  down  the  centre  of  the  panel 
between  the  boards. 

Keprod.     Photo.  Alinari  4198. 

Bibl.  Uld.  Medici,  Catalogo  della  Galleria  dei  Principi  Corsini  in  Firenze,  Firenze, 
Mariani,  1880. 


163.     MADONNA  AND  LITTLE  ST.  JOHN 

The  Madonna  kneels  profile  right,  the  Christ  Child  between  her  knees;  St.  John 
stands  to  her  right,  seen  three-quarters  from  behind.  The  Virgin  is  dressed  in  a  purplish 
pink  robe  with  white  drapery  on  the  shoulder  and  yellow  foresleeves.  St.  John  wears  a 
brown  loin-cloth.  All  three  have  light  brown  hair.  The  background  is  a  grey-green  piece 
of  furniture. 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  1.32,  w.  1.06. 

Erroneously  ascribed  to  Jacopo;  not  cited  by  Berenson.  The  heavy 
colour  suggests  Empoli.  The  composition  is  perhaps  derived  from  a  lost 
original  of  Pontormo's. 

Bibl.    See  above. 


Palazzo  Pitti 


113.     THE  THREE  FATES 


This  panel,  which  was  originally  attributed  to  Michelangelo,  has  been 
ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Jacobsen  and  by  Fabriczy.  It  is,  of  course,  by  Rosso. 

Bibl.  Jaeobsen,  Zeitschrift  fur  bildende  Kunst,  1898,  fasc.  5;  L'  Arte,  1899,  p.  228; 
B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  180. 

149.     PORTRAIT    OF    GUIDOBALDO    DELLA    ROVERE,    DUKE    OF 
URBINO 

Three-quarter  length;  he  stands  turned  three-quarters  left,  his  head  nearly  full  face, 
his  right  hand  rests  on  a  helmet  placed  on  a  table  to  the  left,  his  left  on  the  neck  of  a 
large  white  dog  of  which  one  sees  the  head  in  the  lower  right  corner.  He  has  black  hair 
and  beard  and  wears  a  suit  of  steel  armour  elaborately  inlaid  with  silver,  red  hose 
embroidered  with  gold,  a  black  sword-belt  and  sword  of  which  one  sees  the  chased  gold 
hilt ;  at  his  wrists,  white  ruches  embroidered  with  black.  The  background  is  a  green  curtain. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.14,  w.  .86. 

The  colour  is  cold  and  the  drawing  somewhat  stiff.  Long  believed  to  be 
Pontormo's  portrait  of  Ippolito  de'  Medici  with  his  dog  Rodon,  which  Vasari 
(VI,  273)  mentions  as  the  companion  piece  to  Jacopo 's  lost  portrait  of 
Alessandro.  Cruttwell  follows  the  traditional  attribution  as  does  Berenson, 
although  he  places  after  it,  in  his  later  editions,  a  point  of  interrogation. 

203 


PONTORMO 

Milanesi  (VI,  274)  indicated  some  of  the  difficulties  involved  in  the  inscription 
that  one  reads  on  the  red  cloth  that  covers  the  table:  ANNUM  AGEBAT 
DECIMUM  OCTAVVM.  Ippolito  was  born  on  April  19,  1511,  and  the 
portrait  would,  therefore,  date  from  1529,  if  we  assume  that  it  represents 
Ippolito  and  the  inscription  refers  to  the  sitter's  age.  But  Ippolito  fled  from 
Florence  in  1527.  The  picture  must,  accordingly,  have  been  painted  in  Rome 
in  spite  of  the  fact  that  we  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  Pontormo  was 
in  Florence  between  1527  and  1530.  Justi  has  written  at  length  about  this 
panel.  He  believes  it  to  be  Bronzino's  portrait  of  Guidobaldo,  Duke  of 
Urbino,  and  his  argument  is  as  follows:  The  person  represented  does  not 
resemble  Titian's  well-known  and  perfectly  authenticated  portrait  of 
Ippolito,  which  was  painted  in  Bologna  in  1532  (Pitti,  No.  201).  Ippolito 
cannot  have  been  in  Florence  after  the  flight  of  Passerini  in  1527 ;  it  is 
unlikely  that  Pontormo  would  have  gone  to  Rome  between  1527  and  1530 
when  all  artists  had  fled  from  the  city  to  escape  the  fury  of  pillaging  soldiers. 
Guidobaldo  of  Urbino  was  born  in  1514,  became  duke  in  1538,  died  in  1574. 
Bronzino  left  Florence  for  Pesaro  on  August  2,  1530,  and  while  in  the  latter 
place  he  painted,  for  the  Duke  of  Urbino,  a  portrait  of  the  daughter  of  Matteo 
Sofferoni,  a  harpsichord  and,  in  the  Villa  Imperiale,  certain  figures  in  a  vault- 
ing, the  success  of  which  induced  Guidobaldo  to  order  his  own  portrait.  The 
Duke  was  eighteen  between  April  2,  1531,  and  1532  —  a  fact  that  coincides 
with  the  inscription  on  our  panel:  Annum  agebat  decimum  octavvm.  Such 
armour  as  the  Duke  wears  could  have  been  made  only  in  Milan,  and  it  is 
interesting  to  note  that  Vasari  claims  that  Bronzino  spent  a  long  time  over 
the  portrait  because  Guidobaldo  wished  to  pose  in  a  suit  of  armour  that  he 
had  ordered  in  Lombardy,  the  arrival  of  which  was  constantly  delayed 
(VI,  276).  On  the  back  of  the  panel,  painted  in  oil,  we  find  the  letters 
D.  G.  B.,  which  may  stand  for  Duca  Guido  Baldo.  The  smooth  cold  flesh- 
tints  recall  Bronzino 's  other  work  in  portraiture ;  the  hands  are  not  Jacopo  's. 
Vasari  says  that  Pontormo 's  portrait  of  Ippolito  was  in  "sua  maniera 
tedesca,"  and  the  present  panel  shows  no  trace  of  the  influence  of  Diirer. 
Signor  Giglioli  has  pointed  out  to  me  that  since  the  portrait  has  been  cleaned 
the  chill  shade  of  green  so  much  used  by  Bronzino  has  been  revealed  and 
that,  moreover,  this  portrait  seems  to  have  come  from  the  Urbino  Collection. 
In  the  list  of  the  pictures  now  in  the  Pitti  having  that  provenance  is:  "II 
Duca  armato  con  mano  sopra  la  testa  di  un  cane  di  mano  di  Zuccaro"  —  a 
description  that  corresponds  to  our  portrait.  The  attribution  to  Zuccaro 
may  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  he  was  well  known  in  Pesaro  for  he  came 
from  the  neighbouring  town  of  Sant'  Angelo  in  Vado  and  had  worked  in  Pesaro 
for  fifteen  years,  while  Bronzino  was  there  only  a  few  months.  Federigo 
Badoer  (1547)  states  that  Guido  was  strong,  thick-set,  and  melancholy  —  a 
description  that  might  well  be  applied  to  the  personage  represented  in  our 
portrait.  Guido  understood  Greek.  On  the  helmet  is  inscribed : 

204 


ATTEIBUTED  PICTURES 

'QAE2TAIAH© 

O2AIAONTO 

BOVAHMA 

(wS'  eerrai  817$'  is  e'Xov  TO  /3ov\.r]fjui) 

Later  in  life  he  was  governatore  generale  delle  armi  venete  in  Verona.  Signer 
Giglioli  notes  that  another  half-length  portrait  of  Guidobaldo  is  preserved 
in  the  Palazzo  Albani  at  Urbino  in  which  he  wears  a  beard  and  places  his 
hand  on  the  head  of  a  dog.  On  an  envelope  that  he  holds :  "All'  Illmo  et  Eccmo 
Sigre  II  Signore  Guidobaldo  duca  d 'Urbino."  The  portrait  ascribed  to 
Pontormo,  once  in  the  collection  of  the  Rev.  E.  H.  Dawkins,  Morhanger 
House,  near  Surrey,  Bedfordshire,  and  sold  at  Christie's  on  February  28, 
1913,  for  £23  2s.,  would  seem  to  have  been  a  copy  of  our  portrait  with  which 
it  was  identical  in  size.  Cf.  in  Catalogue  of  Sales,  under  Dawkins. 

Condition:  recently  cleaned  and  restored. 

Date:  1531-1532. 

Document.     See  above. 

Eeprod.  Copy(?)  once  in  the  Dawkins  Collection;  engraving,  Luigi  Bardi,  Galleria 
Pitti,  VI,  273;  photo.  Braun  42149;  Alinari;  Brogi  6004;  fig.,  article  by  Justi  cited  below; 
woodcut,  Heiss,  Les  Medailleurs  de  la  Renaissance,  2e  partie,  Paris,  1892,  p.  201. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  276 ;  VII,  595 ;  Chiavacci,  Guida  della  E.  Galleria  del  Palazzo  Pitti, 
3d  ed.,  Firenze,  1864,  p.  74;  idem,  French  ed.,  p.  190;  B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  174;  Justi,  Zeitschrift 
f.  bildende  Kunst,  Leipzig,  1897,  pp.  34-40;  Fabriczy,  L'Arte,  I  (1898),  475;  Cruttwell, 
Florentine  Galleries,  p.  182;  Giglioli,  Eivista  d'  arte,  1909,  p.  339-340;  Thode,  Jahrbuch 
d.  Tconigl.  preuss.  Kunstsamml.,  1888;  Schulze,  Sromino,  XII. 


Palazzo  Vecchio 

Cappella  Leone  X 

PORTRAIT  OF  COSIMO  IL  VECCHIO  AS  ST.  COSMAS 

Full-length,  turned  three-quarters  left,  head  profile  left.  He  holds  a  richly  bound 
green  leather  folio  tooled  with  gold,  from  between  the  leaves  of  which  a  little  palm  of 
martyrdom  stands  up;  he  wears  a  scarlet  cap,  deep  pink  mantle  lined  with  a  lighter  pink, 
and  red  slippers;  his  legs  are  bare.  The  background  is  a  dark  greenish  grey  decorated 
with  a  pattern  of  leaves;  the  floor  is  brownish  green. 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  1.72,  w.  .59. 

Brought  from  the  Guardaroba  in  1861;  formerly  in  the  Uffizi  (No.  1267) 
and  ascribed  to  Pontormo  —  attribution  retained  by  Morelli,  Berenson,  Crutt- 
well, Trapesnikoff  and  De  Vere.  This  panel  and  the  following  were  however, 
according  to  his  own  testimony  (VII,  699),  executed  by  Vasari  for  the  Chapel 
of  Leo  X,  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio,  on  the  altar  of  which  Raphael's  "Madonna 
dell'  Impannata"  formerly  stood.  The  head  of  the  present  portrait  is  a  copy 
of  Pontormo 's  ' '  Portrait  of  Cosimo, ' '  once  at  San  Marco  and  now  in  the  Uffizi. 

205 


PONTORMO 

The  Chapel  of  Leo  has  been  reconstructed  and  this  panel  and  its  companion 
piece  have  found  their  original  places  again  beside  a  copy  of  the  ' '  Impannata. ' ' 

Condition:  darkened  and  retouched  here  and  there. 

Date:  about  1560. 

Eeprod.     Photo.  Braun  41267;  Brogi  11032. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  IV,  351;  VII,  699;  Catalogue  de  la  E.  Galerie  de  Florence,  Florence, 
1864,  p.  150;  Eivista  d'arte,  VI  (1909),  263  f.;  B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  175;  Cruttwell,  Florentine 
Galleries,  p.  84;  Morelli,  Doria  Pamfili  Galleries,  p.  130;  Trapesnikoff,  Die  Portrdtdarstel- 
lungen,  p.  21;  Lensi,  Palazso  Vecchio,  p.  172. 

PORTRAIT  OF  COSIMO  I  AS  ST.  DAMIAN 

Full -length,  turned  three-quarters  right;  weight  on  the  right  leg;  the  head  turned 
nearly  three-quarters  left.  His  hair  and  beard  are  almost  black;  with  his  left  hand  he 
holds,  against  his  side,  a  richly  bound  book  from  between  the  leaves  of  which  a  little  palm 
of  martyrdom  stands  up;  his  right  arm  is  bent  at  the  elbow;  his  forefinger  points  in  front 
of  him;  he  wears  a  deep  pink  mantle  which  reaches  to  the  ground,  a  doublet  of  dimmer  red, 
red  stockings  and  dark  red  shoes.  The  background  is  greyish  green,  the  floor  brownish  green. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.72,  w.  .59. 

Cf.  the  preceding  of  which  the  present  panel  is  a  pendant.  Once  Uffizi, 
No.  1270. 

Condition:  practically  untouched  though  darkened  with  varnish. 

Date:  about  1560. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Braun  41270;  Brogi  11031;  fig.,  Vasari,  trans,  de  Vere,  VII,  152. 

Bibl.    See  the  preceding. 


Ufficio  delle  Belle  Arti 

MADONNA  AND  LITTLE  ST.  JOHN 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .38,  w.  .39. 

This  panel,  which  is  preserved  as  having  once  formed  part  of  the  decora- 
tion of  the  Carro  della  Zecca,  is  entirely  foreign  to  the  work  of  Pontormo. 

Condition:   disastrously  repainted. 
Eeprod.     Photo.  F.  M.  C. 


Santa  Croce 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD  WITH  TWO  FRANCISCAN  SAINTS 

The  Virgin  wears  a  red  robe  and  blue  mantle;  the  saint  that  holds  an  open  book,  a 
red  mantle;  the  friar,  a  brown  robe. 
Lunette  in  fresco. 

This  lunette  has  not  the  slightest  connection  with  the  work  of  Pontormo. 
Eeprod.     Photo.  Alinari  3880  (as  Pontormo). 

206 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

San  Lorenzo 

ASSUMPTION  OF  THE  VIRGIN 

The  Virgin  is  dressed  in  a  pink  robe  and  blue  mantle.  The  kneeling  figure  in  the 
foreground  wears  a  green  robe  and  red  mantle;  St.  Peter,  a  green  robe  and  yellow  mantle. 

Erroneously  ascribed  to  Pontormo.  This  is  the  work  of  an  exceedingly 
mediocre  imitator  of  Andrea  del  Sarto  of  whose  "Assumption"  in  the  Pitti 
the  composition  is  a  travesty. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Alinari  31074  (as  Pontormo). 


San  Proculo 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

On  one  side  of  the  Virgin,  St.  Anthony,  on  the  other,  Santa  Barbara. 

Once  in  the  chapel  of  the  Niccolini,  next  to  the  third  altar  on  the  right 
side  of  the  church.  Falsely  ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Richa  (I,  238).  Of. 
Bocchi,  ed.  Cinelli,  p.  388. 


Santa  Maria  Maddalena  de'  Pazzi 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD  WITH  ST.  JOHN,  ST.  BERNARD  AND  OTHER 
SAINTS 

In  the  chapel  of  the  Da  Romena  family.  Cinelli  erroneously  attributes 
this  work  to  Pontormo.  It  was  painted  by  Puligo  in  1525  (Vasari,  IV,  466). 

Keprod.    Photo.  Alinari  31089  (as  Pontormo). 

Bibl.  Bocchi,  ed.  Cinelli,  p.  486;  Eicha,  I,  323;  Fantozzi,  p.  293;  Fabriezy,  Memorie 
sulla  chiesa  di  S.  M.  Maddalena  de'  Pazzi  in  Firense,  L' Arte,  IX  (1906),  p.  258,  notes 
10,  11  and  14. 


Uffizi 

1196.     EXPULSION  FROM  PARADISE 

In  the  centre,  Adam  and  Eve,  their  legs  turned  three-quarters  left,  their  torses  seen 
in  profile,  their  heads  thrown  back  and  seen  three-quarters  left;  behind  them  on  the  right, 
the  serpent  with  a  human  head  coiled  around  a  bare  tree  trunk;  to  the  left,  the  trunks  of 
two  other  trees;  above  them  an  angel,  in  a  mist  of  light  and  seen  from  behind,  brandishes 
with  his  right  hand  a  naked  sword.  The  general  tone  is  olive-green,  the  flesh-tints  deepen 
to  pink  on  faces,  hands,  knees,  and  feet. 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  .41,  w.  .29. 

207 


PONTOEMO 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo ;  not  mentioned  by  Vasari ;  not  cited  by  Berenson. 
This  panel  is  not  authentic,  although  the  Adam  has  a  certain  resemblance 
to  various  horsemen  of  the  central  group  of  the  ' '  Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice, ' ' 
Pitti,  No.  182. 

Condition:  fair;  rubbed  here  and  there. 
Eeprod.    Photo.  F.  M.  C. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  de  la  R.  Galerie  de  Florence,  Florence,  1864,  p.  139;  Goldschmidt, 
op.  cit.,  p.  46. 

1249.     JOSEPH  LED  AWAY  TO  PRISON 

In  the  foreground,  Joseph  escorted  by  five  soldiers;  to  the  right,  three  figures  one 
of  which  has  his  back  turned;  in  the  background,  a  palace  with  steps,  "loggia,"  and  terrace 
on  which  many  soldiers  are  visible;  to  the  left,  a  pillar  surmounted  by  a  statue  beyond 
which  a  city  and  far-off  hills;  to  the  extreme  left,  a  building  partly  ruined. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.30,  w.  .93. 

This  panel  and  the  following  were  long  ascribed  to  Pontormo.  They 
were  painted  for  the  bridal  chamber  of  Pierfrancesco  Borgherini.  Miintz 
repeats  the  attribution  to  Jacopo  as  does  the  second  edition  of  the  Cicerone. 
Ulmann  was  the  first  to  point  out  that  they  are  characteristic  works  of 
Granacci,  and  Berenson  has  showed  that  in  the  drawings  mentioned  below 
we  have  part  of  the  preparatory  material  for  these  panels. 

Condition:  good. 

Date:  about  1518. 

Drawings:  Uffizi  347  F.  and  349  F. 

Document:  A.  S.  F.,  Depositeria  Generale,  filza  995. 

Eeprod.  Photo.  Braun  41249;  Brogi  11034;  Galleria  di  Firense  illustrata,  II,  pi.  L; 
fig.,  Miintz,  Renaissance,  p.  105;  Schubring,  Cassoni,  pi.  CLXXIV. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  V,  343;  VI,  262,  n.;  B.  F.  P.  B.,  p.  144;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  123;  II,  53; 
catalogue  cited  above,  p.  146;  Molini,  Galleria  di  Firenze,  1819,  II,  5;  Cicerone,  2d  ed., 
Ill,  981;  Miintz,  Renaissance,  III,  499;  Ulmann,  Piero  di  Cosimo,  Jahrbuch  d.  konigl. 
preuss.  Samml.,  XVII  (1896),  51;  Dessins,  p.  51,  n.  2;  Cruttwell,  Florentine  Galleries, 
pp.  20  f.;  Sehubring,  Cassoni,  p.  403. 

1282.     JOSEPH  PRESENTING  JACOB  TO  PHARAOH 

The  scene  takes  place  in  a  great  open  piazza;  to  the  left,  a  Florentine  palace;  to 
the  right,  the  end  of  a  "loggia";  in  the  background,  an  octagonal  building.  To  the  left, 
Pharaoh  with  his  retinue  and  soldiers,  Joseph  and  Jacob  kneeling  with  his  sons;  to  the 
right,  a  group  of  five  spectators;  to  the  extreme  right,  two  men  with  their  backs  turned 
and  a  boy  who  is  seen  profile  left.  In  the  middle  distance  and  beyond,  many  groups  of 
little  figures. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.22,  w.  .93. 

Cf.  the  preceding. 

Condition :  excellent. 

Eeprod.  Photo.  Braun  41282;  Brogi  6220;  Galleria  di  Firense  illustrata,  II,  pi.  LII; 
Schubring,  op.  cit.,  pi.  CLXXII. 

Bibl.     See  above  and  Molini,  op.  cit.,  II,  11;  catalogue  cited  above,  p.  153. 

208 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

LEDA  AND  THE  SWAN 

Leda  stands  facing  in  the  middle  of  the  picture,  her  arms  outspread,  her  right  hand 
on  the  swan's  wing,  her  head  three-quarters  left;  from  her  left  shoulder  a  ribbon-like 
scarf  hangs  across  her  body,  the  end  in  her  right  hand;  behind  her  the  swan  turned  three- 
quarters  left,  wings  outspread,  head  raised  gazing  at  Leda.  To  the  left,  a  child  lies  on 
the  ground,  a  great  broken  egg  for  its  pillow;  behind  it,  another  child  carrying  a  drapery. 
To  the  right  two  children  stand  embraced;  before  them  on  the  ground,  a  broken  egg.  In 
the  background  to  the  left,  a  hill  crowned  with  a  grove;  to  the  right,  a  rugged  peak  seen 
beyond  broken  hills. 

Oil  on  wood. 

Once  in  the  granducal  collection  at  Lucca.  Ascribed  to  Pontormo;  not 
mentioned  by  Vasari;  not  cited  by  Berenson.  This  little  panel  does  not 
reveal  Jacopo  's  touch,  although  it  shows  traces  of  his  influence.  Goldschmidt 
erroneously  considers  it  to  be  an  early  work.  Leonardo's  "Leda"  from  which 
this  picture  is  derived  has  been  lost.  It  probably  existed  only  as  a  cartoon 
and  perhaps  in  two  versions,  one  of  which  may  have  represented  Leda  alone 
and  the  other,  the  two  children.  The  "Anonimo  Fiorentino"  merely  mentions 
the  "Leda,"  but  Lomazzo  in  his  Idea  del  Tempio  states  that  it  existed  at 
Fontainebleau  (1591)  and  describes  it  as  one  of  Leonardo's  few  finished  works. 
Cassiano  del  Pozzo  also  saw  a  "Leda"  ascribed  to  Leonardo  at  Fontainebleau 
in  1625  and  mentions  the  twins  as  part  of  the  composition,  although  there 
is  nothing  to  show  that  the  picture  of  which  he  speaks  was  not  a  pupil's  copy 
executed  at  Milan  under  Leonardo's  supervision  from  his  original  cartoon. 
The  following  are  well  known  studies  for  or  copies  of  the  original  composition : 
Leonardo's  sketch  in  Codice  Atlantico;  his  study  for  the  hair,  in  Windsor; 
Raphael's  sketch,  also  in  "Windsor;  the  picture  in  the  Borghese  (No.  434)  ; 
that  once  in  the  Hastings  and  later  in  the  Doetsch  Collection ;  that  at  Wilton 
House ;  that  in  the  Johnson  Collection ;  in  the  Ruble  Collection ;  in  the  Oppler 
Collection;  that  by  Franciabigio,  in  the  Museum  of  Brussels  (No.  415),  which 
~  is  a  free  paraphrase  and  seems  to  have  been  executed  before  1518.  Similar 
pictures  have  existed  and,  in  some  cases,  still  exist  in  the  collections  of  the 
Prince  of  Lichtenstein,  M.  de  Rothschild,  Queen  Christina  of  Sweden,  the 
Due  d 'Orleans  and  in  the  Uffizi,  Somzee,  and  Schweitzer  Collections. 

Condition:   fair;  cracked  across  the  centre  vertically  and  horizontally  and  repaired. 
Date:  1515-1525. 

Reprod.  Photo.  Brogi  14762;  Eug.  Lasinio,  B.  Galleria  di  Firenze  illust.,  Firenze, 
1828,  III,  46. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  cited  above,  p.  132;  Molini,  op.  tit.,  Ill,  46;  Galleria  di  Firenze, 
Societa  Editrice,  1839;  Cicerone,  2d  ed.,  Leipzig,  1874;  III,  981;  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit., 
p.  46.  For  existing  copies  of  Leonardo's  work,  see  Kunstkritische  Studien,  Die  Galerie 
Borghese,  Leipzig,  1890,  p.  196;  Miiller-Walde,  Jahrbuch  d.  konigl.  preuss.  Samml.,  XVII 
(1897),  137;  Miintz,  The  Leda  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  Athenaeum,  II  (1898),  393  and 
Leonard  de  Vinci,  Paris,  1899,  p.  424;  La  chronique  des  arts,  October  2,  1897;  August  20, 
and  September  3,  1898;  Frizzoni,  Arch,  storico  dell'  arte,  1896,  p.  400. 


209 


PONTOEMO 
FONTAINEBLEAU 


GASTON  DE  FOIX 


An  early  inventory  of  Fontainebleau  mentions  ' '  dans  la  Salle  des  Bains : 
un  Gaston  de  Foix  du  Pontormo."    Nothing  further  is  known  of  this  work. 

Bibl.    Dimier,  Primatice,  p.  282. 


FUCECCHIO 

Arcipretura  di  San  Giovanni  Battista 

MADONNA  AND  FOUR  SAINTS.    ABOVE:  THE  BAPTISM  AND  TWO 
ANGELS 

Erroneously  ascribed  to  Pontormo.  This  altar-piece  seems  to  have  been 
patched  together  from  two  unrelated  pictures.  It  is  the  work  of  some 
provincial  artist,  perhaps  of  Umbrian  origin,  who  had  studied  Perugino, 
Michelangelo  and  Andrea  del  Sarto. 

Beprod.    Photo.  Alinari  19283  (as  Pontormo). 

GENOA 

Palazzo  Brignole-Sale 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN  IN  RED  WITH  A  SWORD 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Berenson.  I  do  not  know  of  any  collection  in 
a  Palazzo  Brignole-Sale  in  Genoa  other  than  the  collections  of  Palazzo  Bianco 
and  of  Palazzo  Rosso.  In  neither  of  these  galleries  have  I  been  able  to  find 
this  portrait. 

Bibl.    B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  175. 


HAMPTON  COURT 

139   (282).     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Figures  less  than  life-size.  The  Virgin  is  seen  full-length  facing  and  slightly  inclined 
to  the  left;  her  left  hand  supports  the  back  of  the  Child,  her  right  turns  his  face  to  her 
own;  she  wears  a  turban-shaped  head-dress. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1  ft.  10  in.,  w.  1  ft.  5  in, 

210 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

Ascribed  to  Andrea;  by  certain  critics  to  Pontormo.  This  picture  is 
apparently  an  old  copy  of  the  panel  in  the  collection  of  the  Earl  of  North- 
brook,  which  is  ascribed  to  Andrea  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  but  has 
recently  been  given  to  Puligo.  Another  replica,  falsely  ascribed  to  Pontormo, 
may  be  seen  at  Alnwick  Castle.  The  present  panel  may  be  the  "Mary  and 
Child  by  Andrew  del  Sarto,"  valued  by  the  Commonwealth  at  £40  and,  on 
December  3,  1649,  sold  to  Mr.  Rhemy  van  Leemput  for  £50  (Commonwealth 
Inventory,  fol.  212). 

Bibl.    Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  514. 


193   (249).     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Erroneously  ascribed  to  Bronzino.  This  is  a  late  Florentine  partial  copy 
of  the  composition,  probably  derived  from  an  original  by  Pontormo,  which 
is  known  in  numerous  renderings  of  various  dates.  See  in  this  division  of 
the  Catalogue  Raisonne,  under  Berlin;  Boston;  Castello;  Florence,  Cenacolo 
di  Foligno;  London,  Cook  Collection;  Munich;  Oxford.  The  present  panel 
was  painted,  it  would  seem,  in  the  "bottega"  of  Allori. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  4  ft.,  w.  3  ft. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  of  the  Collection  of  Hampton  Court,  p.  93 ;  Law,  New  Authorized 
Historical  Catalogue  of  the  Pictures  and  Tapestries  at  Hampton  Court,  London,  1911,  p.  64. 


300  (463).     VENUS  AND  CUPID 

A  copy  of  Pontormo 's  "Venus  and  Cupid"  of  which  the  Uffizi  panel  is  probably 
his  original. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  4  ft.,  3  in.,  w.  6  ft.,  5  in. 

Hard,  cold  and  dry.  Although  thought  by  Law  to  be  a  Bronzino,  it  is 
more  probably  only  a  product  of  his  ' '  bottega. ' '  Brought  to  England  in  1734 
and  exhibited  at  Essex  House,  Essex  St.,  Strand.  It  was  then  advertised  to 
be  disposed  of  in  a  raffle,  the  tickets  of  which  were  to  be  ten  guineas  each. 
The  raffle  did  not  take  place,  but  the  King  bought  it  for  Queen  Charlotte  for 
£1000.  The  engraved  tickets  of  the  exhibition  contained  an  elaborate 
description  of  the  picture  and  an  attestation  of  its  genuineness  as  a  work  of 
Michelangelo  signed  by  three  connoisseurs;  at  the  bottom  of  the  tickets  there 
was  an  etching  of  the  picture  (cf.  Mrs.  Jameson's  Royal  Galleries).  Duppa 
engraved  it  in  his  Life  of  Michael  Angelo  (1806)  and  states  that  it  came  from 
the  collection  of  the  Bettini  family.  Thode  conjectures,  apparently  without 
evidence,  that  it  is  the  same  picture  as  that  mentioned  in  the  Heidelberg 
Inventory.  Exhibited  in  Manchester  (Art  Treasures,  No.  170)  in  1857  in 
connection  with  which  exhibition  "W.  Burger  (Tresors  d' art  en  Angleterre, 
Bruxelles,  1860,  p.  43)  speaks  of  it  as  a  masterpiece  and  one  of  the  finest 

211 


PONTORMO 

paintings  (!)  in  Hampton  Court.     Hogarth  satirized  it  in  his  Analysis  of 
Beauty.    Law  gives  the  number  of  this  picture  as  420. 

Bibl.  Law,  Royal  Gallery  of  Hampton  Court,  London,  p.  110;  Graves,  Loan  Exhibi- 
tions, II,  942;  Law,  New  Authorised  Historical  Catalogue  of  Hampton  Court,  p.  99. 

740.     VENUS  AND  CUPID 

Venus  lies  on  a  white  drapery.  There  are  two  doves,  two  roses  and  an  apple  in  the 
lower  right  corner. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  5  ft.  2  in.,  w.  7  ft.  3  in. 

A  late  and  inferior  variant  of  the  same  composition  as  No.  300  of  this 
collection.  Once  in  the  collection  of  James  II  (No.  996).  Law  gives  the 
number  of  this  picture  as  707. 

Bibl.  Law,  catalogue  cited  above,  p.  180;  idem,  New  Authorized  Historical  Catalogue, 
p.  129. 


HILDESHEIM 

Museum 


VENUS  AND  CUPID 


A  copy  of  the  composition  best  known  by  the  example,  probably  by 
Pontormo  himself,  now  in  the  Uffizi  (No.  1284).  This  picture  was  brought, 
in  1884,  from  the  Berlin  Gallery  to  which  it  had  been  taken  in  1841.  It  is 
the  same  "Venus"  that  was  once  in  the  collection  of  Professor  d' Alton  of 
Bonn,  where  it  was  erroneously  ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Kugler. 

Bibl.  Verseichniss  der  abgegebenen  Gemdlde,  1886,  No.  233;  A.  W.  von  Schlegel, 
Verseichniss  von  d'  Altons  Gemdldesammlung,  1840;  Kugler,  Kunstblatt,  1842,  p.  42;  Kleine 
Schriften,  II,  358. 


LONDON 

Collection  of  Sir  Frederick  Cook 

42.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

The  Virgin,  in  green  tunic  with  green  sleeves,  pink  robe,  blue  mantle  and  head- 
dress, is  seated  on  the  ground.  Her  right  hand  rests  on  an  open  book,  her  left  clasps  the 
naked  Infant  Christ  who  kneels  clinging  to  her.  Behind  and  to  the  right,  St.  Joseph  at 
work,  speaking  to  the  little  St.  John  and  St.  Elizabeth.  Buildings  in  the  background. 

Canvas.    H.  1.268,  w.  1.016. 

At  St.  Paul's  Churchyard.  This  is  a  copy  of  the  composition  best  known 
in  the  version  now  in  the  Pinakothek  at  Munich  (No.  1090) .  Other  renderings 

212 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

by  various  hands  may  be  seen  in  the  Boston  Museum;  in  the  Royal  Villa  at 
Castello,  near  Florence;  in  the  Cenacolo  di  Foligno,  Ferroni  Collection, 
Florence  (No.  117)  ;  at  Hampton  Court  (No.  193-249)  ;  in  the  collection  of 
Mr.  Vernon  Watney  at  Cornbury  Park,  Oxford;  in  a  private  collection  in 
Berlin. 

Keprod.    Photo.  Gray  31563. 

Bibl.     A  Catalogue  of  the  Paintings  at  Doughty  House,  Eichmond,  and  elsewhere  in 
the  Collection  of  Sir  Frederick  Cook,  1913,  I,  p.  47. 


Collection  of  the  Earl  of  Northbrook 

i 

211    (39).     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Bust  figure  turned  three-quarters  left.     He  has  long  hair  and  dark  eyes  and  wears  a 
three-cornered  hat  and  a  black  coat  lined  with  fur.     Green  background. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  19$  in.,  w.  15J  in. 

Originally  in  Palazzo  Riccardi  at  Florence;  later  in  the  Le  Brun  and 
Baring  Collections.  Exhibited  at  the  British  Institution,  1824,  No.  21 ;  1840, 
No.  68.  Once  supposed  to  be  a  member  of  the  Medici  family  and  by  Raphael. 
Ascribed  by  Frizzoni  and  by  Waagen  to  Andrea,  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle 
to  Pontormo  or  Puligo.  It  is  not  by  Jacopo  and  it  seems  too  hard  for  Puligo. 

Eeprod.    Catalogue  cited  below  facing  page  158. 

Bibl.  Buchanan,  II,  254;  Waagen,  Art  Treasures,  II,  176;  idem,  Arts  and  Artists, 
III,  35;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  512;  ed.  Borenius,  VI,  201;  Descriptive 
Catalogue  of  the  Collection  of  the  Earl  of  Northbrook,  London,  1889,  p.  158. 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

The  Virgin,  dressed  in  crimson  with  a  pink  kerchief,  stands,  a  half-length  figure. 
The  Christ  Child  is  seated  on  a  white  cushion  on  a  balustrade.  She  raises  his  face  with 
her  left  hand. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  24  in.,  w.  18i  in. 

From  the  Gray,  Buchanan  and  Baring  Collections.  Ascribed  to  Andrea; 
by  certain  critics  to  Pontormo ;  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  to  Puligo,  but  none 
of  these  attributions  is  satisfactory.  Replicas  at  Alnwick  Castle  and,  with 
modified  colouring,  at  Hampton  Court  (No.  282). 

Bibl.  Catalogue  cited  above,  p.  157;  Waagen,  op.  cit.,  II,  175;  Crowe  and  Caval- 
caselle, ed.  1864-1866,  III,  584;  ed.  Borenius,  VI,  201. 


Collection  of  the  Earl  of  Plymouth 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH 
Bibl.    B.  T.  P.  E.,  p.  176. 

213 


PONTORMO 

National  Gallery 

649.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  BOY 

Full-length;  he  stands  turned  slightly  to  the  right,  the  weight  on  left  leg,  the  right 
knee  slightly  bent,  the  head  turned  three-quarters  right;  he  looks  at  the  spectator;  his 
right  hand  rests  on  his  hip,  his  left  holds  lightly  the  pommel  of  his  sword.  He  is  dressed 
in  doublet,  trunk-hose  gaged  and  puffed,  a  broad,  richly  ornamented  belt,  stockings  and 
slippers;  he  also  wears  a  short  velvet  coat  embroidered  at  the  edges  on  the  sleeves  and 
around  the  cuffs;  at  the  throat  and  wrists,  lace  ruffs.  The  sleeve  is  slashed  and  ornamented 
with  embroidered  triangles.  He  wears  a  dark  Florentine  cap  trimmed,  on  the  left  and  in 
front,  with  jewelled  ornaments  and,  on  the  right,  with  a  large  puffy  feather.  The  back 
ground  is  a  striped  curtain,  dark  in  the  centre  with  two  light  vertical  bands  at  either  side 
and  dark  edges;  it  has  many  horizontal  creases;  the  fringe  is  short  and  alternately  black 
and  light. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  4  ft.  2$  in.,  w.  2  ft. 

Formerly  in  the  collection  of  the  Duke  of  Brunswick ;  purchased  in  Paris 
in  1860  from  M.  Edmond  Beaucousin.  Once  erroneously  believed  to  be  a 
Pontormo  —  an  attribution  that  Miintz  repeats.  Ascribed  to  Bronzino  by 
Frizzoni  and  Berenson;  by  others,  including  Richter,  to  Salviati,  neither  of 
which  ascriptions  is  justified  or  satisfactory. 

Eeprod.  Photo.  Bruckmann;  Braun  30649;  fig.,  Poynter,  National  Gallery,  p.  70; 
Leman  Hare,  National  Gallery  in  Colour,  London,  1909,  XIX,  p.  72. 

Bibl.  Wornum,  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  the  Pictures  in  the  National  Gallery,  London, 
1875,  p.  223;  Fmzoni,  Arte  italiana  del  rinascimento,  1891,  pp.  266  f. ;  Poynter,  National 
Gallery,  p.  70;  Cook,  Handbook,  I,  22;  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  National  Gallery,  1906, 
p.  87;  Eichter,  Art  of  the  National  Gallery,  p.  45;  Miintz,  Eenaissance,  III,  499. 


790.  ENTOMBMENT 

Ascribed  by  most  critics,  including  Frizzoni  and  Berenson,  to  Michel- 
angelo; by  others,  to  Bugiardini;  by  Symonds  and  still  others,  to  Pontormo 
with  whose  work  it  has  no  connection.  This  picture  was  once  in  the  Fesch 
Collection  and  its  subsequent  history  is  well  known. 

Bibl.  Thode,  Krit.  Unters.,  II,  483-488;  Frizzoni,  op.  cit.,  pp.  263  f.;  Poynter,  op.  cit., 
I,  72;  Cook,  op.  cit.,  I,  14-16;  Eichter,  op.  cit.,  p.  44. 


1048.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  CARDINAL 

Three-quarter  length.    -He  is  seated  facing  and  wears  a  rose-coloured  silk  hood  with 
a  white  collar  and  a  scarlet  hat. 

Copper.    H.  .95,  w.  .71. 

Purchased   in   Florence   from   Mr.    Campbell   Spence    in    1879.      Once 
erroneously  attributed  to  Pontormo  but  now  ascribed  to  Scipione  Pulzone. 

214 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

Two  other  portraits  of  the  same  personage  survive,  one  in  the  Corsini  Gallery, 
Rome,  one  in  Chantilly. 

Keprod.    Woodcut,  Reinach,  Repertoire,  III,  370. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  of  the  National  Gallery,  1913,  p.  569.  Of.  F.-A.  Gruyer,  La  peinture  a 
Chantilly,  ficoles  etrangeres,  p.  125. 

1150.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Bust  figure  turned  three-quarters  right;  dark  brown  hair  that  falls  over  his  ears, 
a  short  moustache  and  short  thick  beard;  flesh-tones,  a  reddish  brown;  black  coat  with 
white  ruche  at  neck  and  white  frill  at  wrist  of  left  hand  which  is  raised;  black  gown; 
black  cap;  in  his  right  hand,  a  purse  or  document;  on  the  little  finger  of  left  hand,  a 
small  ring;  on  first  finger  of  right  hand,  another;  background,  light  brown. 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  25  in.,  w.  19$  in. 

Falsely  ascribed  to  Pontormo.  Purchased  at  Florence,  of  Mr.  C.  Fairfax 
Murray,  in  1883. 

Eeprod.    Poynter,  op.  cit.,  II,  p.  99. 

Bibl.  Poynter,  loc.  cit.,  p.  98;  Descriptive  Catalogue,  1906,  p.  457;  idem,  ed.  1913, 
pp.  554  f. 


LYONS 

Musee 
161.     SACRIFICE  OF  ISAAC 

Oil  on  wood;  life-size. 

A  replica  of  Andrea's  picture,  now  in  Dresden.  The  present  panel  was 
carried  away  from  Holland  by  Napoleon  and  given,  in  1811,  to  the  Lyons 
Museum.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  found  the  execution  less  agreeable  than 
that  of  Andrea's  altar-piece,  the  nude  poorly  rendered,  the  colour  lacking  in 
transparency.  They  believed,  I  think  without  reason,  that  the  author  may 
have  been  Pontormo. 

Bibl.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  507;  De  Eis,  Les  Musees  de  Province, 
II,  377. 

MADRID 

Museo  National 
340.     HOLY  FAMILY 

The  Virgin  looks  down  at  the  Christ  Child  who  lies  asleep  in  a  fold  of  her  mantle. 
To  the  right,  St.  John;  beside  the  Virgin,  St.  Joseph  also  asleep. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.30,  w.  1.00. 

215 


PONTORMO 

Once  in  the  collection  of  Dona  Isabel  Farnesio,  Palacio  de  San  Ildef. 
Attributed  to  Pontormo  but,  as  Morelli  recognized  long  ago,  it  shows  no  trace 
of  the  master's  hand. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Braun  50340. 

Bibl.  Catdlogo  de  los  cuadros  del  Museo  national  de  pintura  y  escultura,  Don  Pedro 
de  Madrazo,  ampliado  por  D.  Salvador  Viniegra,  novena  edicion,  Madrid,  1904,  p.  48; 
idem,  10th  ed.,  1910,  p.  54;  French  ed.,  1913,  p.  61;  Appunti  del  senator e  Giov.  Morelli  a 
proposito  della  Galleria  del  Prado,  Archivio  storico  dell'  arte,  VII  (1894),  65. 


385.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

The  Child  stands  erect  on  the  lap  of  the  Madonna  who  raises  her  veil.     To  the  left, 
an  archangel  holding  a  book  crouches  on  the  steps  of  the  Virgin's  seat;    to   the  right 
St.  Joseph  seated  on  the  ground;   in  the  middle  ground,  St.  Elizabeth  leads  the  young 
St.  John;  the  background,  a  landscape.    At  St.  Joseph's  feet,  Andrea's  monogram. 
-    Oil  on  wood. 

Ascribed  to  Andrea;  believed  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  to  show  in  the 
drawing  and  colour  the  hand  of  Pontormo.  Not  mentioned  by  Berenson. 
I  have  not  seen  this  picture.  Hutton  mentions  several  replicas:  a  damaged 
school  copy  (oil  on  wood),  at  Dudley  House;  a  later  copy  by  a  clever  imitator 
of  Del  Sarto  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Holford  in  London;  another  of  later 
date  on  canvas,  without  signature,  at  Ince,  near  Liverpool. 

Condition:  damaged. 

Bibl.     Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  510. 


MILAN 

Collection  of  Prince  Trivulzio 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  RINUCCINI  LADY 
Bibl.    B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  176. 

MONTPELLIER 

Musee  Fabre 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUNG  MAN 

Bust  figure  turned  three-quarters  left,  the  head  nearly  full  face;  he  holds  his  mantle 
with  his  right  hand;  his  hair  falls  almost  to  his  shoulders;  he  wears  a  white  shirt  and  a 
black  vest. 

Oil.    H.  .61,  w.  .51. 

216 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

Originally  attributed  by  Fabre  and  Canova  to  Raphael ;  by  certain  critics 
to  Ridolfo  Ghirlandaio ;  by  others  to  Francia.  Others  have  thought  that  they 
could  detect  here  the  hand  of  Pontormo.  Their  opinion  need  no  longer 
complicate  the  problem  of  the  authorship  of  this  portrait  which,  as  Berenson 
has  clearly  demonstrated,  is  a  Brescianino. 

Keprod.  Engraving  by  Dimier,  article  by  Gonse  cited  below;  fig.,  article  by  Berenson 
cited  below. 

Bibl.  Inventaire  general  des  richesses  d  'art  de  la  France,  Province,  Monuments  civils, 
Paris,  1878,  I,  247;  Gonse,  Le  portrait  d'homme  du  Musee  de  Montpellier,  Gazette  des 
beaux-arts,  2e  s6rie,  XII,  114  ff. ;  Benouvier,  Musee  de  Montpellier,  Gazette  des  beaux- 
arts,  V,  8;  Passavant,  Eaphael,  trad,  fran.,  1860,  88,  367;  Berenson,  Le  portrait 
Eaphaelesque  de  Montpellier,  Gazette  des  beaux-arts,  XLIX  (1907),  208  ff. 


MUNICH 

Alte  Pinakothek 

1090.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

The  Virgin  is  seated  on  the  ground  full  face,  her  knees  turned  to  the  left;  she  wears 
a  bright  red  tunic  with  dark  green  sleeves,  a  purplish  scarf  over  her  hair  and  a  dark  blue 
mantle.  Her  right  hand  is  laid  on  the  top  of  an  open  book  on  which  one  reads  in  the 
midst  of  indecipherable  lines:  IACOPO]  DAPUN|  NO.  In  the  margin  we  distinguish 
the  capitals  Q|N|O.  With  her  left  hand  the  Virgin  holds  the  naked  Christ  Child  who 
nestles  in  her  lap,  his  left  hand  laid  upon  her  knee.  He  is  turned  three-quarters  left  and 
gazes  up  at  his  mother.  In  the  background,  to  the  right,  there  are  little  figures  of  St. 
Joseph  in  pale  blue,  St.  Elizabeth  in  purple  skirt,  bodice  with  red  sleeves  and  white  head- 
dress, and  the  little  St.  John  who  is  nude  except  for  a  scarf  tied  over  his  right  shoulder. 
He  holds  a  basket  for  St.  Joseph  who  is  in  the  act  of  stepping  on  to  a  stool.  St.  Elizabeth, 
turned  three-quarters  to  the  right,  stands  in  an  archway  reading.  Above  her,  over  a 
parapet,  a  woman's  figure  leans.  Behind  the  Virgin's  head  and  shoulders,  houses  and  to 
the  left,  the  pyramidal  tops  of  two  campaniles. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.20,  w.  1.01. 

From  the  King's  private  collection.  Attributed  to  Pontormo  and  con- 
sidered to  be  genuine  by  Morelli;  not  mentioned  by  Vasari;  not  cited  by 
Berenson.  Goldschmidt  calls  it  a  "signiertes  Spatwerk,"  although  the 
inscription  is  a  late  addition.  This  panel  is  a  copy  of  a  lost  original  by 
Pontormo  which  must  have  dated  from  about  1540-1550.  The  smooth  and 
dry  flesh-painting,  the  feeble  and  heavy  feeling  for  form  give  but  little  hint 
of  the  quality  of  the  original.  The  composition,  however,  was  famous.  A 
number  of  other  copies  are  known:  one,  a  mere  ruin,  in  the  Royal  Villa  at 
Castello,  near  Florence;  another  (modified)  in  the  office  of  Sir  Frederick 
Cook,  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  London;  others  in  the  former  Galleria  Ferroni, 
now  in  the  Cenacolo  di  Foligno,  Via  Faenza,  Florence,  in  a  private  collection 
in  Berlin,  at  Hampton  Court,  No.  193  (249),  and  in  the  collection  of 
Mr.  Vernon  Watney,  at  Cornbury  Park,  Oxford.  A  good  copy,  once  ascribed 
to  Bronzino  but  really  by  Naldini  and  bearing  the  date  1561,  has  recently 

217 


PONTORMO 

been  taken  from  the  store-rooms  of  the  Boston  Museum  and  placed  on 
exhibition  there.  The  composition  also  appears  in  a  poor  black-chalk  drawing, 
in  the  Uffizi  (No.  6629),  that  dates  in  all  probability  from  the  eighteenth 
century.  See  in  this  catalogue,  under  the  collections  cited. 

Condition:  heavily  repainted  on  the  Virgin's  mantle  and  head-dress  and  on  the 
drapery  of  the  figures  of  the  background. 

Reprod.    Photo.  Bruckmann,  Munich,  1897;  for  other  copies,  see  above. 

Bibl.  Von  Eeber,  Katalog  der  Gemalde- Sammlung  d.  Tconigl.  dlteren  Pinakothelc  in 
Miinchen,  Miinchen,  3908,  p.  233;  Morelli,  Munich  and  Dresden  Galleries,  1893,  p.  101; 
ed.  1904,  p.  240;  English  ed.,  p.  220;  Catalogue  of  the  Paintings  at  Doughty  House,  Bich- 
mond,  ed.  by  Herbert  Cook,  London,  1913,  p.  47. 


Rohrer  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUNG  MAN 

Bust  figure,  life-size.  Dark  hair,  large  ears,  and  eyes  that  look  at  the  spectator. 
Dressed  in  a  black  silk  coat,  slashed  on  the  arms  and  simply  embroidered  about  the  neck 
and  down  the  front,  a  simple,  white  collar  embroidered  at  the  edge  and  a  black  cap.  He 
is  just  taking  a  sheet  of  paper  from  an  inside  pocket.  On  this  sheet  the  notes  and  words 
of  the  beginning  of  a  madrigal  are  written  and  in  the  lower  left  corner,  the  date  1547. 

Oil  on  poplar  wood.    H.  .584,  w.  .498. 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Schmidt ;  but  the  heavy,  glossy  colour,  the  fussy 
modelling,  the  uneasy  naturalism,  and  the  absence  of  any  amplitude  of 
conception  show  that  this  panel  has  obvious  affinities  with  the  later  manner 
of  Salviati  to  whom  it  is  ascribed  by  Voss,  but  of  whose  work  I  do  not  consider 
it  to  be  an  authentic  example. 

Eeprod.     Schmidt,  article  cited  below,  pi.  29,  No.  2;  Voss,  article  cited  below,  fig.  4. 

Bibl.  Wilhelm  Schmidt,  Gemalde  aus  der  Sammlung  Bohrer,  Monatshefte  fur  Kunst- 
wissenschaft,  1910,  p.  141;  Hermann  Voss,  Italienische  Gemalde  des  16  und  17  Jahrhunderts 
in  der  Galerie  des  Kunsthistorischen  Hofmuseums  zu  Wien,  Zeitschrift  fur  bildende  Kunst, 
1912,  pp.  41-43;  Gamba,  Alcuni  ritratti  di  Cecchino  Salviati,  Bassegna  d' arte,  IX  (1909),  4. 


NAPLES 

Museo  Nazionale 

14.     CARDINAL  KNEELING  AT  THE  FEET  OF  CHRIST 

Oil  on  wood. 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Monaco.  The  panel  has  however  no  connection 
with  Jacopo's  work.  It  is  not  now  exhibited. 

Bibl.  Monaco,  Handbook  to  the  National  Museum  of  Naples,  trans.  Eolfe,  1883,  p. 
196;  Aldo  de  Einaldis,  Guide  illustrata  del  Museo  Nazionale  di  Napoli,  Napoli,  1911,  560; 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Borenius,  London,  1914,  VI,  196. 

218 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTUEES 

17  X,  10.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD  WITH  ANGELS 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.15,  w.  .86. 

Originally  ascribed  to  Andrea  del  Sarto.  In  inventory  S.  84163  it  is 
attributed  to  Pontormo  with  whose  work  it  has  no  connection.  The  original 
of  this  picture  is  in  the  Prado ;  a  replica  of  the  Naples  copy,  and  like  it  falsely 
ascribed  to  Andrea,  hangs  in  the  Borghese  Gallery.  The  present  panel  comes 
from  the  Palazzo  del  Giardino,  Parma  (inv.  1680),  and  Naples,  Capodimonte 
(inv.  A.  101  —  Andrea  del  Sarto ;  inv.  S.  G.  275  —  copy  of  Andrea  del  Sarto) . 

Bibl.    De  Einaldis,  catalogue  cited  above,  p.  40. 

18  XIV,  16.     PORTRAIT  OF  TWO  ARCHITECTS 

Dated  M.D.LVI. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.20,  w.  .90. 

Anciently  ascribed  to  Andrea  del  Sarto;  by  De  Rinaldis  to  a  follower 
of  Bronzino  and  Pontormo.  Borenius  thinks  it  a  "mixture  of  Bronzino  and 
Pontormo."  The  picture  shows  little  direct  influence  of  Jacopo. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Anderson  5494 ;  Brogi  6760. 

Bibl.  De  Einaldis,  catalogue  cited  above,  p.  41  ff. ;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed. 
Borenius,  London,  1914,  p.  196. 

20  XIV,  4.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  WOMAN 

Bust  figure.  She  is  blond  and  wears  a  large  necklace  wound  twice  around  her  neck, 
a  bodice  with  large  sleeves,  and  holds  in  her  hand  an  open  book  bound  in  red.  She  looks 
at  the  spectator. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .68,  w.  .49. 

This  portrait,  which  came  originally  from  the  Palazzo  Farnese  in  Rome 
(inv.  1697,  No.  151),  was  later  at  Capodimonte,  Naples  (inv.  A.  11009)  and 
was  there  ascribed  to  the  ' '  School  of  Leonardo. ' '  In  the  inventory  S.  G.  309, 
it  is  attributed  to  Bronzino.  De  Rinaldis  ascribes  it  to  the  "School  of 
Pontormo."  It  would  seem  to  be  from  the  "bottega"  of  Allori.  The  hands 
are  well  drawn  but  the  colouring  is  crude  and  the  modelling  feeble. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Anderson  5496. 

Bibl.    De  Einaldis,  catalogue  cited  above,  p.  43. 

22,  VIII,  13.     VENUS  AND  CUPID 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.34,  w.  1.95. 

Once  ascribed  to  Bronzino.  It  is  however  a  copy  with  slight  modifications 
of  the  "Venus  and  Cupid"  of  the  TJffizi.  The  same  long,  bony  forefinger 
occurs  here.  De  Rinaldis  gives  it  to  Alessandro  Allori.  Provenance :  Parma, 

219 


PONTORMO 

Palazzo  del  Giardino  (inv.  1680)  where  it  was  ascribed  to  Giovanni  Bellini; 
Naples,  Capodimonte,  and  later  Palazzo  Reale  (inv.  A.  11656  —  Agnolo 
Bronzino ;  inv.  S.  84068  —  idem) . 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Brogi  6772;  Thode,  Michelangelo,  III,  487. 

Bibl.    De  Einaldis,  catalogue  cited  above,  p.  46;  Thode,  op.  tit.,  Ill,  485. 

682,  XXV.     VENUS  AND  CUPID 

Cartoon.     H.  1.30,  w.  2.12. 

Once  held  to  be  Michelangelo's  original  cartoon  for  the  "Venus  and 
Cupid"  painted  for  Bettini  by  Pontormo.  Thode  preserves  the  traditional 
attribution,  although  it  is  quite  evident  that  this  is  merely  a  late  and  mediocre 
copy  of  Jacopo's  picture.  Provenance :  Palazzo  Farnese  in  Rome  (inv.  86654) . 

Bibl.    De  Rinaldis,  catalogue  cited  below,  p.  554. 


NEW  HAVEN 

Jarves  Collection 
Yale  University 

78   (100).     PORTRAIT  OF  COSIMO  I 

Bust  figure  nearly  full  face.  His  hair  and  beard  are  dark  brown,  his  complexion 
bronzed  and  his  blue  eyes  look  at  the  spectator.  He  wears  a  dark  velvet  coat  with 
embroidered  fastenings,  a  broad  turned-down  plain  white  collar,  a  heavy  flat  gold  chain 
with  links  of  elaborate  design  alternating  with  others  smaller,  in  each  of  which  a  pearl. 
The  background  is  dark,  ripe-olive  green.  On  the  upper  left  corner  of  the  back  of  the 
panel,  a  seal. 

Oil  on  wood  (the  panel  is  made  up  of  three  pieces).    H.  .61,  w.  .48. 

Originally  ascribed  to  Pontormo  and  considered  to  be  authentic  by 
Berenson.  This  is  however  a  weak  copy  from  the  "bottega"  of  Alessandro 
Allori  of  a  portrait  painted  by  Pontormo  at  the  very  end  of  his  career.  Under 
the  somewhat  dejected  air  of  the  copy  we  still  catch  a  hint  of  the  severity 
of  vision  of  the  original.  The  chain  is  identical  with  that  which  one  sees 
in  the  former  Sedelmeyer  portrait  cited  below,  except  that  in  the  present 
panel  the  pendant  is  not  visible.  It  is,  of  course,  the  insignia  of  the  Golden 
Fleece  which  was  given  to  Cosimo  by  the  Emperor  in  1546.  The  original 
must,  therefore,  have  been  painted  after  that  date.  Many  portraits  exist 
related  either  to  the  prototype  of  our  portrait  or  to  a  similar  and  contempo- 
raneous portrait  by  Bronzino  which  Vasari  (VII,  601)  mentions  that  Agnolo 
painted  when  the  Duke  was  forty  years  of  age,  namely  in  1549-1550.  In  all 
of  these  the  head  is  seen  in  exactly  the  same  pose,  but  the  dress  or  the  pose 
of  the  body  is  different.  Among  them  we  may  point  out  the  following,  citing 

220 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

them  according  to  the  apparent  age  at  which  Cosimo  is  represented:  (1)  The 
bust  portrait,  in  Vienna,  with  shoulders  turned  slightly  to  the  right,  ascribed 
to  Bronzino  but  really  a  "bottega"  copy.  (2)  Vasari's  full-length  portrait, 
once  ascribed  to  Pontormo  and  now  in  the  Chapel  of  Leo  X,  in  the  Palazzo 
Vecchio.  (3)  The  bust  portrait  ascribed  to  Bronzino  in  the  Pitti,  in  which 
the  Duke  wears  the  same  collar  as  in  No.  1,  but  over  a  doublet  trimmed  with 
fur.  (4)  The  half-length  portrait,  which  was  once  in  the  Sedelmeyer 
Collection  (No.  99),  in  which  Cosimo,  with  shoulders  turned  threes-quarters 
left,  wears  a  lace  collar  and  the  Order  of  the  Golden  Fleece.  (5)  A  similar 
portrait,  once  in  the  same  collection  and  ascribed  to  Bronzino  (No.  101),  in 
which  the  shoulders  are  turned  the  other  way.  Dr.  Siren  informs  me  that  a 
portrait  of  the  same  description  exists  in  the  collection  of  the  Principe  del 
Drago. 

Condition:  fair;  cracked  where  the  boards  of  the  panel  join. 

Date  of  the  original:  1546-1556. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Bandall,  11  Pratt  Street,  Hartford,  Conn. 

Bibl.  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  ' '  Old  Masters ' '  Collected  by  James  J.  Jarves, 
Cambridge,  1860;  Manual  of  the  Jarves  Collection,  Russell  Sturgis,  Jr.,  New  Haven,  1868, 
p.  84;  Catalogue  Sedelmeyer,  pp.  88,  112;  Siren,  Catalogue  of  the  Jarves  Collection,  New 
Haven,  1916. 

79   (99).     MARTYRDOM  OF  ST.  MAURICE 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .28,  w.  .28. 

A  poor  and  modified  copy,  made,  it  would  seem,  in  Florence  at  the  end 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  of  Pontormo 's  picture,  now  in  the  Pitti  (No.  182). 
The  1860  catalogue  of  the  collection  considered  the  present  panel  to  be 
authentic  but  weak.  It  has  been  drastically  cleaned  and  the  general  tone  is 
now  a  misty  grey.  The  size  is  slightly  larger  than  the  original  which  has 
been  cut  down.  The  copy  reveals,  therefore,  a  trifle  more  of  the  figures  on 
both  sides  of  the  composition. 

Condition:  seriously  injured,  especially  the  hand  of  the  judge;  the  panel  is  warped 
and  the  colours,  except  the  orange,  completely  faded. 
Eeprod.     Photo.  Eandall. 
Bibl.    Descriptive  Catalogue,  p.  57;  Manual,  p.  84;  Sir6n,  op.  cit. 

98  (104).  PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

Half -length,  seen  facing,  her  left  hand  resting  on  a  table  (?),  her  index  finger  keeps 
her  place  between  the  leaves  of  a  book.  She  has  dark  brown  hair  parted  in  the  middle, 
grey-blue  eyes  and  wears  a  black  dress  cut  square  and  low  at  the  neck  and  edged  with  a 
fine  embroidery  of  gold,  a  white  chemisette  open  in  V-form  at  the  throat,  and  a  white 
cap  with  a  veil  over  it.  Around  her  neck,  a  gold  chain  knotted  in  front  from  which  hangs 
a  gold  medallion  of  a  man's  head  profile  left;  on  her  forefinger,  a  gold  ring.  The  book  is 
bound  in  reddish  leather  ornamented  with  three  parallel  gold  lines.  The  background  is  a 
grey-green  landscape  —  valley,  hills  and  trees ;  the  sky,  dark  grey-blue. 

Oil  on  wood  (the  original  part  of  the  panel  is  made  up  of  five  pieces).    H.  .64,  w.  .48. 

221 


PONTOKMO 

Attributed  to  Sebastiano  del  Piombo  by  the  author  of  the  catalogue  of 
1860,  an  attribution  for  which  there  is  not  the  slightest  foundation,  as  there 
is  none  for  identifying  the  person  represented  as  Vittoria  Colonna.  The 
same  writer  feels  that  this  somewhat  stiff  and  inexpressive  picture  unites 
"the  warm,  rich,  grave  tones  of  the  Venetian  School  to  the  strength  and 
boldness  of  design  of  Michelangelo."  Russell  Sturgis  in  his  Manual  follows 
this  early  attribution.  Berenson  ascribes  the  picture  to  Pontormo.  It  is 
however,  according  to  Dr.  Siren,  with  whose  opinion  I  completely  concur, 
a  Ferrarese  work  and  has  probably  a  certain  connection  with  the  art  of 
Dosso  Dossi.  This  portrait  is  really  only  a  fragment,  has  suffered  not  a  little, 
and  has  lately  been  thoroughly  cleaned  in  connection  with  which  restoration 
it  became  clear  that  the  lower  part  of  the  panel,  from  just  above  the  medallion 
downwards,  is  a  late  addition.  For  the  iconography  of  Vittoria  Colonna,  see 
under  "Portrait  of  Vittoria  Colonna,"  Casa  Buonarotti. 

Condition:    injured,   rubbed,   and   repainted    about    the    face;    recently   restored;    a 
vertical  crack  across  the  face;  the  lower  part  of  the  composition  is  spurious. 
Eeprod.     Photo.  Eandall. 
Bibl.    Catalogues  cited  above;  Manual,  p.  84  f. 


NEW  YORK 

Ehrich  Galleries 
PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Half-length,  seated  three-quarters  left,  the  head  almost  full  face.  He  looks  at  the 
spectator.  His  left  hand  rests  on  the  arm  of  his  chair,  his  right  is  raised  and  holds  a 
small  open  book  on  which  one  distinguishes  the  letters  X.  A.|  F.  V.  P.|  . . .  558.  He  wears 
a  beard  and  is  dressed  in  a  dark  coat  with  white  collar  and  cuffs,  and  a  large  black  hat. 
Behind  him,  a  dark  brownish  green  curtain  and,  to  the  left,  sky,  clouds,  and  a  little  land- 
scape of  river,  ruins,  tower  and  hill.  The  flesh-tints  are  brownish. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  32$  in.,  w.  28£  in. 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo,  with  whose  work  it  shows  no  relation.  The 
colouring,  the  modelling,  the  drawing  of  the  eye,  as  well  as  many  other 
details,  make  it  certain  that  this  is  a  Cremonese  picture,  and  probably  the 
work  of  Giulio  Campi. 

Eeprod.     Photo.  The  Ehrich  Galleries. 

Wildenstein  Collection 
PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Bust  figure,  profile  left,  the  head  three-quarters  left.  He  looks  at  the  spectator.  In 
his  right  hand  he  holds  a  little  book.  He  has  a  thin  square  beard  and  wears  a  dark  cap 
and  coat  with  a  narrow  white  collar. 

Oil  on  wood. 

222 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

In  1905  this  portrait  was,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  in  the  Constantini 
Collection  in  Florence  where  it  was  quite  arbitrarily  ascribed  to  Pontormo. 
It  was  originally  attributed  to  Andrea  —  an  attribution  which  Perkins  and, 
it  would  appear,  Berenson  believe  to  be  correct. 

Condition:  retouched. 

Reprod.    Photo.  Eeali;  fig.,  Rassegna  d' arte,  article  cited  below. 

Bibl.    F.  Mason  Perkins,  Miscellanea,  Eassegna  d' arte,  XV  (1915),  122. 


OXFORD 

Cornbury  Park 
Collection  of  Mr.  Vernon  Watney 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Copy  of  the  picture  ascribed  to  Pontormo  in  the  Alte  Pinakothek,  Munich 
(No.  1090).  For  other  copies,  see  in  this  division  of  the  catalogue,  under 
Berlin;  Boston;  Florence,  Cenacolo  di  Foligno,  Collection  Ferroni;  Hampton 
Court;  London,  Cook  Collection;  Munich,  Alte  Pinakothek. 


PALERMO 

Museo  Nazionale 


406.     JUDITH 


Believed  by  Berenson  to  be  an  example  of  Jacopo's  later  manner.  It  is 
however,  according  to  Gamba,  a  replica  of  the  "  Judith"  by  Jacopo  Ligozzi 
of  Verona,  now  in  the  Pitti  Palace. 

Bibl.     B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  177. 


PANSHANGER 

Collection  of  Lady  Desborough 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH 

Three-quarter  length;  dressed  in  black  with  velvet  bands  about  the  jerkin,  a  white 
shirt  showing  on  the  breast;  three-cornered  black  hat.  He  writes  at  a  table  covered  with 
a  striped  cloth  of  red,  yellow,  yellow-green,  and  slate  colour.  Background,  dark  grey. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .92,  w.  .67. 

223 


PONTOKMO 

Exhibited  Manchester,  1857;  Burlington  House,  1881.  Ascribed  to 
Andrea.  This  portrait,  which  has  a  superficial  resemblance  to  the  work  of 
Pontormo,  has  been  given  to  him  by  certain  critics,  but  it  is,  of  course,  not 
authentic.  The  colouring  clearly  recalls  that  of  the  "Portrait  of  a  Youth 
with  a  Lute,"  in  the  Jacquemart- Andre  Collection  in  Paris,  which  is  also 
unauthentic.  The  present  panel  bears  an  inscription:  "8  Dicenbre.  Mastro 
Domenico  assai  mi  chamo  sod ...  to  verso  di  voi  avendo  strato  ( ?)  propinquo 
ingenio  per  dimostrarmi  qual  proprio  a ...  sono  . . .  tanto  . . .  molto  obrigato 
1523  . . .  Andr ..."  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  believed  the  portrait  to  be  a 
genuine  Andrea  and  of  fine  quality.  Neither  Hutton  nor  Borenius  dissents 
from  their  opinion.  On  considerations  of  style  and  modelling  Gamba  ascribes 
it  to  Puligo,  assuming  that  the  ' '  Domenico ' '  of  the  picture  is  none  other  than 
the  artist  himself. 

Keprod.    Photo.  Braun;  fig.,  article  cited  below,  pp.  278-279. 

Bibl.  Gamba,  Di  alcuni  ritratti  del  Puligo,  Eivista  d' arte.  VI  (1909),  280;  Crowe 
and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  513;  ed.  Borenius,  VI,  201;  Waagen,  Treasures  of  Art, 
III,  11. 


PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

Dressed  in  red;  half-length.  In  front  of  her,  a  parapet  covered  with  a  green  cloth 
on  which  lies  a  book  of  music,  the  "Canzoniere  del  Petrarca,"  and,  to  the  left,  a  third 
book  closed.  On  the  parapet:  TV  DBA  TV  PRESES  NOSTRO  SVCCVRE;  LABORI; 
and  on  one  of  the  capitals:  MELIORA  LATENT.  Background:  on  one  side,  pilasters; 
on  the  other,  a  landscape. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .96,  w.  .79. 

Exhibited  Burlington  House,  1881;  at  the  Grafton  Galleries  (No.  49) 
in  1909-1910.  Falsely  ascribed  to  Andrea  of  whose  later  work  Waagen  and 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  believed  it  to  be  an  example.  Neither  Hutton  nor 
Borenius  dissents  from  the  traditional  opinion.  Some  critics  have  suggested 
that  it  is  a  Pontormo  but  it  shows  no  trace  of  his  hand.  Gamba  believes  it 
to  be  a  Puligo  and  proposes  that  it  be  identified  with  the  latter 's  lost ' '  Portrait 
of  Barbara  Cortegiana, "  which  is  mentioned  by  Vasari  and  which  Berenson, 
on  the  contrary,  identifies  with  the  ' '  Santa  Barbara, ' '  now  in  the  Hermitage. 
The  panel  has,  I  think,  been  rather  unhappily  cleaned,  but  there  is  something 
in  the  modelling,  the  type  of  the  face,  the  hands,  and  the  colour,  which  makes 
me  practically  certain  that  it  is  by  Granacci.  It  should  be  compared  with  his 
' '  Assumption  of  the  Virgin, ' '  now  in  the  Academy,  at  Florence. 

Reprod.  Photo.  Gray;  Braun  37397;  fig.,  Gamba,  article  cited  below;  catalogue 
published  by  Heinemann  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Waagen,  op.  cit.,  Ill,  11;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  1864-1866,  III,  585; 
ed.  Hutton,  III,  513;  ed.  Borenius,  VI,  201;  Catalogue  of  the  National  Loan  Exhibition, 
London:  Heinemann,  1910,  p.  69;  Catalogue  of  the  National  Loan  Exhibition,  Ballantyne 
and  Co.,  p.  49;  Gamba,  Di  alcuni  ritratti  del  Puligo,  Eivista  d' arte,  VI  (1909),  281. 


224 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

PARIS 

Jacquemart- Andre  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH  WITH  A  LUTE 

Half -length;  turned  three-quarters  right  and  seated  in  an  arm-chair  before  a  table. 
His  grey -blue  eyes  look  at  the  spectator.  In  his  lap  he  holds  a  large  six  (double)  string 
light  brown  lute,  on  which  he  plays;  before  him  on  the  table  a  book  of  music  lies  open. 
He  wears  a  coat  of  dark  violet-brown  stuff  with  large  slashed  sleeves  trimmed  with  bands 
of  black  velvet  and  a  black  velvet  hat ;  through  the  slashings  a  lining  of  dark  red  is  visible ; 
at  the  neck,  a  small  white  ruche.  The  table-cloth  is  striped  —  dark  red,  black,  dark  grey, 
dark  olive-grey,  light  red  and  yellow.  In  the  background  to  the  right,  the  brown  cornice 
and  pilasters  of  a  massive  cupboard  on  which  a  small  brown  statue  of  Cupid  and  three 
large  books  bound  in  dark  violet  leather,  and  tied  with  green  ribbons;  to  the  left,  a 
looped-up  dark  green  curtain. 

Oil  on  wood. 

Provenance  unknown ;  attributed  to  Pontormo  but,  close  as  is  this  portrait 
to  the  work  of  our  master,  the  clumsy  treatment  of  the  hands,  the  hard 
inorganic  folds,  the  somewhat  vacant  modelling  of  the  face  convince  me  that 
it  is  not  his.  It  also  lacks  a  certain  largeness  and  calm  in  the  composition 
that  we  have  a  right  to  expect  from  Jacopo.  On  the  other  hand  the  drawing 
of  the  ear,  eye,  and  mouth  do  not  suggest  Salviati,  and  we  do  not  find  here 
his  restless  insistence  on  minor  passages  in  the  modelling.  The  colour  recalls 
vividly  a  portrait  of  a  youth  writing  at  a  table  covered  with  a  striped  cloth, 
in  Lady  Desborough's  collection,  at  Panshanger.  Both  may  well  be  by  the 
same  hand.  It  would,  of  course,  be  pure  conjecture  to  suggest  that  that  hand 
was  Giovann'  Antonio  Lappoli's  and  that  the  person  represented  in  our 
portrait  is  Antonio  da  Lucca.  But  the  present  picture  was  certainly  painted 
under  the  direct  inspiration  of  Pontormo 's  work,  and  it  cannot  date  from 
before  1515  nor  from  after  1525.  Jacopo  had,  as  is  well  known,  few  pupils. 
Those  directly  in  contact  with  the  master,  during  this  period,  were  Bronzino, 
Pichi,  and  Lappoli.  Our  panel  cannot  be  by  Bronzino  whose  earliest  work 
in  portraiture  is  based  upon  the  manner  Jacopo  used  after  1530.  Of  this 
the  portraits  of  Panciatichi,  Martelli,  and  Giannettino  Doria  furnish  every 
proof.  Of  Pichi  practically  nothing  is  known.  Lappoli,  on  the  other  hand, 
precisely  during  the  years  in  which  our  portrait  was  painted,  was  busy 
copying  the  works  of  Pontormo  and  even,  so  Vasari  affirms,  helping  him  with 
others.  We  learn  too  from  Vasari,  who  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Lappoli's 
(both  were  Aretines)  and  who  was  in  Florence  during  the  years  in  question, 
that  Lappoli,  instead  of  working  diligently  at  his  art,  gave  himself  up  to 
various  amusements  in  the  house  of  Ser  Raffaello  di  Sandro  Zoppo,  Cappellano 
in  San  Lorenzo.  There  he  met  and  made  a  friend  of  Antonio  da  Lucca, 
"musico  e  senator  di  liuto  eccellentissimo  che  allora  era  giovinetto"  (VI,  7). 
Antonio  taught  Lappoli  to  play  the  lute,  and  Giovann'  Antonio,  as  might 

225 


PONTORMO 

have  been  expected,  painted  Antonio's  portrait  —  "ritratti  di  naturale  fra 
quali  fu  quello  di  detto  messer  Antonio  da  Lucca  e  quello  di  ser  Raffaello,  che 
sono  molto  buoni"  (VI,  8).  The  personage  represented  in  our  portrait  is  not 
only  ' '  sonator  di  liuto ' '  but ' '  giovinetto ' '  as  well.  Vasari  tells  us  that  Lappoli 
returned  to  Arezzo  in  1523. 

Condition:  good;  repainted  here  and  there,  especially  on  the  face,  the  left  hand  and 
parts  of  the  robe. 

Date:  1518-1523. 
Reprod.    Photo.  Bulloz. 


Louvre 
1242.     VISITATION 

Composition  of  thirteen  figures  on  steps  in  front  of  a  Eenaissance  door  flanked  by 
two  engaged  columns.  On  next  to  the  lowest  step,  a  woman  seated  nearly  profile  right, 
the  head  three-quarters  right;  behind  her,  a  woman  standing,  profile  right,  with  a  bundle 
on  her  head;  behind  the  latter  figure,  an  old  woman  with  a  staff,  the  head  turned  three- 
quarters  left;  behind  and  above  these  figures,  a  woman  holding  an  infant  in  her  arms,  her 
head  profile  right.  In  the  centre  of  the  composition,  the  Madonna  standing  profile  right 
receives  St.  Elizabeth  who,  standing  profile  left  on  the  step  below,  bends  her  knee  to  the 
Virgin.  To  the  right  on  the  next  lowest  step,  Zechariah,  profile  left,  holding  with  his  left 
arm  against  his  hip  a  large  book,  his  head  three-quarters  left;  behind  him,  Joseph,  his 
head  three-quarters  right,  his  left  hand  raised  pointing  to  the  Virgin.  Behind  Zechariah 
and  above,  a  woman  standing  nearly  full  face;  to  the  extreme  right,  an  old  man's  head 
profile  right.  Inside  the  door  to  the  right,  two  women.  On  the  architrave,  the  inscription: 
W.HOC.MI.VT.VE. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  2.75,  w.  1.68. 

Brought  from  Italy  by  Napoleon.  Anciently  attributed  to  Rosso.  Villot 
was  the  first  to  notice  that  it  is  an  old  free  copy  of  Pontormo's  fresco  of  the 
"Visitation,"  in  the  courtyard  of  the  Annunziata  at  Florence.  The  back- 
ground has  been  completely  altered,  the  composition  narrowed  and  heightened, 
the  drapery  and  the  colouring  modified,  the  figures  rearranged.  Two  figures, 
a  woman  to  the  left  and  the  "putto"  on  the  steps  to  the  right,  have  been 
eliminated  as  well  as  the  "Sacrifice  of  Isaac"  which  occupies  the  upper  part 
of  Pontormo's  original  fresco.  The  inscription  also  is  different.  It  seems 
to  me  probable  that  this  copy  was  made  toward  the  end  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  Salle  IV. 

Condition:  excellent. 
Date:  1560-1570. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Braun  11242;  Landon,  VII,  pi.  33. 

Bibl.  Filhol,  XVI,  21-24;  Catalogue  Villot,  No.  159,  p.  93;  Catalogue  Tauzia,  No. 
144;  Notice  des  tableaux  du  Musee  royal,  pp.  218-219;  Seymour  De  Eicci,  Description,  p.  41. 


226 


ATTEIBUTED  PICTURES 

PHILADELPHIA 

Johnson  Collection 

84.  PORTRAIT  OF  BARTOLOMMEO  DI  LORENZO  GUALTERETTI 

Half-length;  he  leans  forward  with  his  hands  crossed  on  a  brown  parapet;  he  wears 
a  black  cap  and  black  coat  with  embroidered  collar  and  cuffs,  one  link  of  a  gold  chain 
appearing.  In  his  jewelled  fingers  he  holds  a  paper  on  which  the  motto:  "Comporta 
et  astiente. ' '  To  the  left,  the  base  of  a  column  on  which  the  inscription :  BAET  •  DILOB  • 
GVALTEROTTT)  D^Ti  DANNI  XLII|  L'ANNO  M-D-L- 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .76,  w.  .58. 

Provenance  unknown.  Attributed  to  Pontormo  by  Berenson  who  con- 
siders it  a  typical  work  of  our  painter's  last  years.  I  do  not  however,  after 
careful  study,  believe  that  it  is  authentic. 

Date:   1550. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  of  a  Collection  of  Paintings  and  some  Art  Objects :  Italian  Paintings, 
Berenson  (Philadelphia:  John  G.  Johnson,  1913),  I,  46. 

Mclhlenny  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  GIULIANO  DE'  GONDI 

Bust  figure;  the  shoulders  profile  right,  the  head  three-quarters  right.  He  looks  at 
the  spectator,  wears  a  long  beard,  has  dark  hair  and  eyes,  and  is  dressed  in  a  dark  coat 
with  a  white  collar.  The  background  is  olive-green. 

Oil  on  wood. 

Once  in  the  Cernuschi  Collection.  Acquired  in  Milan  and  ascribed  to 
Pontormo.  This  portrait  might  easily  be  mistaken  for  an  authentic  specimen 
of  his  portraiture  were  it  not  for  the  modelling  of  the  eyes  and  nose  and 
the  brush-work  of  the  hair  and  beard.  On  the  back  of  the  panel  we  find 
fhe  following  inscription  in  a  handwriting  of  the  second  half  of  the  sixteenth 
century:  "Giuliano|  di  Lionardo  pater]  di  Giuliano  auus|  de  Lionardo  pro 
auus|  di  Lionardo  abauus|  di  Simone  atauus|  di  Bart,  tritauus)  dj  Casa  de 
ghondj]  Annos  natur.  xxxviij." 

Eeprod.    The  Chappel  Studio,  Philadelphia. 

Wanamaker  Collection 
230.     HOLY  FAMILY 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  45$  in.,  w.  37$  in. 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo  without  reason.  It  is  a  slightly  modified  copy 
of  the  well-known  and  signed  "Holy  Family"  by  Bronzino,  now  in  Vienna 
(No.  49).  Another  ancient  copy  exists  in  the  Louvre. 

Eeprod.    Catalogue  cited  below,  pi.  180. 

227 


PONTOKMO 

Bibl.  Siter,  Catalogue  of  the  Wanamalcer  Collection,  p.  105.  Cf.  also  Guiffrey,  L'  Arte, 
V  (1902),  259;  De  Chennevieres,  Gazette  des  beaux-arts,  XXX  (1903),  494;  Nicolle,  Eevue 
de  I' art  ancien  et  moderne,  XVIII  (1905),  190;  Schulze,  Bronzino,  p.  XXV. 


POGGIO  A  CAJANO 

The  Great  Hall  in  the  Royal  Villa 

LUNETTE:  THE  APPLES  OF  THE  HESPERIDES 

Composition  of  ten  figures. 
Fresco. 

This  lunette,  which  faces  Pontormo's  fresco,  has  often  and  quite  incor- 
rectly been  attributed  to  Pontormo.  The  initial  error  was  apparently  due 
to  Eaffaello  Borghini  's  somewhat  misleading  description  of  Jacopo  's  ' '  Pomona 
and  Vertumnus. ' '  The  present  lunette  is,  of  course,  by  Alessandro  Allori  and 
dates  from  1580-1582.  Allori  refers  to  it  in  his  Ricordi:  "...  doue  ho  fatto 
dirimpetto  all'  arco  di  Jacopo  da  Puntormo  tutto  con  gran  (certa)  inuentione 
del  Revdo  Priore  delli  Innocenti  di  Firenze  Don  Vincentio  Borghini,  Dio 
1 '  habbi  in  gloria,  dove  come  ho  detto  nell '  arco  di  contro  al  detto  di  m°  Jacopo 
e  figurato  i  pomi  degli  orti  Esperidi  guardati  dalle  Nimfe,  da  Ercole  e  dalla 
Fortuna..." 

Eeprod.     Photo.  Alinari  29441  (as  Pontormo). 

Bibl.    Bicordi  di  Alessandro  Allori,  Biblioteca  della  rivista  d'arte,  1908,  p.  29. 

ST.  PETERSBURG 

Hermitage 
85.     HOLY  FAMILY 

The  Virgin  seated  on  the  steps  of  an  edifice  holds  on  her  knees  the  Christ  Child  and 
draws  to  her  the  little  St.  John  whom  the  Infant  Jesus  takes  by  the  hand;  to  the  left, 
St.  Elizabeth  and  St.  Joseph  seated. 

Oil  on  slate.    H.  .44,  w.  .31. 

Once  in  the  Crozat  Collection;  anciently  attributed  to  'Parmigianino ; 
given  to  Pontormo  by  Bruiningk  and  Somof  and  by  Goldschmidt;  not 
mentioned  by  Berenson.  I  have  not  seen  this  picture. 

Bibl.  Bruiningk  and  Somof,  catalogue  cited  below,  p.  57.  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit. 
(dissertation),  p.  47. 

25.     SANTA  BARBARA 

Half-length  figure.  She  is  dressed  in  a  red  mantle  with  a  gilded  belt  and  a  sable 
cap;  she  wears  a  pearl  necklace  from  which  hangs  a  medallion  on  which  one  sees  a  cross. 
She  holds  in  her  hand  a  model  of  the  tower  in  which  she  lived.  Background,  a  drapery. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .92,  w.  .69. 

228 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

This  panel  was  originally  a  portrait  of  a  young  woman;  the  tower  she 
holds  was  added  later,  thus  changing  the  picture  into  a  "Santa  Barbara." 
Acquired  from  the  Crozat  Collection  by  Catherine  II.  Anciently,  and  by 
Waagen,  attributed  to  Andrea  del  Sarto;  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  to 
Bacchiacca ;  by  Berenson  to  Puligo.  The  later  compares  it  with  a  ' '  Madonna 
and  Boy  Saint"  (photo.  Anderson  5268)  in  the  collection  of  Miss  Hertz. 
Briiiningk  and  Somof  suggest  Jacopo  as  the  author,  and  Guiness  also  finds 
it  more  akin  to  Pontormo  than  to  Andrea.  A  careful  comparison  with 
Pontormo's  "Portrait  of  a  Young  Girl,"  once  in  the  Yerkes  Collection  adds 
to  the  plausibility  of  their  suggestion.  The  panel,  however,  seems  to  have 
been  so  seriously  altered  by  restoration  and  rehandling  that  any  attribution 
must  now  be  considered  conjectural.  Vasari  mentions  (IV,  465)  that  Puligo 
painted  a  portrait  of  Barbara,  ' '  cortegiana  fiorentina, ' '  which  Borghini  states 
was  later  in  the  possession  of  Giovambattista  Deti  who,  to  please  his  wife,  had 
the  music  that  Barbara  held  painted  out  and  the  symbols  of  Santa  Lucia 
substituted  (Riposo,  ed.  1807,  libro  III,  pp.  190  f.).  If  we  assume,  as  Berenson 
does,  that  we  have  here  the  Puligo  portrait  mentioned  by  Vasari,  we  must 
also  assume  that  Borghini  wrote  Santa  Lucia  when  he  meant  Santa  Barbara. 
But  the  picture  does  not  seem  to  me  to  be  by  Puligo  and  I  do  not  think  that 
his  "Barbara"  should  be  identified  with  it.  Gamba  (Rivista  d' arte,  VI,  280) 
believes  that  the  Puligo  portrait  in  question  is  the  "Portrait  of  a  Woman 
with  a  Book  of  Music, ' '  in  Panshanger,  and  that  the  attributes  of  Santa  Lucia 
were  removed  in  a  cleaning  which  that  panel  underwent  at  an  unknown  date. 
This  latter  portrait,  however,  seems  to  be  a  Granacci. 

Condition:  seriously  rehandled;  transferred  from  wood  to  canvas  in  1817. 

Date:  1515-3535. 

Eeprod.     Photo.  Braun;  fig.,  Hermitage  Gallery,  1912,  p.  197. 

Bibl.  Catalogues  de  ventes  et  livrets  de  salons:  Catalogue  de  la  Collection  Crozat 
fl755),  Paris,  1909;  Ermitage  imperial,  Catalogue  de  la  galerie  des  tableaux,  2d  ed.,  St. 
Petersbourg,  1869;  Briiiningk  et  Somof,  Ermitage  imperial,  St.  Petersbourg,  1891,  p.  158; 
Somof,  Catalogue  de  la  galerie  des  tableaux,  1909,  p.  44;  Waagen,  Die  Gemdldesammlung 
in  der  Tcaiserlichen  Eremitage  zu  St.  Petersburg,  St.  Petersburg,  1870,  p.  40;  Guiness, 
Andrea  del  Sarto,  London,  1899,  p.  97;  Hermitage  Gallery  (in  Russian),  1912,  p.  197; 
B.  F.  D.,  I,  298  f. 


ROME 

Borghese  Gallery 

74.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAGISTRATE 

Three-quarter  length;  badly  seated  or  standing  turned  three-quarters  left;  his  right 
hand  rests  on  the  table  beside  him,  his  left  on  the  arm  of  a  chair.  His  complexion  and 
eyes  are  dark,  his  hair  grey,  curly  and  scant  on  the  top  of  the  head.  He  wears  a  sleeveless 
deep  red  velvet  robe  and  brown  undergarment  with  white  at  the  throat  and  wrists.  The 
table-cover  is  light  green,  the  background  dark  grey-green,  to  the  left  a  grey-brown  column, 
to  the  right,  a  pilaster  of  the  same  stone-colour.  In  his  right  hand,  a  folded  letter.  On  it 

229 


an  address  almost  illegible  which  seems  to  read:     A  hon^  Me  Fala  . . .  Canezini . . .  Jacimo] 
oraf  o  . . .  Jn  firenz.    On  the  flap  of  the  letter :  Lui. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  .97,  w.  .75. 

From  the  original  Borghese  Collection ;  anciently  attributed  to  Bronzino. 
A  work  of  Pontormo's  seems  once  to  have  existed  on  this  panel,  but  in  its 
present  state  only  shadowy  traces  of  his  hand  show  here  and  there. 

Condition:  ruined  and  completely  repainted. 

Date:  1538-1543. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Moscioni  21172. 

Bibl.    Venturi,  Galleria  Borghese,  1893,  p.  72 ;  Laf enestre,  Borne,  p.  44. 

79.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  WOMAN 

Oil  on  slate.     H.  1.12,  w.  .79. 

Once  ascribed  to  Pontormo;  it  is  probably  a  product  of  the  workshop 
of  Bronzino.  Cf.  the  following. 

Bibl.    Schulze,  Bronzino,  p.  XXVIII;  Laf  enestre,  op.  cit.,  p.  14. 

100.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  WOMAN 

Oil  on  slate.     H.  1.12,  w.  .79. 
Cf.  the  preceding. 

173.     TOBIAS  AND  THE  ANGEL 

The  angel  stands  facing,  his  head  turned  three-quarters  right  looking  down  at 
Tobias;  he  is  thick-set,  has  curly  light  brown  hair  and  dark  brown  eyes,  a  long  oval  face 
and  halo  and  wears  a  scarlet  mantle  edged  with  gold  and  knotted  on  the  left  shoulder,  a 
violet  tunic  shot  with  green,  white  undersleeves  with  violet-pink  shadows,  and  purple  wings 
catching  a  yellow  light.  His  hands  are  short  with  thick  large  palms;  in  the  right  he  holds 
a  golden  bowl  with  spoon  and  cover  half  open;  in  his  left  hand,  the  right  hand  of  Tobias. 
To  the  right  Tobias  stands  facing,  his  head  seen  in  profile  to  the  left,  his  eyes  raised  to 
the  angel's  are  dark  brown,  his  hair  curly  and  brown  with  an  aureole  of  golden  spikes; 
he  wears  a  violet  grey  tunic  edged  with  gold,  showing  white  lace  at  the  neck  and  trimmed 
with  a  collar  of  yellow  fur  and  a  blue  waist -band,  light  grey  undersleeves,  green  hose,  grey 
boots,  grey  hat  hung  on  his  left  shoulder  and  a  brown  cloak  that  falls  behind  him  from 
his  right  shoulder  and  is  caught  up  in  front  by  his  left  arm;  this  cloak  is  yellow  where 
it  catches  the  light;  the  fish  which  is  green  is  held  against  his  left  hip.  To  the  left  of  the 
angel,  a  little  white  dog.  The  sky  is  a  greenish  blue  with  white  clouds,  the  horizon  violet- 
pink  fading  to  white;  the  distant  landscape  is  pale  green,  the  foreground,  brown.  On 
the  back  of  the  panel:  "Iscrizione  fide  commissaria|  del  di  3  Giugno  1834|  Nota  2a  letta 
B|  Baffaellino  da  Reggio|  Largo  pol  2  oni  4  alto  pol  3  oni  4." 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .75,  w.  .53. 

Provenance  unknown;  not  mentioned  by  Vasari;  anciently  ascribed  to 
Andrea;  by  the  catalogue  to  the  Tuscan  School  of  the  sixteenth  century; 
by  Venturi  to  a  feeble  imitator  of  Andrea.  The  attribution  to  Pontormo  is 
Berenson's.  The  hands  are  broad,  the  fingers  short,  the  feet  badly  drawn. 
The  finish  is  here  and  there  that  of  a  miniature.  Other  variants  of  this 
composition,  scattered  through  the  galleries  of  Europe,  indicate  an  archetype, 

230 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

now  lost,  which  was  perhaps  by  Andrea.  One  of  these  variants  is  in  the 
Pitti  (No.  292).  There  is  another  in  the  Corsini  Gallery,  Florence  (No.  113), 
which  is  ascribed  to  Andrea  but  which  is  in  colour  reminiscent  of  Bacchiacca 
(oil  on  copper,  h.  .35,  w.  .26).  Another  and  later  derivative  exists  in  the 
New  York  Public  Library.  The  present  panel  is  probably  a  Eidolfo  Ghir- 
landaio,  although  repainting,  especially  on  the  hands,  has  obscured  the 
original  touch.  It  should  be  compared  with  Eidolfo 's  ''Nativity,"  which 
was  painted  for  the  Cestello  and  which  is  now  in  the  Museum  of  Budapest. 

Condition:  repainted. 

Date:  1534-1535. 

Beprod.    Photo.  Moscioni  21212  (as  Andrea). 

Bibl.     Venturi,  catalogue  cited  above. 

"PORTRAIT  OF  C.ZESAR  BORGIA" 

Half-length  turned  three-quarters  left;  his  hands  upon  his  hips,  in  his  right,  a 
dagger.  He  has  a  light  beard  and  moustache  and  wears  a  dark  doublet  with  light  slashed 
sleeves  over  a  dark  lining,  embroidered  ruffs  at  the  wrists,  dark  cap  with  small  gold 
ornaments  on  it  and,  to  the  right,  a  large  drooping  feather. 

Once  in  the  Borghese  Gallery  from  which  it  was  stolen  some  years  ago. 
The  original  attribution  gave  this  panel  to  Raphael.  Recently  some  have 
suggested  that  it  is  a  Pontormo.  I  have  seen  it  only  in  photograph,  and  it 
seems  to  me  to  show  not  the  slightest  trace  of  his  hand.  Bode  places  it  about 
1525-1530;  Morelli  ascribes  it  to  Bronzino;  Crowe  describes  it  as  a  mixture 
of  Raphael,  Parmigianino,  Bronzino  and  Giulio  Romano;  Bruckhardt  gives 
it  to  Giorgio  Perez,  Miindler  to  Parmigianino.  The  personage  represented 
is  not  Caesar  Borgia. 

->       Condition:  a  piece  added  on  all  sides. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Anderson  1085  (as  Eaphael) ;  fig.,  Archivio  storico  dell'  arte,  V,  3. 

Bibl.  Yriarte,  Les  portraits  de  Cesare  Borgia,  Gazette  des  beaux-arts,  2*  pgr.,  XXXVI 
(1887),  200;  Archivio  storico  dell'  arte,  V  (1892),  3;  Frizzoni,  Giovanni  Morelli,  idem, 
1897,  p.  87. 

Barbier  de  Montault  (Musees  et  galeries  de  Home,  Borne,  1870)  ascribes  quite  arbi- 
trarily the  following  pictures  in  the  Borghese  Gallery  to  Pontormo :  ' '  Madonna  and  Child, ' ' 
No.  70  of  the  first  room,  p.  347;  " Besurrection  of  Jairus'  Daughter,"  No.  73  of  the 
thirteenth  room,  p.  367 ;  ' '  Circumcision, ' '  No.  76  and  ' '  The  Burial  of  St.  Thomas  Aquinas, ' ' 
No.  80  of  the  same  room,  p.  387.  The  numbering  has  since  been  changed. 


Palazzo  Giraud-Torlonia 

STORIES  FROM  THE  LIFE  OF  JOSEPH 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  1.65,  w.  .60. 

Two  "cassone"  panels  ascribed  by  certain  critics  to  Pontormo,  by  others 

231 


PONTORMO 

to  Franciabigio.    They  are  really  by  Granacci  and  their  present  whereabouts 
is  unknown. 

Bibl.     Lafenestre,  Some,  pp.  261  ff. ;  Ulmann,  Piero  di  Cosimo,  Jahrbuch  d.  Tconigl. 
preuss.  Samml.,  XVII  (1896),  52. 


Palazzo  Spada 
16.     VISITATION 

The  composition  is  a  slightly  modified  replica  of  the  "Visitation"  by  Andrea  del 
Sarto,  in  the  cloister  of  the  Scalzo.  Andrea's  fresco  is  in  monochrome;  the  present  panel 
has  the  following  colour-scheme:  Zacharias  wears  a  light  green  cap,  mantle  and  shoes, 
yellow  sleeves  and  dark  yellow  stockings;  under  his  arm,  a  greyish  green  bag;  Joseph,  a 
greenish  white  mantle;  Mary,  whose  hair  is  red  and  is  tied  with  a  light  green  ribbon,  a 
dark  greenish  blue  mantle  with  yellow  sleeves,  a  scarlet  tunic  and  grey-green  slippers; 
Elizabeth,  a  dark  blue-green  robe,  yellow  mantle,  and  over  her  head,  a  white  scarf;  the 
serving-maid,  a  pink  dress,  in  her  hands  a  bundle  of  linen  in  a  blue-green  cloth,  on  her 
head,  a  white  scarf;  the  serving-man,  a  blue-green  doublet,  garter  and  shoes,  pink  hose  and 
belt ;  on  his  head  a  yellow  bundle,  in  his  right  hand  a  white  basin ;  all  the  saints  have  haloes 
of  fine  gold;  the  steps  are  grey-green,  the  foreground,  pinkish  brown. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .65,  w.  .88. 

This  panel,  once  ascribed  to  Andrea,  is  a  small  copy  of  the  fresco  in  the 
Scalzo  that  Del  Sarto  finished,  according  to  the  documents,  (A.  S.  F.,  Scalzo, 
Debitori  e  Creditor!  B.,  1514-1535,  p.  106),  in  November,  1524.  The  touch 
recalls  to  a  certain  degree  Jacopo  's  early  work,  but  after  1524  his  feeling  for 
form  was  quite  other  than  that  which  is  revealed  by  the  present  panel.  It 
is  conceivable  that  our  copy  was  made  by  Lappoli  or  by  Pierfrancesco 
di  Jacopo  who  are  known  to  have  copied  some  of  the  frescoes  of  the  Scalzo 
(Vasari,  VI,  8).  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  consider  that  it  was  executed  in 
the  "bottega"  of  Andrea. 

Condition:  excellent. 

Date:  after  1524. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Anderson  5680  (as  Pontormo). 

Bibl.    Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  509;  ed.  Borenius,  VI,  195. 

PORTRAIT  OF  CARDINAL  FABRIZIO  SPADA  AND  HIS  SECRETARY 

The  cardinal  is  seated,  turned  three-quarters  right,  in  a  Savonarola  chair,  his  head 
three-quarters  left.  He  wears  a  light  red  cap  and  scarlet  watered  silk  cape  over  a  white 
embroidered  cassock.  He  holds  in  his  right  hand  a  book  that  he  has  just  been  reading, 
his  index  finger  between  the  leaves.  To  the  right  stands  his  secretary,  turned  three-quarters 
left.  He  wears  a  dark  soutane  with  a  white  linen  collar.  He  is  partially  bald  and  has 
a  pointed  beard.  In  his  hands,  a  book  from  which  he  has  just  ceased  to  read. 

Once  ascribed  to  Pontormo;  it  is  quite  evidently  by  Pulzone,  and  was 
exhibited  under  the  latter  name  in  the  Exhibition  of  Portraits  in  the  Palazzo 
Vecchio,  in  1911. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Anderson  5684. 

232 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Seated  in  a  Dante  chair  by  a  table  and  turned  three-quarters  left.  He  has  a  brown 
beard  that  is  turning  grey  and  dark  hair.  He  is  dressed  in  a  black  coat  with  long  frog 
fastenings,  white  collar  edged  with  embroidery  and  white  cuffs.  On  the  table,  an  oriental 
table-cloth  and  a  black  inkstand  with  a  quill  pen  in  it.  The  table-cloth  recalls  that  of  the 
"Portrait  of  Cardinal  Cervini, "  in  the  Borghese,  but  it  is  more  thinly  painted  and  has 
a  border  of  a  different  design.  In  his  right  hand  he  holds  a  letter  on  which :  "  Al  M  . . . " 
The  rest  of  the  inscription  is  illegible.  His  left  hand  rests  on  the  arm  of  the  chair.  In 
the  upper  right  corner,  a  curtain  with  a  light  fringe. 

This  portrait,  which  is  falsely  ascribed  to  Pontormo,  dates  from  the  second 
half  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Anderson  5679  (as  Pontormo). 

Rospigliosi  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  FRANCESCO  DE'  MEDICI 

Half-length  turned  three-quarters  left.  He  has  dark  short  hair  and  wears  a  dark 
doublet  with  trimming  of  embroidered  bands  and  a  white  embroidered  collar;  over  his  right 
shoulder,  a  drapery  of  lighter  stuff.  His  left  hand  is  laid  on  a  very  large  and  elaborate 
helmet,  the  lower  part  of  which  forms  a  monster's  head,  and  the  crest,  a  winged  buck.  It 
is  crowned  with  black  and  white  ostrich  plumes. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  about  .90,  w.  about  .70. 

Once  ascribed  to  Pontormo,  attribution  followed  by  Berenson  in  his  first 
edition  of  Florentine  Painters.  This  portrait,  with  another  on  the  back  of 
which  was  written  "Leonardo  de'  Ginori,"  the  authorship  of  which  is 
unknown,  passed  in  1899  into  the  possession  of  an  American  doctor.  Both 
were  held  by  certain  critics  to  be  copies  and  both  came  originally  from  the 
Ginori  Collection  in  Florence.  I  have  not  seen  this  picture,  but,  even  from 
a  photograph,  it  is  evident  that  it  shows  no  trace  of  Pontormo 's  hand. 
Moreover  in  it  Francesco,  who  appears  as  a  youth  of  sixteen,  is  too  old  to 
have  been  painted  by  Pontormo.  The  modelling  suggests  that  this  picture 
or  its  original  was  executed  in  the  workshop  of  a  pupil  of  Bronzino's. 

Eeprod.     Photo.  Anderson  4742. 

Bibl.    Venturi,  Tesori  d' arte  inediti  di  Eoma,  1896. 


SCOTLAND 

New  Battle  Abbey,  Dalkeith 
Collection  of  the  Marquis  of  Lothian 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH 

Bibl.    B.  F.  P.  E.,  p.  177. 

233 


PONTORMO 

STUTTGART 

Staatsgalerie 

449.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Half-length;  seated,  three-quarters  right,  in  a  Savonarola  chair,  the  head  turned 
slightly  left,  the  eyes  look  at  the  spectator;  the  left  hand  clasps  the  right  arm  of  the  chair, 
the  right  hand  rests  on  the  back  of  the  left  hand;  to  the  right,  the  corner  of  a  table.  He 
has  a  thin  beard  and  moustache  and  wears  a  black  cap  and  coat;  the  table  and  chair  are 
light  yellow-brown.  Background,  a  dark  brown  pilaster  left  and  a  light  green  curtain  right. 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  .78,  w.  .62. 

Once  in  the  collection  of  the  archbishop  of  Bamberg,  later  in  that  of 
the  Oberkriegsrat  Landauer.  Anciently  attributed  to  Sebastiano  del  Piombo, 
by  Bayersdorfer  to  Alessandro  Allori,  by  Rieffel  and  Schulze  to  Bronzino. 
Other  critics  have,  in  connection  with  this  picture,  suggested  the  name  of  our 
master  although  quite  without  reason. 

Condition:  repainted. 
Date:  about  1540-1560. 
Eeprod.     Photo.  Hoefle. 

Bibl.  Schulze,  Bronzino,  1911,  p.  XXIX;  Lange-Tiibingen,  Verseichnis  der  Gemalde- 
sammlung  eu  Stuttgart,  1907,  p.  169. 

508  Me.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Half  figure  in  a  red  mantle. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  .93,  w.  .77. 

Once  ascribed  to  Masaccio,  later  to  Andrea  del  Sarto  and  called 
"Portrait  of  a  Roman  Prelate."  On  the  back,  in  a  handwriting  of  the  early 
nineteenth  century:  "Franciseus  Conterenus  D*  Nicolai  De  Marie  Canarensis 
Legatus  in  Etruria.  MCCCCLIIII."  Either  this  inscription  is  without 
foundation  or  the  portrait  is  apochryphal  for  it  seems  to  have  been  painted 
after  1560.  It  has  been  attributed  to  Pontormo  by  some  critics  and  by  others 
to  Bronzino.  Neither  attribution  deserves  serious  consideration. 

Eeprod.    Photo.  Hoefle;  small  cut,  Eernach,  Eeper.,  Ill,  411. 

Bibl.    Verseichnis,  p.  185;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Douglas,  IV,  63. 


TURIN 

Regia  Pinacoteca 

122.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

Three-quarter  length;  seated,  turned  three-quarters  left,  in  a  Dante  chair  richly 
carved  and  ornamented  with  grotesque  heads;  her  hands  rest  on  the  arms  of  the  chair; 
she  looks  at  the  spectator.  Her  hair  is  light  auburn  and  is  bound  up  in  a  net;  her  eyes  are 

234 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

light  brown.  She  wears  a  gold-coloured  satin  gown  open  at  the  throat  —  the  bodice  trimmed 
with  darker  velvet  bands  —  a  lace  collar,  an  ample  red  brocaded  mantle  trimmed  with 
velvet.  Her  ornaments  are:  a  string  of  pearls  as  edging  to  the  net  over  her  hair,  pearl 
necklace,  gold  chain,  bracelets,  a  ring  on  the  index  finger  of  the  right  hand,  another  on 
the  ring-finger  of  the  left  hand;  around  her  waist,  and  hanging  down  the  front  of  her  skirt, 
an  enamelled  gold  chain  set  with  rubies  and  sapphires  and  fastened  at  the  waist  with  a 
clasp  set  with  a  cameo.  In  her  left  hand  she  holds  a  small  book  bound  in  black,  tooled 
and  mounted  in  silver  and  closed  with  a  silver  clasp.  Background:  grey-green;  from  the 
upper  left  corner  an  ample  drapery  of  oriental  gauze  —  white  striped  with  black  and 
finished  with  a  black  fringe  —  is  drawn  behind  the  chair  and  piled  up  on  the  right  side 
of  the  picture. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.09,  w.  .85. 

Acquired  in  Genoa  in  1824  when  the  Marchese  Durazzo  sold  his  palace 
and  collection  to  the  King  of  Sardinia.  The  traditional  attribution  of  this 
portrait  to  Bronzino  is  retained  in  the  catalogue  of  the  gallery  and  by 
Jacobsen  and  Schulze.  Berenson  has  suggested  that  it  is  a  Pontormo  and 
I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  his  conjecture  may  be  well  founded,  although 
a  severe  rehandling  seems  to  have  effaced  much  of  the  quality  that  we 
naturally  expect  from  Jacopo  and  so  diminished  the  possibility  of  deciding 
definitely  in  regard  to  the  authenticity  of  this  panel.  The  person  represented, 
who  reminds  one  of  the  lady  of  the  Oldenburg  portrait  grown  older,  is 
generally  believed  to  be  Eleonora  da  Toledo  and  the  identification,  although 
iconographically  without  foundation,  is  accepted  by  Jacobsen.  And  in  this 
connection  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  picture  was  not  originally  believed 
to  be  a  likeness  of  Eleonora.  It  was  D'Azeglio  who  first  imagined  that  he 
could  recognize  here  the  features  of  the  consort  of  Cosimo  I  —  an  impression 
which  led  him  to  believe  that  the  panel  is  a  companion  piece  to  No.  123  of 
this  gallery,  a  ' '  Portrait  of  Cosimo  I, ' '  ascribed  to  Bronzino,  which  the  Grand 
Duke  himself  gave  to  Emmanuel  Filiberto  and  which,  therefore,  has  long 
been  in  the  possession  of  the  House  of  Savoy. 

Condition:  repainted,  especially  about  the  hands  and  face. 

Date:  1534-1545. 

Eeprod.  Lithograph  by  Pozzioli,  inc.  di  Giov.  Ballero  in  Robert!  d '  Azeglio  '&,  La  Eeale 
Galleria  di  Torino,  Torino,  1836,  pi.  XXXIV;  Schulze,  Bronsino,  pi.  XVI;  photo.  Brogi 
2304. 

Bibl.  Jacobsen,  La  Regia  Pinacoteca  di  Torino,  Archivio  storico  dell'  arte,  serie  sec., 
Ill  (1897),  p.  130;  Schulze,  Die  WerTce  von  Bronzinos,  p.  30;  D'Azeglio,  op.  cit.,  I,  219; 
Catalogo  illust.  della  B.  Pinacoteca  di  Torino,  Vincenzo  Bona,  Torino,  ed.  1909,  p.  46, 
B.  F.  P.  R.,  p.  177. 


130.     HOLY  FAMILY 

The  Virgin  is  seated  against  a  cliff  overgrown  with  trees  and  shrubs;  in  her  right 
hand,  a  book;  in  her  left,  a  fold  of  drapery;  her  head  is  turned  nearly  profile  left.  She 
wears  a  turban  and  a  pale  red  robe,  a  green  scarf  about  her  breast,  a  blue  mantle  across 
her  lap.  The  Child,  seated  in  her  lap,  holds  in  both  hands  a  black  bird.  St.  Anne  is  seated 
behind  the  Virgin  to  the  left;  she  is  draped  in  yellow  with  a  white  cloth  over  her  head 
and  neck.  St.  John  sits  astride  of  a  red  cloth  in  the  foreground  and  plays  with  a  lamb. 
Background,  a  wooded  hill,  and,  on  the  right,  a  landscape. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.12,  w.  .81. 

235 


PONTORMO 

Formerly  No.  109;  provenance  unknown;  given  to  the  Gallery  by  the 
Baron  Ettore  Garriod.  Not  mentioned  by  Vasari;  not  cited  by  Berenson. 
Though  now  ascribed  to  Pontormo,  an  attribution  in  which  Jacobsen  concurs, 
this  panel  is  probably  a  late  Naldini.  It  is  certainly  quite  unworthy  of  Jacopo. 

Condition:  badly  repainted. 
Eeprod.    Photo.  Alinari  31399. 

Bibl.  Catalogue  cited  in  the  preceding,  p.  57 ;  Jaeobsen,  article  cited  in  the  preceding, 
p.  130. 


VENICE 

Museo  Correr 
LEDA 

A  copy  of  Michelangelo 's  well-known  composition.  Once  in  the  possession 
of  the  antiquarian,  Cavaliere  Favenza.  Jacobsen  believes  it  to  be  by  a 
follower  of  Correggio.  Thode  without  reason  finds  that  it  suggests  Pontormo. 

Bibl.    Thode,  Krit.  Unters.,  II,  319;  Jacobsen,  Bepertorium,  XXII  (1899),  p.  28. 

VIENNA 

Belvedere 

45.  PORTRAIT  OF  AN  ELDERLY  LADY 

Bust  figure;  turned  three-quarters  left;  the  eyes  look  three-quarters  left.  She  has 
dark  hair  and  eyes  and  wears  a  dark  bodice  with  yellow-white  chemisette  open  at  the  neck 
and  a  light  yellow  scarf  over  her  hair.  Dark  background. 

Oil  on  poplar  wood.    H.  .52,  w.  .42. 

This  portrait  entered  the  Gallery  before  1824;  provenance  unknown; 
originally  ascribed  to  the  Florentine  School;  now  attributed  to  Pontormo 
by  the  catalogue  and  by  Berenson.  Voss  thinks  that  it  is  unauthentic,  and, 
although  I  cite  it  in  the  "tableau  chronologique  "  of  my  Dessins,  I  am  now 
persuaded  that  it  is  in  no  way  connected  with  the  work  of  our  master. 

Eeprod.     Photo.  Bruckmann,  Munich,  1905. 

Bibl.  Engerth,  Kunsthistorische  Sammlungen  der  allerhochsten  Kaiserhauses,  Wien, 
1881,  I,  254;  Fiihrer  durch  die  Gemdlde-galerie,  Alte  Meister,  Wien,  1895,  p.  20;  idem, 
1907,  p.  15;  Voss,  Zeitschrift  /.  bildende  Kunst,  1912,  p.  44,  n. 

46.  HOLY  FAMILY 

OH  on  wood.     H.  1.09,  w.  .87. 

From  the  collection  of  Charles  I  of  England.  Once  ascribed  to  Andrea; 
given  by  Waagen,  Miindler,  and  Morelli  to  Bugiardini;  by  Engerth  to 

236 


ATTRIBUTED  PICTURES 

Bugiardini  or  Franciabigio ;  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  to  Pontormo.     The 
picture  is  an  evident  Franciabigio  to  whom  it  is  now  generally  attributed. 

Bibl.  Engerth,  I,  294;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Hutton,  III,  509;  ed.  Borenius, 
VI,  196;  Katalog,  1907,  p.  15. 

50.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  YOUTH 

Half-length;  turned  three-quarters  left.  He  is  dressed  in  a  dark  jacket  with 
embroidered  white  collar  and  slashed  sleeves;  at  the  wrists,  a  white  ruche;  on  his  head,  a 
black  cap.  His  hair  is  light  brown  and  extends  down  in  front  of  the  ear.  He  holds  in  his 
hands  a  letter  on  the  back  of  which  his  age  is  inscribed:  "«f«Anj  diciassetti  Mesi|  sej  edj 
V.  I  firez. ' '  The  four  lines  of  writing  of  the  letter  itself  are  illegible.  Background :  the 
dark  wooden  panelling  of  a  room  with  a  cornice  and,  on  either  side,  flat  pilasters. 

Oil  on  poplar  wood.    H.  .72,  w.  .58. 

Ultimate  provenance  unknown;  once  in  the  collection  of  the  Archduke 
Ferdinand  of  the  Tyrol ;  cited  in  the  Inventory  of  the  Ambraser  Collection  in 
1719;  brought  to  Vienna  in  1773  (Uebergabs-Verzeichniss,  No.  8).  Mechel 
does  not  mention  it.  In  Rosa's  catalogue  of  1804  (III,  93,  No.  18),  it  appears 
as  "School  of  Titian."  In  1809  it  was  taken  to  Paris  and  returned  in  1815. 
Krafft  ascribes  it  to  "Florentine  School,  perhaps  Francesco  Salviati." 
Wickoff  attributes  it  erroneously  to  Santi  di  Tito ;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  to 
Bronzino  (early  work)  ;  Berenson  tentatively  to  Pontormo.  It  is,  however, 
obviously  a  Salviati  and  should  be  compared  with  his  "Portrait  of  Himself" 
and  his  "Portrait  of  a  Youth"  (No.  1256;  photo.  Brogi),  both  now  in  the 
Uffizi;  with  his  fine  "Portrait  of  a  Man,"  now  in  the  Corsini  Collection,  in 
Florence  (No.  127)  ;  with  the  portrait,  also  by  Salviati,  which  is  ascribed  to 
Girolamo  da  Treviso  and  identified  as  Poggio  Bracciolini  (photo.  Alinari), 
now  in  the  Colonna  Gallery,  in  Rome,  as  well  as  with  the  so-called  ' '  Tibaldeo ' ' 
of  the  Museo  Nazionale  of  Naples.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  background 
in  the  "Portrait  of  a  Man,"  in  the  Uffizi,  is  identical  with  that  of  the  present 
portrait,  as  is  the  treatment  of  the  hair,  the  composition  and  the  lace  collar. 
The  ear,  the  mouth,  and  the  modelling  of  the  cheek,  recall  Salviati 's  ' '  Portrait 
of  a  Boy"  (photo.  Alinari),  in  the  Poldi-Pezzoli. 

Condition:  slightly  damaged  and  repainted  on  the  face  and  the  hands. 

Date:  1530-1545. 

Eeprod.     Photo.  Braun  34029;  Lowy,  354;  fig.  6,  article  by  Voss  cited  below. 

Bibl.  Engerth,  Gemalde,  p.  253;  catalogues  of  1895  and  3896  cited  above;  B.  F.  P.  E., 
p.  177;  Voss,  Italienische  Gemalde  des  16  und  17  Jahrhunderts  in  der  Galerie  des 
Kunsthistorischen  Hof museums  zu  Wien,  Zeitschrift  f.  "bildende  Kunst,  1912,  pp.  41-43; 
Gamba,  Alcuni  ritratti  di  Cecchino  Salviati,  Rassegna  d' arte,  IX  (1909),  pp.  4  f.  Cf.  also 
for  the  Poldi-Pezzoli  portrait,  idem,  1911,  p.  9. 

52.     MADONNA  AND  LITTLE  ST.  JOHN 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  1.14,  w.  .88. 

Bought  in  1780  from  Major  Sturione.  Originally  ascribed  to  Andrea. 
Engerth  thought  that  it  recalls  Bugiardini.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  remark, 

237 


PONTORMO 

without  a  shadow  of  reason,  that  this  picture  is  "by  Pontormo  or  Rosso 
imitating  not  so  much  Andrea  as  Franciabigio. " 

Bibl.  Eosa,  I,  122,  No.  7;  Engerth,  I,  292;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  ed.  Borenius, 
VI,  197. 

367.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Once  in  the  possession  of  Karl  VI ;  ascribed  to  Perugino  in  the  inventory 
of  1628;  to  Pontormo  by  Engerth  (Gemalde,  pp.  253  f.).  According  to 
Wickhoff  it  is  a  much  repainted  portrait  of  himself  by  Lomazzo  for  the  medal 
of  Prospero  Fontana. 

Bibl.    Wickhoff,  Die  Gemaldegalerie,  Wien,  1907,  p.  87. 


VOLTERRA 

Municipio 

DESCENT  FROM  THE  CROSS 

Once  in  the  cathedral.    Erroneously  ascribed  to  Pontormo  in  the  edition 
of  the  Cicerone  edited  by  Bode  and  Fabriczy.    The  picture  is  by  Rosso. 

Keprod.     Photo.  Brogi  15339. 

Bibl.    Der  Cicerone,  ed.  1904,  III,  788. 


238 


CATALOGUE  OF  PICTURES  ATTRIBUTED 

TO  PONTORMO  IN  CATALOGUES  OF 

SALES  AND  LOAN  EXHIBITIONS 


CATALOGUE    OF    PICTURES   ATTRIBUTED 

TO  PONTORMO  IN  CATALOGUES  OF 

SALES  AND  LOAN  EXHIBITIONS 

Andros  de  la  Rue  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  THE  DUKE  OF  URBINO  WHEN  A  BOY 

He  is  dressed  in  black  and  holds  a  bird  and  a  rattle. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.  37i  in.,  w.  22i  in. 

Sold  at  Christie's,  June  16,  1911,  to  Buttery  for  £105. 

Art  Prices  Current  (1910-1911),  p.  555;  Auction  Sale  Prices,  XIII  (1911),  p.  377. 


De  Beurnonville  Collection 


686.     A  SAINT 


She  wears  a  pink  robe  and  orange  mantle  and  stands  in  a  desert  holding  a  palm  and 
a  stone.    In  the  background,  St.  Anthony  (?). 
Oil  on  copper.    H.  .21^,  w.  .16. 

Sold  in  1881  for  90  francs. 

Mireur,  Dictionnaire  des  ventes,  II,  101;  Catalogue  des  tableaux  de  M.  le  Baron  de 
Beurnonville,  Paris,  1881,  p.  423. 


687.     PORTRAIT  OF  VITTORIA  COLONNA 

She  wears  a  black  robe,  a  yellow  cape,  a  hood,  and  about  her  waist,  a  cord. 
Oil  on  wood.    H.«  .30,  w.  .23. 

Sold  for  200  francs. 

Mireur,  loc.  cit.;  catalogue  cited  above,  p.  424. 

241 


PONTORMO 

Brandus  Galleries 

139.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

H.  24$  in.,  w.  19$  in. 

Sold  at  the  American  Art  Association  to  S.  Jackson  for  $55,  April  6-7, 
1911. 


Collection  of  John  Watkins  Brett 

825.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Sold  at  Christie's,  April  5,  1864. 

Catalogue  of  Pictures  of  John  Watkins  Brett,  London,  1864,  p.  61. 


Collection  of  the  Late  Charles  Butler 

34.     THE  NAMING  OF  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST 

The  infant  St.  John  is  presented  by  a  serving-maid  to  St.  Elizabeth  and  to  Zacharias. 
The  latter  writes  the  child's  name  on  a  scroll.    In  the  background,  other  figures. 
Oil  on  wood.    Diameter:  19$  in. 

Ascribed  to  the  Florentine  School.  Painted  on  what  is  called  in  the 
catalogue  a  "mazer  bowl,"  with  a  coat  of  arms  on  the  back.  This,  in  all 
likelihood,  is  the  "piatto  da  parto"  that  Berenson  ascribed  to  Pontormo  in 
this  collection.  It  would  appear  to  be  a  replica  of  the  composition  of  the 
birth-plate,  now  in  the  Uffizi  (No.  1198),  and  it  is  perhaps  identical  with  the 
plate  now  in  the  Palazzo  Davanzati,  in  Florence,  and  therefore  an  authentic 
work  of  Pontormo 's.  Sold  at  Christie's  in  1911  to  Agnew  for  £78 15s. 

Catalogue  of  Pictures  by  Old  Masters,  the  Property  of  the  Late  Charles  Butler,  p.  12. 


111.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  GENTLEMAN 

Dressed  in  dark  clothes  and  cap.     In  his  right  hand  he  holds  his  gloves;  in  his  left, 
the  hilt  of  his  sword. 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  40  in.,  w.  26  in. 

Sold  at  Christie's,  July  7,  1911,  to  Gooden  and  Fox  for  £73  10s. 

Art  Prices  Current  (1910-1911),  p.  615;  Auction  Sale  Prices,  XIII  (1911),  p.  377. 
Catalogue  of  the  Butler  Sale,  p.  21. 

242 


LOAN  EXHIBITIONS  AND  SALES 

AN  ECCLESIASTIC 

Exhibited  (No.  187)  at  the  Loan  Exhibition  of  the  Royal  Academy  in 
1883. 

Graves,  Loan  Exhibitions,  II,  942. 


Collection  of  Marquis  Cerbone  Pucci 

HOLY  FAMILY 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo  by  Lanzi.    Its  present  whereabouts  is  unknown. 
Lanzi,  History  of  Painting,  trans.  Roseoe,  London,  1828,  I,  203  f. 

Collection  of  John  Clark 

129.     HOLY  FAMILY 

Synopsis  of  Collection  of  Old  Italian  Paintings  of  Mr.  John  ClarTc,  New  York,  1839, 
p.  10. 

133.     HOLY  FAMILY 

Catalogue  cited  above,  p.  11. 

187.     CIRCUMCISION 

Catalogue  cited  above,  p.  11. 

Colworth  Collection 

41.     COSIMO  DE'  MEDICI 

Bust   figure,    dressed   in    a    cardinal's    cloak  (?)    and   hat.      Inscription:      "Cosmua 
Medices  Pater  Patriae. " 
H.  6i  in.,  w.  5  in. 

Sold  at  Christie's,  July,  1892,  to  Macquoid  for  £20. 

Catalogue  of  the  Collection  of  Hollingworth  Magniac,  London,  1892,  p.  15. 

Collection  of  the  Grand  Duke  Constantine  of  Russia 

THE  PENITENT  MAGDALEN 

Bust  figure,  profile  left,  head  turned  three-quarters  left.     In  her  raised  hand  she 
holds  a  handkerchief  to  her  face. 

243 


PONTORMO 

Ascribed  to  Luini;  by  Liphart  to  Pontormo  with  whose  work,  however, 
it  has  no  connection. 

Beprod.     Catalogue  cited  below,  p.  30. 

Les  anciennes  ecoles  de  peinture  dans  les  palais  et  collections  privees  russes,  Exposition 
"Starye  Gody,"  St.  PStersbourg,  1909,  Van  Oest:  Bruxelles,  1910,  p.  28;  L' Arte,  1909, 
p.  122. 


Collection  of  Rev.  E.  H.  Dawkins 

65.     GENTLEMAN  IN  ARMOUR  WITH  A  DOG  BY  HIS  SIDE 
H.  43  in.,  w.  31$  in. 

Sold  at  Christie's,  February  28,  1913,  to  Parsons  for  £23  2s. 

Art  Prices  Current   (1912-1913),  p.  158;  Auction  Sale  Prices,  XV   (1913),  p.  53; 
Sale  Catalogue,  p.  16. 

Dellafaille  Collection 

76.     "PORTRAIT  OF  GODEFROY  DE  BOUILLON" 

Bust  figure  in  red  jerkin  and  brown  hood.     He  looks  slightly  to  the  left. 
Oil  on  wood.     H.  .70,  w.  .55. 

Sold  in  Cologne,  March  4,  1913. 

Katalog  von  Gemalden  meist  alteren  Meister  aus  dem  Nachlasse  Dellafaille,  Koln, 
1913,  p.  11. 


Doetsch  Collection 

107.     MADONNA  AND  SAINTS 
Canvas.     H.  86  in.,  w.  73$  in. 

A  copy  of  the  San  Michele  Visdomini  altar-piece.  The  catalogue  claims 
that  the  present  picture  is  Pontormo 's  original.  It  differs  in  no  wise  from 
the  panel  now  in  San  Michele  except  that  one  sees,  in  the  illustration  given 
in  the  catalogue,  no  writing  on  the  book  held  by  St.  John  and  no  letters  on 
the  rock  on  which  he  is  seated.  Sold,  at  the  Doetsch  sale,  June  22-25,  1895. 
Its  present  whereabouts  is  unknown  to  me.  For  a  discussion  of  the  probable 
authenticity  of  the  panel  now  in  San  Michele,  see  the  Catalogue  Raisonne  of 
Authentic  Pictures,  under  Florence,  San  Michele  Visdomini. 

Beprod.    Catalogue  cited  below,  p.  31;  small  cut,  Beinach,  Bepertoire,  II,  138. 
Catalogue  of  the  Collection  of  Henry  Doetsch,  London,  1895,  p.  31. 

244 


LOAN  EXHIBITIONS  AND  SALES 

Collection  of  J.  S.  W.  S.  Erie  Drax 

43.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD  WITH  ST.  JOHN 

H.  30  in.,  w.  21  in. 

Sold  at  Christie's,  February  19,  1910,  to  Glen  for  £21. 

Art  Prices  Current  (1909-1910),  p.  86;  Auction  Sale  Prices,  XII  (1910),  p.  86. 

'    •  / 

Collection  of  the  Comte  D'Espagnac 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Sold  for  474  francs  in  1868. 
Mireur,  loc.  cit. 

Eszterhazy  de  Galantha  Collection 

MADONNA  AND  FEMALE  SAINT 

Ascribed  to  Pontormo.    Its  present  whereabouts  is  unknown  to  me. 
Catalogue  de  la  galerie  des  tableaux,  Essterhasy  de  Galantha,  Vienna,  1844,  p.  41. 

Collection  of  William  Graham 

418.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Sold  at  Christie's  in  April,  1886. 

Guggenheim  Collection 

956.     MADONNA  AND  CHILD  WITH  ST.  JOHN 

The  Virgin  is  seated  in  a  chair  and  wears  a  cherry-coloured  robe  and  blue  mantle. 
She  holds  in  her  arms  the  Christ  Child,  who  stretches  out  his  hand  towards  a  bird  that 
the  little  St.  John  presents  to  him. 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  .89,  w.  .72. 

Sold  in  Venice,  September  30-October  4,  1913. 

Catalogue  de  la  collection  de  M.  le  Comm.  M.  Guggenheim,  Venice,  1913,  p.  54. 

245 

I 


PONTORMO 
Alexandra  K.  Collection 


HOLY  FAMILY 

Sold  in  1897  for  295  francs. 

Mireur,  loc.  cit. 


Lanfranconi  Gallery 

27.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Life-size,  half-length  portrait  of  a  middle-aged  man,  turned  three-quarters  to  the 
left,  the  head  turned  towards  the  spectator.  He  has  a  short,  reddish  beard  and  wears  a 
black  robe  and  cap.  In  his  right  hand  he  holds  a  quill  as  he  turns  the  leaves  of  a  folio 
which  lies  on  the  table  before  him.  On  the  table,  a  green  cover.  Dark  background. 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  .95,  w.  .80. 

The  catalogue  speaks  of  this  panel  as  "a  characteristic  work,  nobly 
conceived  —  the  head  and  hands,  superbly  modelled,  are  uncommonly  plastic 
and  stand  out  from  the  dark  background  of  the  whole."  It  is  really  a  late 
sixteenth  century  copy  of  the  portrait  falsely  ascribed  to  Pontormo  in  the 
Corsini  Collection,  in  Florence.  Sold,  October  21-23,  1895.  It  was  later  in 
the  Sedelmeyer  Collection  (No.  111). 

Eeprod.     Sedelmeyer  Catalogue,  p.  127. 

Katalog  der  Gemdlde-Galerie  Lanfranconi,  Koln,  1895,  p.  8;  Catalogue  of  the 
Sedelmeyer  Collection,  p.  127. 


Lasalle  Collection 
HOLY  FAMILY 

Withdrawn  from  the  Lasalle  sale  in  Vienna,  1827,  at  210  francs. 
Mireur,  loc.  cit. 

Collection  of  the  Earl  of  Leicester 

PART  OF  THE  CARTOON  OF  THE  "BATTLE  OF  THE  CASCINA" 

Attributed  to  Pontormo  and  exhibited  (No.  74)  at  the  British  Institution, 
in  1854.  This  is  of  course  the  famous  grisaille  by  an  unknown  hand  of  a  part 
of  Michelangelo's  "Battle  of  the  Cascina. " 

Graves,  loc.  cit. 

246 


LOAN  EXHIBITIONS  AND  SALES 

Collection  of  Sir  John  Leslie 

IPPOLITO  DE'  MEDICI 

- 

Exhibited  (No.  257)  in  the  Loan  Exhibition  of  the  Royal  Academy  in 

1877. 

Graves,  loc.  cit. 


Collection  of  Lord  Methuen 

PORTRAIT  OF  THE  PAINTER 

Exhibited  (No.  119)  in  the  Loan  Exhibition  of  the  Royal  Academy  in 
1877. 

Graves,  loc.  cit. 


Collection  of  R.  P.  Nichols 

STUDY  OF  A  HEAD 

Exhibited  (No.  155<»)  at  Leeds  in  1868. 
Graves,  loc.  cit. 

Collection  of  the  Duke  of  Northumberland 
BIRTH  OF  ST.  JOHN 

VIRGIN  AND  CHILD 

Exhibited  at  the  British  Institution,  in  1857,  where  they  were  numbered 
38  and  53  respectively. 

Graves,  loc.  cit. 

Collection  of  the  Marquis  Ferdinando  Panciatichi  Ximenes 

d'  Aragona 

BUST  OF  A  WOMAN 

Oil  on  wood.     Oval:  h.  .85,  w.  .63. 
Sold  in  Florence,  April  3,  1902. 

Catalogue    des    tableaux    de    la   galerie    de   feu    le    Marquis   Ferdinand    PanciaticM 
Ximenes  d' Aragona,  Florence,  Borgo  Pinti  68,  1902,  p.  8. 

247 


PONTOKMO 

Reiset  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  CARUCCI  BY  HIMSELF 
Sold  in  1870  for  580  francs. 
Mireur,  loc.  cit. 

Rezzonico  Collection 

PORTRAIT  OF  GUICCIARDINI 

Not  a  portrait  of  Guicciardini  and  not  by  Pontormo.  Sold  in  Milan  in 
1898. 

Reprod.    Catalogue  cited  below,  pi.  4.    Eeinach,  Eeper.,  I,  520. 
Catalogue  of  the  Eessonico  Sale,  1898. 

Schevitch  Collection 

14.     MARRIAGE  OF  ST.  CATHERINE 

The  Christ  Child  seated  on  the  knees  of  his  mother  passes  the  ring  over  the  finger 
of  St.  Catherine,  who  leans  upon  her  wheel.  The  Virgin  is  dressed  in  a  red  robe  with 
yellow  sleeves;  on  her  head,  a  green  veil.  St.  Joseph,  his  hands  upon  a  staff,  contemplates 
the  scene. 

Oil  on  wood.     H.  .66,  w.  .52. 

Once  in  the  Castellani  Collection.     Sold  at  Georges  Petit 's,  April,  1906. 

Catalogue  des  objets  d' art  composant  la  collection  de  M.  D.  Schevitch,  Paris,  1906, 
p.  55;  Catalogue  de  la  succession  Alessandro  Castellani,  Vente,  Hotel  Drouot,  mai  12-16, 
1884,  No.  1098,  p.  290. 

Collection  of  Richard  Smith 

ADORATION  OF  THE  SHEPHERDS 

H.  24$  in.,  w.  17J  in. 

Sold  for  £4 15s.  6d. 

Art  Prices  Current  (1907-1908),  p.  195. 


Collection  of  the  Earl  of  Wemyss 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  MAN 

Exhibited  (No.  108)  in  the  Loan  Exhibition  of  the  Royal  Academy  in 
1886. 

Graves,  loc.  cit. 

248 


LOAN  EXHIBITIONS  AND  SALES 

Collection  of  Henry  Willett 

76.     PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY  IN  A  PINK  DRESS 

Oil  on  wood.    H.  9$  in.,  w.  6£  in. 

Sold  at  Christie's,  April  10,  1905. 

Catalogue  of  the  Collection  of  Pictures  by  Old  Masters  of  Henry  Willett,  London. 
1905,  p.  13. 

Two  pieces  of  a  "predella"  representing  various  saints  and  six  small  pictures  repre- 
senting saints  and  angels  and  ascribed  to  the  "School  of  Pontormo"  were  sold  by  the 
Hospital  of  the  Innocents  in  1853  to  the  Baron  Vagnonville  for  150  "lire."  Cf.  Archivio 
degl '  Innocenti,  Firenze,  Filza  No.  73. 


249 


CATALOGUE  OF  LOST  PICTURES 


CATALOGUE  OF  LOST  PICTURES 


ANNUNCIATION 

Painted  while  Jacopo  was  still  with  Albertinelli  and  praised  by  Raphael, 
according  to  Vasari  (VI,  246).  Fate  unknown. 

DEAD  CHRIST 

With  two  angels  holding  torches  and,  at  the  sides  in  two  "tondi,"  two  prophets. 
Date:  about  1513. 

This  was  the  "predella"  to  Andrea's  "Annunciation"  for  the  monks 
of  San  Gallo,  which  is  now  in  the  Pitti.  Rosso  is  also  said  to  have  worked 
on  this  panel  (Vasari,  VI,  247).  Fate  unknown. 

THREE  TRIUMPHAL  CARS 

Painted  for  the  Compagnia  del  Diamante,  a  society  of  which  Giuliano 
de'  Medici  was  chief.  These  cars  represented  "Youth,"  "Manhood,"  and 
"Old  Age."  Jacopo  decorated  them  with  various  scenes,  in  monochrome, 
from  the  Transformations  of  the  Gods.  Andrea  Dazzi  chose  the  subjects.  The 
general  design  of  the  cars  was  due  to  Raffaello  delle  Vivuole,  II  Carota,  Andrea 
diCosimo  Feltrini  and  Andrea  del  Sarto.  At  the  time  Vasari  wrote  (1565) 
these  paintings  were  in  the  possession  of  Pietro  Paulo  Galeotti,  the  goldsmith 
(VI,  250-252).  They  have  since  disappeared.  By  a  typographical  error  the 
number  of  these  cars  is  given  as  five  in  my  Dessins,  p.  35. 

f 

SEVEN  TRIUMPHAL  CARS 

Painted  for  the  Compagnia  del  Broncone  of  which  Lorenzino  was  chief. 
These  cars  formed  part  of  a  pageant  which  was  planned  by  Jacopo  Nardi  and 
which  represented :  ' '  The  Age  of  Saturn, "  "  The  Reign  of  Numa  Pompilius, ' ' 
"The  Consulate  of  Titus  Manlius  Torquatus,"  "The  Triumph  of  Caesar," 
"The  Empire  of  Augustus,"  "The  Time  of  Trajan,"  "The  Golden  Age." 
On  the  first  car  Pontormo  painted  "Legends  of  Saturn."  Vasari  does  not 
give  any  details  about  the  paintings  on  the  second  and  third  cars,  on  which 
we  may  infer  that  there  were  scenes  from  the  lives  of  Numa  and  Torquatus. 
On  the  fourth  car  Jacopo  painted  "The  Triumph  of  Caesar."  "We  have  no 

253 


PONTORMO 

details  about  the  decorations  of  the  fifth  and  sixth  cars  which  must,  however, 
have  represented  scenes  from  the  lives  of  Augustus  and  Trajan.  On  the 
seventh  car  there  were  figures  in  relief  by  Bandinelli,  among  them  "The 
Cardinal  Virtues."  All  these  panels  have  been  lost. 

Date:  1515. 

Vasari,  VI,  252-255;  cf.  G.  Pelagi,  Capitoli  della  Compagnia  del  Broncone,  Firenze, 
1872,  the  original  manuscript  of  which  is  in  the  Biblioteca  Moreniana. 

TRIUMPHAL  ARCH 

Mythological  subjects  among  which  a  "Pallas  and  Apollo."  This  arch 
was  raised  at  the  head  of  the  Via  del  Pelagio.  The  woodwork  was  by  Baccio 
da  Montelupo.  Ruined  in  Vasari 's  time. 

Date:  1515. 
Vasari,  VI,  255. 

LUNETTE  OF  GOD  THE  FATHER 

This  formed  the  upper  part  of  the  fresco  of  the  "Madonna  and  Saints," 
once  in  San  Ruffillo.  The  lunette  was  destroyed  when  the  fresco  was 
transferred  to  the  Chapel  of  San  Luea,  in  the  Annunziata. 

Fresco. 

Date:   1512-1513. 

Vasari,  VI,  256. 

CHRIST  AS  PILGRIM 

Painted  over  the  entrance  of  the  Women's  Hospital  between  Piazza  San  Marco  and 
Via  San  Gallo,  opposite  the  nuns  of  St.  Catherine. 
Fresco:  monochrome. 

The  convent  of  St.  Catherine  of  Siena  was  in  the  Via  degli  Arazzieri 
and  is  now  the  Comando  Militare.  Borghini  states  that  this  fresco  occupied 
the  space  over  the  door  of  the  Priests'  Hospital.  Pontormo's  figures  were 
thought  in  later  times  to  be  by  Andrea  del  Sarto  (Cinelli).  They  were 
destroyed  in  rebuilding  in  1688. 

Date:   1513-1514. 

Vasari,  VI,  256;  Bocchi,  ed.  Cinelli,  p.  19;  Borghini,  ed.  1730,  p.  393. 

ARMS  OF  THE  LANFREDINI 

These  were  painted  for  Bartolomeo  Lanfredini  over  a  doorway  in  a  passage  between 
Ponte  Santa  Trinita  and  Ponte  alia  Carraia.  They  were  supported  by  two  "putti. " 

Bronzino  placed  this  work  among  the  earliest  enterprises  of  Pontormo 
(VI,  259).  Ganmrrini  mentions  a  Bartolomeo  di  Jacopo  Lanfredini  as  living 

254 


LOST  PICTUKES 

about  1500  (Istoria  genealogica,  Florence,  1685,  IV,  273-275).  He  also 
mentions  a  Bartolomeo  di  Lanfredini  who  was  alive  about  1530  and  who 
seems  to  have  been  the  Lanfredini  who  wrote  two  letters  to  Cosimo  I  under 
the  dates  of  April  21  and  May  9,  1541  (Indice  mediceo,  Classe  26,  Vol.  20, 
c.  13;  Vol.  21,  c.  25).  Of  Jacopo's  decoration  no  trace  remains.  Cf.  Borghini, 
op.  cit.,  p.  392.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  Feltrini,  with  whom  Jacopo  was 
often  associated  in  his  earlier  years,  decorated  the  facade  of  the  houses  of 
Lanfredino  Lanfredini  (Vasari,  V,  207). 

Date:  1512-1513. 

SANTA  CECILIA 

Lunette  over  the  door  of  the  Compagnia  di  Santa  Cecilia,  in  Fiesole. 
Fresco. 

Destroyed  before  1730  in  opening  a  new  door. 

Drawings:  first  sketch  for  the  figure  of  the  saint,  Uffizi  6694  (fig.  12;  photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ; 
study  for  the  whole  composition,  Corsini  124161  (fig.  11;  photo.  Anderson,  Borne,  2823; 
fig.,  Emporium,  1907,  p.  270). 

Date:   1517-1518. 

Vasari,  VI,  257;  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  393. 

PORTRAIT  OF  GIOVANN'  ANTONIO  LAPPOLI 

Begun  by  Lappoli  himself  and  finished  by  Pontormo.  When  Vasari 
wrote  this  panel  was  in  the  possession  of  the  heirs  of  Lappoli.  In  Bottari's 
time  it  had  disappeared. 

Vasari,  VI,  260. 

THE  SON-IN-LAW  OF  BECUCCIO  BICCHIERAIO  AND  A  FRIEND 

The  fate  of  this  portrait  is  unknown.  By  a  typographical  error  it  is 
called  in  my  Dessins,  "Portrait  de  Becuccio  Bicchieraio  avec  un  ami"  (p.  36). 
Becuccio  himself  was  a  friend  of  Andrea  del  Sarto's.  It  was  for  him  that 
Andrea  painted  his  "Madonna  and  Six  Saints,"  now  in  the  Pitti  (No.  307). 

Vasari,  VI,  260. 

FUNERAL  BANNERS  OF  BARTOLOMEO  GINORI 

Painted  during  the  lifetime  of  Ginori ;  a  series  of  twenty-two  with  the  ' '  Virgin  and 
Child ' '  above,  and  below,  the  arms  of  the  family.  Two  others  from  the  middle  of  the  series 
represented  St.  Bartholomew. 

Oil  on  white  taffeta;  the  arms  on  a  coloured  "balzana. " 

These,  for  their  style,  size,  and  lightness,  set  a  new  fashion.  Their  fate 
is  unknown. 


Date:  1517-1518. 
Vasari,  VI,  260. 


255 


PONTOEMO 


PIETA 


With  the  Virgin  weeping  and  in  the  air  two  "putti,"  one  holding  the  chalice  of  the 
Passion,  the  other  the  head  of  Christ.  On  one  side  of  the  composition,  St.  John  with  arms 
outspread,  on  the  other,  St.  Augustine  in  episcopal  robes;  in  his  left  hand,  a  crosier. 

Fresco. 

Painted  in  a  chapel  near  the  entrance  of  the  garden  of  the  monks  of 
San  Gallo,  outside  the  San  Gallo  gate.  This  fresco  was  destroyed  when  the 
convent  and  church  were  pulled  down. 

Vasari,  VI,  260  and  note. 

ARMS  OF  GIOVANNI  SALVIATI 

Painted  for  Filippo  Spina  in  the  courtyard  of  his  house  opposite  the  main  entrance. 
The  escutcheon  was  supported  by  two  standing  ' '  putti ' '  and  surmounted  by  a  heraldic 
cardinal's  hat. 

Salviati  was  born  in  1490  and  made  cardinal  by  Leo  X  on  July  1,  1517. 

Date:  1517-1518. 
Vasari,  VI,  261  and  note. 

SANT"  AGOSTINO 

Seated  in  the  act  of  blessing;  above  him  two  "putti"  flying. 

Painted  for  the  little  church  of  the  Sisters  of  San  Clemente,  in  Via  San 
Gallo.  In  Borghini 's  time  it  was  believed  to  be  still  in  the  convent.  Accord- 
ing to  Milanesi,  it  was  later  in  the  refectory  of  the  nuns  who  were,  it  should 
be  noted,  of  the  Order  of  St.  Augustine.  Lost  after  the  suppression  of  the 
convent.  Cinelli  (p.  7)  calls  this  picture  by  mistake  a  "San  Giorgio."  His 
error  was  corrected  in  the  Milan  edition  of  Vasari  (XII,  30,  n.). 

Date:  1521-1523. 

Vasari,  VI,  265  and  note;  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  394;  Bicha,  Chiese  fiorentine,  V,  262. 

PIETA 

With  nude  angels,  the  landscape  drawn  in  part  from  an  engraving  of  Diirer's. 
Date:  1521-1523. 

Painted  for  certain  mercha'nts  of  Ragusa.    Its  fate  is  unknown. 
Vasari,  VI,  265. 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

In  Vasari 's  time  this  picture  was  in  the  house  of  Alessandro  Neroni. 
Borghini  mentions  that  certain  children  formed  part  of  the  composition. 
Its  fate  is  unknown. 

Vasari,  VI,  265;  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  394. 

256 


LOST  PICTURES 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Painted  for  certain  Spaniards.  Many  years  later  this  picture,  which  was 
about  to  be  sold  to  a  second-hand  dealer,  was  bought  at  the  instance  of 
Bronzino  by  Bartolommeo  Panciatichi.  When  Raffaello  Borghini  wrote  it  was 
in  the  house  of  Carlo  Panciatichi.  It  has  since  been  lost  or  is  unidentified. 

Date:  1521-1523. 

Vasari,  VI,  265;  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  394. 

NATIVITY 

In  the  darkness  Joseph  was  represented  holding  a  lantern. 

Painted  for  the  Prior's  room  at  the  Certosa.    Its  fate  is  unknown. 

Vasari,  VI,  269. 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  LAY  BROTHER  OF  THE  CERTOSA 

Half -figure;  painted  in  fresco  in  the  church  of  the  monastery  on  the 
right  side  of  the  altar  of  San  Benedetto.  This  lay  brother  was  said  to  be  one 
hundred  and  twenty  years  old. 

Date:  about  1525. 

Vasari,  VI,  269;  Moreni,  Notieie,  II,  145. 

GOD  THE  FATHER  AND  FOUR  PATRIARCHS 

In  the  vaulting  of  the  Capponi  Chapel,  Santa  Felicita. 
Fresco. 

Destroyed  in  rebuilding  the  organ-loft  in  1766. 

Date:  1525-1528. 

Vasari,  VI,  271  and  note;  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  394. 

MADONNA 

Painted  for  Lodovico  Capponi  and  hung  in  his  bedroom.  Vasari  says  it 
resembled  in  style  the  decorations  of  the  Capponi  Chapel.  Its  fate  is  unknown. 

Date:  1526-1528. 

Vasari,  VI,  272;  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  395. 

PORTRAIT  OF  LODOVICO  CAPPONI'S  DAUGHTER 

Bust  figure  with  the  attributes  of  the  Magdalen.  "We  have  no  trace  of 
this  picture. 

Date:  1526-1528. 

Vasari,  VI,  272;  Borghini,  loc.  cit. 

257 


PONTORMO 

PORTRAIT  OF  ALESSANDRO  DE'  MEDICI 

Vasari  felt  that  in  this  portrait  Jacopo  was  still  under  the  influence  of 
Diirer.  The  terminal  dates  for  this  work  are  1524,  the  date  of  Alessandro's 
arrival  in  Florence,  and  1527,  the  date  of  his  flight  to  Rome.  Its  fate  is 
unknown.  For  Pontormo's  later  "Portrait  of  Alessandro,"  see,  in  the 
Catalogue  of  Authentic  Pictures,  Johnson  Collection,  Philadelphia. 

Date:   1524-1527. 
Vasari,  VI,  273. 

PORTRAIT  OF  IPPOLITO  DE'  MEDICI 

Represented  with  his  dog  Rodon;  an  excellent  likeness  according  to 
Vasari.  Long  identified  erroneously  with  the  "Portrait  of  Guidobaldo  of 
Urbino"  by  Bronzino,  in  the  Pitti  (No.  149).  See  the  preceding.  Its  fate 
is  unknown. 

Date:  1524-1527. 
Vasari,  VI,  273. 

PORTRAIT  OF  NICCOLO  ARDINGHELLI 

Niceolo  di  Pietro  Ardinghelli  was  born  in  1503.  He  was  cameriere  of 
Leo  X,  canon  of  Santa  Maria  del  Fiore,  bishop,  secretary  to  Cardinal 
Alessandro  Farnese,  and  he  was  created  cardinal  in  1543.  He  died  on  August 
24,  1547,  and  was  buried  in  Santa  Maria  sopra  Minerva  (Guasti,  Manoscritti 
Torrigiani,  Firenze,  1878,  p.  XII;  Lami,  Sanctae  Ecclesiae  Florentinae 
Memorabilia,  I,  303-308,  note  by  Salvino  Salvini).  The  fate  of  this  portrait 
is  unknown.  In  Palazzo  Torrigiani,  in  Florence,  there  is  a  "Portrait  of 
Ardinghelli,"  ascribed  by  Berenson  to  Ridolfo  Ghirlandaio. 

Drawing:  possible  sketch,  Uffizi  443  verso  (photo.  F.  M.  C.). 
Date:  1538-1543. 
Vasari,  VI,  273. 

POMONA 

In  a  niche  opposite  the  portal  of  the  house  of  Filippo  del  Migliore  in 
Via  Larga.  Vasari  felt  that  in  this  work  Jacopo  had  begun  to  free  himself 
from  his  imitation  of  Diirer.  No  trace  of  the  figure  now  remains. 

Date:  about  1526. 

Drawing:  possible  study,  Uffizi  6570  (photo.  F.  M.  C.;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  XIX). 

Vasari,  VI,  274. 

RAISING  OF  LAZARUS 

Vasari  narrates  that,  unable  to  buy  the  Pontormos  in  Borgherini's 
famous  room  while  the  latter  was  in  exile  in  Lucca,  Giovambattista  della 

258 


LOST  PICTURES 

Palla  gave  Jacopo  a  commission  for  a  "Lazarus"  to  be  sent  to  the  King  of 
France  for  whom  Delia  Palla  acted  as  agent.  Giovambattista's  career  as  a 
picture  dealer  was  ended  in  1530  and  he  died  in  prison  at  Pisa  not  long  after. 
Vasari  praises  highly  the  realism  of  this  picture.  It  probably  never  reached 
France  and  its  fate  is  unknown. 

Date:  1529-1530. 

Drawing:  possible  study  for  the  figure  of  Lazarus,  Uffizi  6723  (fig.  113;  photo. 
F.  M.  C.). 

Vasari,  VI,  274;  Borghini,  op.  cit.,  p.  395. 

PORTRAIT  OF  GIOVANNI  GUIDICCIONI 

Milanesi,  basing  his  opinion  on  a  letter  of  Annibal  Caro  to  Guidiccioni 
on  October  12,  1539  (quoted  by  P.  E.  Visconti  in  the  Giornale  arcadico, 
LXXX,  p.  93),  states  that  Pontormo  was  in  Rome  at  work  on  a  portrait  of 
the  former  on  the  date  of  the  letter.  But  the  artist  mentioned  by  Caro 
(Letter e  del  Commendatore  Caro,  Venezia,  1791,  No.  6)  was  Pastermo  which 
was  turned  by  Visconti  into  Pontormo.  I  have  been  unable  to  determine 
what  Caro  really  wrote;  the  whereabouts  of  the  manuscript  of  this  letter  is 
unknown  to  me.  We  have  no  further  evidence  that  the  portrait  in  question 
was  by  Jacopo.  In  any  case,  its  fate  is  unknown.  Cf.  Appendix  II,  Doc.  24. 

Vasari,  VI,  274. 

PORTRAIT  OF  CARLO  NERONI 

Painted,  according  to  Vasari,  just  after  the  smaller  version  of  the 
"Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice."  The  conjectural  identification  of  this  lost 
portrait  with  the  "Portrait  of  a  Man,"  in  the  Uffizi  (No.  1220),  is  without 
foundation. 

r  Vasari,  VI,  275. 

PORTRAIT  OF  FRANCESCO  GUARDI 

Painted  according  to  Vasari  during  the  siege  of  Florence.  Guardi  was 
represented  in  soldier's  costume.  The  cover  of  this  portrait,  which  represents 
"Pygmalion  and  Galatea,"  is  now  in  the  Barberini  Gallery  in  Rome 
(No.  83).  Vasari  ascribes  it  erroneously  to  Bronzino.  The  portrait  itself 
has  disappeared. 

Date:  1530-1531. 

Drawing:  possible  study,  Uffizi  463  P.  (fig.  120;  photo.  Houghton;  D.  G.  U.,  pi.  XX). 

Vasari,  VI,  275 ;  Dessins,  pp.  36,  71,  106. 

NOLI  ME  TANGERE 

Painted  for  Alfonso  Davolo,  Marchese  del  "Guasto, "  from  a  cartoon  of 
Michelangelo's.  The  latter  recommended  Jacopo  as  the  painter  best  able 

259 


PONTORMO 

to  execute  the  picture  and  Pontormo  made  so  great  a  success  of  his  work  that 
he  received  a  commission  for  a  replica  from  Alessandro  Vitelli,  the  condottiere. 
Fra  Niccolo  da  Magna  (Nicolaus  von  Schomberg),  Governor  of  Florence  and 
Bishop  of  Capua,  acted  as  intermediary  in  the  negotiations  for  the  cartoon. 
In  regard  to  these  we  have  three  letters  of  Figiovanni,  the  first  to  Michel- 
angelo in  Florence,  dated  April  11,  1531  (Frey,  Dichtungen,  p.  508,  Reg.  25 
and  27)  ;  the  second,  in  the  autumn  of  1531  ( ?)  ;  the  third,  just  after  October 
27,  1531  (Frey,  p.  509,  Reg.  28),  in  which  the  phrase  — "The  Archbishop 
of  Capua  is  very  glad  the  master  is  to  carry  out  your  cartoon  in  your  house ' '  — 
seems  to  indicate  that  Pontormo  actually  painted  this  picture  under  Michel- 
angelo's supervision.  The  cartoon  itself  passed  later  into  the  possession 
of  Cosimo  I.  Its  fate  like  that  of  this  panel  is  unknown. 

Date:  1531-1532. 

Drawing:  Thode  believes,  I  think  without  reason,  that  the  drawing  No.  367  of  the 
Clough  Collection  (Frey,  77  and  78)  is  Michelangelo's  sketch. 

Documents:  for  the  letters  that  place  this  picture  about  1531,  see  Frey,  Brief e  an 
Michelangiolo,  p.  309  f.;  idem,  Dichtungen,  pp.  327,  509;  B.  F.  D.,  II,  93. 

Eeprod.  Two  copies  exist  in  the  store-rooms  of  the  Uffizi,  one  attributable  to  Battista 
Franco  who  made,  about  1540,  a  cartoon  from  the  cartoon  of  Michelangelo  (VI,  575)  which 
passed  into  the  Guardaroba  of  Cosimo  I.  Franco 's  cartoon  was  on  a  larger .  scale  than 
Michelangelo's,  as  also  was  the  picture  that  he  painted  from  it.  Cf.  fig.  in  Gamba's 
article  cited  below.  Bronzino's  "Noli  me  tangere,"  in  the  Louvre,  is  also  derived  from 
Michelangelo's  design. 

Vasari,  VI,  276,  575,  VII,  277;  Gamba,  Una  copia  del  "Noli  me  Tangere"  di 
Michelangelo,  Bollettino  d'arte,  III  (1909),  p.  148  ff. 


NOLI  ME  TANGERE 

Replica  of  the  preceding  for  Alessandro  Vitelli  who  had  it  placed  in  his 
house  in  Citta  di  Castello.    Cf.  the  foregoing.    This  replica  has  been  lost. 

Vasari,  VI,  277. 


PORTRAIT  OF  AMERIGO  ANTINORI 

The  beauty  of  this  portrait  won  for  Jacopo  the  commission  to  paint  the 
"Portrait  of  Alessandro  de'  Medici,"  now  in  the  Johnson  Collection.  The 
Antinori  portrait  has  disappeared  or  is  unidentified. 

Vasari,  VI,  278. 


MADONNA 

Given  by  Pontormo  to  Rossino,  the  mason  who  helped  him  build  his 
house.  When  Vasari  wrote  it  was  in  the  possession  of  Alessandro,  son  of 
Ottaviano  de'  Medici.  It  has  disappeared  or  has  not  yet  been  identified. 

Vasari,  VI,  280. 

260 


LOST  PICTURES 

PORTRAIT  OF  CARDINAL  GIULIO  DE'  MEDICI 

This  was  a  copy  of  part  of  Raphael 's  ' '  Portrait  of  Leo  X  with  Giulio  de ' 
Medici  and  Cardinal  de'  Kossi,"  painted  in  1517-1518  and  now  in  the  Pitti. 
Pontormo  gave  his  copy  to  Rossino  and  later  on  it  passed  into  the  hands  of 
Alessandro  d'Ottaviano  de'  Medici.  Its  fate  is  unknown.  Andrea  del  Sarto 
also  made  a  copy,  now  lost,  of  the  head  of  Giulio  for  Ottaviano  de'  Medici, 
who  gave  it  to  the  Bishop  de'  Marzi,  as  well  as  a  complete  copy  which  was 
long  supposed  to  be  the  picture  in  the  Museum  of  Naples.  De  Rinaldis  in 
his  catalogue  of  that  collection  gives  this  latter  copy  to  Giulio  Romano. 
Bugiardini  too  painted  a  modified  copy  of  Raphael's  portrait  for  the  cardinal 
Innocenzio  Cibo  (VI,  206  f.). 

Vasari,  VI,  280. 

PORTRAIT  OF  MARIA  SALVIATI 

Painted  while  Pontormo  was  at  work  at  Castello.  This  portrait  must 
have  been  executed  after  August  2,  1537,  the  date  of  the  battle  of  Montemurlo, 
and  December  12,  1543.  On  the  latter  date  Maria  Salviati  died  in  the  Villa 
of  Castello  (Anguillesi,  p.  215).  It  has  been  lost  or  is  unidentified.  Several 
portraits  of  Maria  Salviati  are  known.  A  bust  portrait  with  the  inscription : 
MARIA  SALLVIATTI,  the  face  turned  three-quarters  right,  the  shoulders 
and  head  draped  in  white,  in  the  collection  of  the  Erzherzog  Ferdinand  von 
Tirol  (Catalogue,  No.  392;  Kenner,  Die  Portratsammlung  des  Erzherzogs 
Ferdinand  von  Tirol,  Jahrbuch  d.  kunsthis.  Savnml.  d.  Allerhock.  Kaiser- 
hauses,  XVIII  (1897),  160;  pi.  XXVII,  fig.  22);  the  portrait  painted  by 
Vasari  towards  1557  in  one  of  the  medallions  of  the  fresco  in  the  Palazzo 
Vecchio,  "Cosimo  Proclaimed  Duke  in  1537"  (fig.,  Conti,  La  prima  reggia, 
p.  43),  which  is  derived  from  the  same  original;  a  portrait  mentioned  by 
Allegrini  (Regiae  familiae  Mediceorum),  "ex  due.  Salviati."  But  what 
relation  they  bear  to  Pontormo 's  portrait  has  not  yet  been  determined.  The 
portrait  most  likely  to  be  related  to  Jacopo's  lost  original  is  to  be  seen  among 
Vasari 's  frescoes  of  the  Quartiere  di  Leone  X,  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio  (photo. 
Alinari  4446). 

Vasari,  VI,  282. 

MADONNA 

According  to  Vasari  the  picture  was  given  by  Cosimo  I  to  a  Spaniard. 
Milanesi  conjectures  that  this  Spaniard  was  the  Duke  of  Altamira.  It  is 
also  not  impossible  that  this  is  the  picture  referred  to,  in  the  Inventorio 
generale  a  capi  della  Guardaroba,  No.  30,  1553-1560,  p.  58,  as  having  been 
given  by  the  duchess  to  Don  Giovanni  di  Figana.  Cf.  Appendix  II,  Doc.  33 
and  34. 

Vasari,  VI,  284  and  the  document  cited  above. 

261 


PONTORMO 


MADONNA 


Found  in  Jacopo's  house  after  his  death  and  sold  by  his  heirs  to  Piero 
Salviati.  The  fate  of  this  picture  is  unknown. 

Vasari,  VI,  288. 

DECORATIONS  IN  THE  MEDICEAN  VILLA  OF  CAREGGI 

A  "loggia"  in  the  courtyard.  At  the  foot  of  each  division  of  the  vaulting,  an 
allegorical  figure:  "Fortune,"  "Justice,"  "Victory,"  "Peace,"  "Fame"  and  "Love." 
In  the  vaulting  were  flying  ' '  putti ' '  with  various  animals  in  their  hands. 

Oil  on  plaster. 

These  decorations  were  rapidly  executed  at  the  command  of  Alessandro 
de'  Medici.  Pontormo  designed  the  figures  and  the  ornaments,  but  Bronzino 
executed  all  the  figures  except  the  "Love,"  and  the  ornaments  were  painted 
by  Jacone,  Pierfrancesco  di  Jacopo  and  others.  In  his  "Life  of  Bronzino" 
Vasari  mentions  a  "Prudence"  instead  of  a. "Victory."  These  decorations 
have  vanished.  The  second  "loggia"  that  Pontormo  was  to  have  painted 
was  never  undertaken  on  account  of  the  death  of  Alessandro.  Cf.  the 
following. 

Date:  finished  December  13,  1536. 

Drawings:  sketches  for  the  "putti"  of  the  vaulting,  Uffizi  458  (photo.  F.  M.  C.). 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  281;  VII,  596;  Moreni,  Notizie  istoriche  dei  contorni  di  Firenee, 
Firenze,  1792,  I,  59;  La  villa  medicea  di  Careggi,  Memorie  e  ricordi,  Firenze,  1888;  Dessins, 
pp.  21,  37,  41,  50,  56,  73,  74,  102,  134,  169. 

DECORATIONS  IN  THE  MEDICEAN  VILLA  OF  CASTELLO 

The  ' '  loggia ' '  of  the  courtyard  to  the  left  on  entering.  In  the  middle  of  the  vaulting, 
flying  ' '  putti, "  "  Saturn  with  the  Sign  of  Capricorn, ' '  and  ' '  Mars  Hermaphrodite  with 
the  Sign  of  Leo  and  the  Virgin."  In  the  lunettes  of  the  vaulting,  Pontormo  painted  nude 
allegorical  female  figures  of  ' '  Philosophy, "  "  Astrology, "  "  Geometry, "  "  Music, ' ' 
"Arithmetic"  and  a  "Ceres."  In  certain  medallions  one  saw  stories  appropriate  to  each 
figure.  These  were  framed  in  decorative  designs. 

Oil  on  plaster. 

The  ornaments  were  by  Bronzino,  Jacone,  Pierfrancesco  di  Jacopo  and 
others  after  designs  by  Pontormo ;  the  figures  were  by  the  master 's  own  hand. 
Eight  years  after  Pontormo  died  this  "loggia"  was  already  ruined  by 
humidity.  When  Biscioni  wrote,  only  the  contours  of  the  figures  remained. 
All  trace  of  them  has  now  disappeared. 

Date:  1538-1543. 

Drawings:  possible  sketch  for  the  "Saturn,"  Uffizi  6510;  possible  study  for  one  of 
the  allegorical  figures,  Uffizi  6584  (fig.  132;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  possible  study  for  the 
"Astrology"  or  the  "Geometry,"  Uffizi  6586  (fig.  133;  photo.  Pini) ;  possible  study  for 
the  "putti,"  Uffizi  6592;  study  for  the  "Mars  Hermaphrodite,"  Uffizi  6630  (D.  G.  U., 
pi.  XXII) ;  possible  sketches  for  various  motives,  Uffizi  6644. 

Bibl.  Vasari,  VI,  282,  452 ;  VII,  596 ;  Borghini,  op.  cit .,  p.  395 ;  Varchi,  Due  Lezzioni, 
p.  109;  Moreni,  Notizie,  Firenze,  1792,  I,  103;  Dessins,  pp.  21,  37,  41,  50,  56,  74,  90,  121, 

262 


LOST  PICTURES 

168,  169,  172,  194,  201.  For  the  villa,  cf.  Vedute  delle  ville  e  d' altri  luoghi  della  Toscana, 
Firenze,  1757;  De  Benedetti,  Palassi  e  ville  reali  d' Italia,  Alinari,  1911;  Anguillesi, 
Notizie  storiche  dei  palazzi  e  ville  appartenenti  alia  I.  et  E.  Corona  della  Toscana,  Pisa, 
1815. 


FRESCOES  IN  THE  CHOIR  OF  SAN  LORENZO  IN  FLORENCE 

They  represented:  "The  Creation  of  Adam,"  "The  Disobedience  of  Adam  and  Eve," 
"The  Expulsion  from  Paradise,"  "Moses  Eeceiving  the  Tables  of  the  Law,"  "Christ  in 
Glory,"  "The  Four  Evangelists,"  "The  Tilling  of  the  Soil,"  "The  Sacrifice  of  Cain 
and  the  Death  of  Abel, "  "  The  Benediction  of  the  Sons  of  Noah  and  the  Building  of  the 
Ark, "  "  The  Ascension  of  the  Blessed, "  "  The  Fall  of  the  Damned, "  "  The  Resurrection, ' ' 
and  "The  Deluge." 

Fresco. 

These  paintings  occupied  Pontormo  during  the  last  ten  or  eleven  years 
of  his  life.  The  lower  part  of  the  ''Deluge"  and  the  "Resurrection"  were 
finished  by  Bronzino  after  his  master's  death  (Vasari,  VI,  288,  n. ;  VII,  602; 
Moreni,  op.  cit.,  II,  119).  They  were  never  popular  and  in  1742  they  were 
destroyed  in  rehandling  the  choir  (Manni,  I  Carri  di  San  Giovanni,  gives  the 
date  as  1738).  For  the  general  arrangement,  see  p.  75.  Pontormo,  in  his 
Diary,  refers  repeatedly  to  his  work  on  these  frescoes;  see  Appendix  III. 
For  the  number  of  days  he  mentions  having  worked  in  the  choir,  see  the 
Synopsis  of  the  Diary. 

Date:  1546-1556. 

Drawings:  study  for  the  Eve  of  the  "Expulsion,"  Uffizi  6715  (fig.  137;  photo. 
Houghton) ;  first  thought  for  the  "Moses  Eeceiving  the  Tables  of  the  Law,"  Uffizi  6508; 
study  for  the  same,  Uffizi  6749  (fig.  139;  photo.  Pini;  F.  M.  C.)  ;  finished  study  for  the 
"Christ  in  Glory,"  Uffizi  6607  (fig.  138;  photo.  Houghton;  fig.,  Goldschmidt,  op.  cit.); 
sketch  for  the  Adam  of  the  same,  Uffizi  6733;  finished  study  for  the  "Four  Evangelists," 
Uffizi  6750  (fig.  140;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  sketch  for  the  "Tilling  of  the  Soil,"  Uffizi  6535 
(fig.  143;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  sketch  for  the  Adam  of  the  same,  Uffizi  6615;  finished  study 
for  the  "Sacrifice  of  Cain  and  the  Death  of  Abel,"  Uffizi  6739  (fig.  141;  photo.  Houghton)  ; 
first  thought  (reversed)  for  the  Abel  of  the  same,  Uffizi  15665;  study  for  the  Cain  of 
the -same,  Uffizi  6746  (fig.  142;  photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  sketch  for  the  "Fall  of  the  Damned," 
Uffizi  6568  (photo.  F.  M.  C.)  ;  first  thought  for  the  same,  Uffizi  15666;  sketch  for  certain 
figures  in  the  "Ascension  of  the  Blessed,"  a  drawing  in  the  Academy  at  Venice  (fig.  147; 
photo.  Braun,  Venice  78029);  sketches  for  certain  figures  in  the  "  Eesurrection, "  Uffizi 
462  (photo.  F.  M.  C.)  and  Uffizi  6684  (photo.  F.  M.  C.) ;  sketch  for  a  single  figure  in 
the  same,  Uffizi  17410;  sketches  for  certain  figures  in  the  "Deluge,"  Uffizi  6528  (fig.  146; 
photo.  F.  M.  C.),  Uffizi  6752  (fig.  145;  photo.  F.  M.  C.),  Uffizi  6753  (fig.  144;  photo. 
F.  M.  C.),  Uffizi  6754  (photo.  F.  M.  C.;  Dessins,  pi.  VIII),  Uffizi  17411  (photo.  Houghton; 
D.  G.  U.,  pi.  XXIIIB),  Louvre  947  (photo.  Braun  63207) ;  sketches  for  single  figures 
in  the  same,  Uffizi  6560  (fig.  148;  photo.  Houghton;  F.  M.  C.),  Uffizi  6640  (photo. 
F.  M.  C.),  Uffizi  6650,  Uffizi  6679  (fig.  149;  photo.  F.  M.  C.),  Uffizi  6714.  In  Pontormo '* 
Diary  there  are  many  diminutive  sketches  (cf.  fig.  152)  relative  to  these  frescoes,  but  we 
cannot  tell  to  what  subject  they  refer.  With  them  correspond  the  following  sketches  in 
the  Uffizi:  Nos.  6528,  6560,  6580,  6724,  6745,  6753,  6760  (fig.  153;  photo.  F.  M.  C.), 
15666.  Borghini  (p.  396)  mentions  that  M.  Baccio  had  a  drawing  of  the  San  Lorenzo 
frescoes  but  of  which  he  does  not  say.  Bocehi  (p.  361)  speaks  of  it  with  great  enthusiasm 
and  at  great  length  and  from  him  we  learn  that  it  was  a  ' '  Last  Judgment ' '  and  a 
"Martyrdom  of  San  Lorenzo,"  which  he  preferred  to  the  fresco  of  the  same  subject. 
From  him  we  also  learn  that  M.  Baccio  was  Baccio  Valori.  In  the  Louvre  there  are  two 
large  drawings,  ascribed  to  Bronzino,  which  are  undoubtedly  copies  of  parts  of  the 
"Deluge."  In  the  Archives  of  the  Innocents  (Filza  17,  p.  345)  mention  is  made  of  a 
large  drawing  of  many  nudes  in  black  chalk  which  was  once  in  the  possession  of  the 
Hospital  and  which  may  have  had  some  relation  to  these  frescoes. 

263 


PONTORMO 

Documents:  I  have  examined  the  following  accounts  without,  however,  finding  any 
reference  to  Pontormo's  work  in  the  choir:  Archivio  di  San  Lorenzo,  Capitolo  di  San 
Lorenzo,  Annadio  F;  Debitori  e  Creditor!  E.,  1542-1549,  F.  1549-1557,  G.  1555-1560; 
Archivio  di  Stato,  Firenze,  Depositeria  Generate,  Nos.  391,  392,  393,  394,  522,  523,  573,  583, 
770,  771,  943,  948,  949,  950,  951,  952,  953,  954,  1653,  1654.  We  find  in  No.  394,  p.  101, 
reference  to  the  salary  of  a  helper,  Bastiano  del  Gostra.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  27. 

BibL  Vasari,  VI,  284-287;  VII,  602;  Bocchi,  ed.  1677,  pp.  515-517;  Eicha,  V,  29; 
Borghini,  p.  396;  II  Milizia,  II,  135;  Del  Migliore,  p.  166;  Moreni,  II,  112-115;  Lapini, 
Diario  fiorentino;  Ciangogni,  Memorie  istoriche;  Lanzi,  I,  164;  Carocci,  La  Basilica 
Laurensiana,  Arte  e  storia,  IV  (1885);  Eosini,  V,  59,  62;  Eeiset,  Notice  des  dessins  au 
Louvre,  Paris,  1879,  p.  60,  No.  190,  note;  B.  F.  D.,  I,  327;  II,  141,  142,  144,  147,  148, 
149,  152,  153,  154;  Gamba,  I  disegni  di  Jacopo  Carucci,  1912;  Dessins,  pp.  21,  26,  30,  37, 
41,  56,  75,  86,  106,  107,  117,  119,  121,  132,  133,  138,  140,  155,  158,  166,  167,  172,  183, 
188,  199,  206,  231,  232,  250,  251,  253,  258,  265,  267,  268,  274,  276,  277,  278,  279,  281, 
286,  287,  294,  298,  299,  302,  331,  349;  On  Certain  Drawings,  pp.  17,  18,  22,  23. 

MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

The  Inventario  generate  a  capi  della  Guardaroba,  1553-1560  (p.  58) 
mentions  that  on  August  24,  1557,  a  large  picture  representing  the  Virgin  by 
Pontormo  was  given  by  the  Duchess  to  Don  Giovanni  di  Figana  who  took 
it  to  Milan.  See  Appendix  II,  Doc.  34.  The  same  picture  is  mentioned  in 
the  inventory  made  by  Giuliano  del  Touaglia  in  1553.  See  Doc.  33.  This  is 
perhaps  the  "Madonna"  mentioned  above  which  Vasari  says  Cosimo  I  gave 
to  a  Spaniard.  Its  fate  is  unknown. 

MADONNA 

Once  in  the  possession  of  Carlo  Panciatichi  but  now  lost. 
Borghini,  II  Biposo,  ed.  1730,  p.  394. 


264 


APPENDICES 


APPENDIX  I 

Note  on  the  Apprenticeship  of  Pontormo 

Vasari's  story  of  Pontormo  's  youth  is  full  of  inconsistencies  and  contra- 
dictions. He  begins  by  saying1  that,  after  the  death  of  Jacopo's  grandfather 
in  1506  (his  father  having  died  in  1499  and  his  mother  in  1504),  the  boy 
remained  several  years  in  his  native  town  with  his  grandmother  who  had  him 
taught  reading,  writing  and  the  elements  of  Latin.  It  was  his  grandmother, 
according  to  Vasari,  who  brought  him  to  Florence  when  he  was  thirteen  to 
put  him  in  charge  of  the  Pupilli.  But,  since  Jacopo  was  born  in  1494,  this 
journey  would  have  occurred,  on  Vasari  's  own  showing,2  in  1507,  that  is,  only 
a  year  after  his  grandfather's  death.  We  know  now  from  a  document  that 
I  have  discovered  that,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  Jacopo  was  placed  in  the  care  of 
the  Pupilli  on  January  24,  1508  (Old  Style:  1507),  so  that  it  is  evident  that, 
in  regard  to  that  event  at  any  rate,  Vasari  's  chronology  is  practically  correct. 
Vasari,  however,  goes  on  to  say  that  a  few  months  later  Bernardo  Vettori3 
put  the  boy  under  Leonardo's  instruction.  But  we  know  by  documentary 
evidence  that  Leonardo  left  Florence  late  in  the  spring  of  1508.  It  is  therefore 
apparent  that,  if  Jacopo  studied  with  him  at  all  in  1508,  he  was  either  sent 
to  Leonardo's  workshop  immediately  after  being  placed  with  the  Pupilli  or, 
if  we  take  Vasari  's  expresssion  '  '  a  few  months  later  '  '  literally,  he  could  have 
remained  with  Da  Vinci  hardly  more  than  eight  or  ten  weeks  in  all. 

After  Leonardo,  Jacopo  had  for  master  —  so  Vasari's  story  runs  — 
Albertinelli,  Pier  di  Cosimo  and  finally,  in  1512,  4  Andrea  del  Sarto.  On  the 
next  page  Vasari  remarks  that  Jacopo  went  to  study  in  Andrea's  "bottega" 
of  his  own  accord  immediately  after  the  latter  had  finished  the  San  Filippo 
Benizzi  frescoes  which  we  know  was  in  1510.  Vasari  also  says  that  Raphael 
praised  a  little  "Annunciation"  painted  by  Jacopo  while  he  was  still  with 
Albertinelli.  Raphael  left  Florence  on  September  5,  1508.  Vasari's  state- 
ment, therefore,  implies  that  between  the  end  of  January,  1508  (Old  Style: 
1507),  when  he  was  placed  with  the  Pupilli,  and  September  of  the  same  year, 
Pontormo  had  spent  several  months  unemployed,  was  apprenticed  to  Leonardo, 
passed  from  his  care  into  the  "bottega"  of  Albertinelli  and  had  made  sufficient 
progress  there  (though  only  fourteen  in  May,  1508)  to  be  able  to  paint  an 
interesting  little  picture  with  his  own  hand,  an  achievement  which  would 
have  in  it,  we  may  remark  in  passing,  no  element  of  the  incredible,  if  Pontormo 
really  began  his  apprenticeship  with  Albertinelli  in  1503,  as  we  have  been  led 
to  conjecture  on  the  basis  of  the  citation  of  a  Jacopo  Carucci  in  a  document 
relative  to  the  purchase  of  a  house  in  the  Gualfonda  by  Albertinelli.5 

Vasari  is  even  more  inconsistent  in  regard  to  the  length  of  time  that 
Jacopo  spent  with  Albertinelli.  He  states  that  Pontormo  was  left  without 


VI,  246.  2  lUd.  a  IUd.  *  Ibid.  B  Appendix  II,  Doe.  X. 

267 


PONTORMO 

a  master  when  Mariotto  went  to  Viterbo  to  finish  a  picture  begun  there  by 
Fra  Bartolommeo.  According  to  the  books  of  the  Order,  this  picture,  a 
"Madonna  with  Dominican  Saints,"  was  finished,  not  by  Albertinelli,  but  as 
late  as  1543  by  Fra  Paolino  da  Pistoia.0  Colasanti7  was  led  to  assume,  on 
account  of  the  discrepancy  between  the  documents  and  Vasari's  narrative, 
that  the  latter 's  story  of  Albertinelli 's  journey  to  Viterbo  had  no  claims 
to  critical  consideration.  Vasari,  however,  not  only  says  that  Mariotto  began 
a  picture  of  his  own  there,  then  went  to  Rome  and  returned  to  Viterbo,  but 
he  goes  out  of  his  way  to  record  gossip  to  the  effect  that  Mariotto  died8  soon 
after  his  return  to  Florence  as  a  result  of  loose  living  in  the  South.  Such 
gossip,  usually  a  reflection  of  much  repeated  tales,  is  often  more  convincing 
in  the  "Lives"  than  details  given  by  Vasari  about  pictures  which  he  had 
sometimes  never  seen.  "We  know  that  Albertinelli  died  on  November  5,  1515  ;• 
we  also  know  that  he  was  in  Florence  on  January  5,  1513,  when  his  contract 
with  Fra  Bartolommeo  was  dissolved.10  More  than  that,  Vasari  himself  tells 
us  that  for  Leo  X's  elevation  to  the  Papacy  (March  11, 1513)  Mariotto  received 
a  commission  to  paint  the  new  Pope 's  arms  for  the  Medici  Palace  in  Via  Larga. 
The  journey  to  Viterbo,  therefore,  was  not  later  than  1515  nor  earlier  than 
March,  1513.  But  before  the  latter  date  Pontormo  was  already  fairly  launched 
in  his  career  as  an  independent  painter.  One  is  tempted  to  make  Pontormo 's 
release  from  Albertinelli 's  ' '  bottega ' '  coincide  with  the  moment  when  Mariotto 
decided  to  give  up  painting  and  become  an  innkeeper.11  But  on  inferential 
grounds,  Knapp,  Gruyer,  and  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  all  place  that  adventure 
in  1512  or  1513  at  which  date  Jacopo  had  already  passed  through  his  last 
experience  as  an  apprentice  and  had  left  the  workshop  of  Andrea.  We  may, 
however,  remark  that,  whatever  the  date  at  which  Albertinelli  opened  his 
public  house,  his  apprentices  were  probably  released  at  that  moment  from 
further  legal  obligations  to  him.  We  also  cannot  help  noticing  that 
among  the  surviving  works  of  Albertinelli,  many  of  which  are  dated,  there 
is  no  picture  now  extant,  so  far  as  I  know,  that  bears  a  date  falling  between 
1507  and  1510.  Moreover,  before  we  accept  the  date  suggested  by  the  critics 
whom  we  have  mentioned,  it  might  be  well  to  recall  that  Vasari  mentions  that 
Mariotto  received  certain  commissions  for  pictures  in  the  spring  of  1513. 
In  any  case  the  determining  of  the  date  at  which  Pontormo  left  Mariotto  is 
of  less  importance  to  our  study  than  the  obvious  fact  that,  when  after  a  time 
Mariotto  did  reopen  his  "bottega,"  Pontormo  continued  to  follow  with  interest 
the  work  done  there.  Of  this  the  "San  Luca  Madonna"  is  sufficient  indirect 
evidence. 

Leonardo  was  in  Florence  from  1503  to  May  30,  1506,  from  August,  1507 
to  the  late  spring  of  1508  and  again,  it  would  appear,  in  the  spring  of  1509 
and  towards  the  end  of  1510.  His  longest  stay  in  his  native  city,  after  his  first 
visit  to  Milan,  was  between  1503  and  May,  1506.  If,  as  is  highly  probable, 
Pontormo  was  still  in  Albertinelli 's  care  during  those  earlier  years,  he  could 
have  worked  with  Leonardo  only  during  one  of  Da  Vinci's  later  visits  to 
Florence.  Vasari's  story  implies,  as  we  have  seen,  that  Jacopo  was  appren- 
ticed to  Leonardo  between  the  end  of  January,  1508,  and  the  late  spring  of 

e  Marchese,  M emorie,  II,  96  f . ;  Vasari,  IV,  225. 

7  Diario  di  Jacopo  Carucci,  Bull.  d.  soc.  filol.  romana,  II,  49. 

s  Vasari,  IV,  225. 

»Idem,  226,  n. 

10  Marchese,  II,  17,  22,  65,  77,  488. 

11  Vasari,  IV,  222. 

268 


HIS  APPRENTICESHIP 

the  same  year.  We  have  no  evidence,  however,  that  Leonardo  kept  a 
"bottega"  during  any  of  his  later  visits  to  Florence.  It  is  accordingly  not 
unlikely  that  Pontormo  never  actually  became  a  pupil  of  the  great  master 
but  merely  studied,  on  his  own  account,  like  the  young  Raphael,  works  of 
Leonardo 's  then  in  Florence,  among  them  the  unfinished ' '  Battle  of  Anghiari. ' ' 
The  influence  of  that  masterpiece  is  visible  in  Pontormo 's  "Martyrdom  of 
the  Theban  Legion"  which  was  painted  many  years  later.  "We  should  also 
note  that  in  some  of  Pontormo 's  earliest  drawings  the  hair  is  blown  out  like 
a  flame  —  a  peculiarity  of  sketches  by  Leonardo  dating  from  the  years  1505- 
1510. 

The  exact  date  at  which  Pontormo  studied  with  his  third  master  cannot 
be  determined.  We  may  conjecture  that  he  passed  through  the  "bottega" 
of  Pier  di  Cosimo  sometime  between  1508  and  1510  but  the  only  foundation 
we  have  for  such  an  opinion  is  the  fact  that  Vasari's  statement  in  regard 
to  Pontormo 's  interest  in  Piero  's  art  is  corroborated  by  certain  characteristics 
of  Jacopo's  early  portraits  and  religious  pictures  which  recall  definite 
tendencies  of  Piero 's  later  work. 

Pontormo  Js  contact  with  Andrea  del  Sarto  closes  his  experience  as  an 
apprentice.  Vasari  states,  as  we  have  seen,  that  he  went  of  his  own  accord  to 
stay  with  Andrea  because  he  greatly  admired  the  San  Filippo  Benizzi  frescoes 
which  the  latter  had  just  finished.12  These  frescoes  were  completed  in  the 
autumn  of  1510  and  dated  by  Andrea  himself  A.  D.  MDX.13  Elsewhere 
Vasari  says  that  it  was  in  1512  that  Pontormo  was  first  associated  with 
Andrea.1*  We  must  choose  between  these  two  dates  and  the  following  are  some 
of  the  considerations  that  will  influence  our  choice.  For  Pontormo 's  fresco 
over  the  portal  of  the  Annunziata  I  have  found  payments  that  were  made 
as  early  as  November,  1513,15  which  prove  that  he  must  have  begun  the  work 
in  the  late  summer  of  that  year.  News  of  the  election  of  Leo  X  reached 
Florence  in  the  second  week  of  March,16  1513,  and  the  Servites,  who  were 
' '  Palleschi/ '  began  decorating  their  church  in  honour  of  the  great  event 
without  delay.  Vasari  implies  that  after  Pontormo  had  finished  the  cartoons 
for  the  fresco  in  question  Andrea  refused  to  have  him  in  his  workshop  any 
longer.  If  Pontormo  became  Andrea's  pupil  in  1512  we  must  suppose  that  it 
took  Jacopo  only  a  year  and  a  half,  at  the  most,  to  make  Andrea's  manner  his 
own,  and  we  could  desire  no  more  forcible  evidence  of  Jacopo's  masterly 
insight  into  Andrea's  conception  of  form  than  is  furnished  by  his  manner 
of  drawing  during  the  next  six  years.  To  the  evidence  that  his  drawings 
furnish  we  must  add  Vasari's  own  statement  that  Jacopo  helped  Andrea 
with  "molti  quadri  ed  opere,"17  although  no  picture  of  Andrea's  dating 
from  this  period,  and  among  them  we  count  the  "San  Gallo  Annunciation," 
the  "San  Godenzo  Annunciation,"  the  Dresden  "Marriage  of  St.  Cathe- 

12  Idem,  VI,  247. 

is  Idem,  V,  66  f . 

i*  Idem,  VI,  246. 

is  A.  S.  F.,  Convento  119,  No.  705,  113  verso.     Appendix  II,  Doc.  12. 

i«  On  the  evening  of  the  day  of  the  election;  cf.  Landucci,  p.  336;  (J.  Capponi,  II,  316. 
In  the  Libro  del  Camarlingo  just  referred  to  I  have  found,  under  the  dates  of  March  11 
and  12,  1513,  the  following  entries:  "spese  straordinarie  p  di  decto  lire  sei  soldi  sei  sono  p 
tagj  et  pouere  p  fare  festa  della  creatizione  del  papa  de'  Medici  porto  —  6  —  6;  p.  81 
verso:  spese  straordinarie  a  di  decto  lire  13.  soldi  10  sono  p  dipignere  1'arme  del  papa  de 
Medici  e  duna  bandiera  posta  incupola  porto  Ant°  dipintore  — 13  — 10. " 

IT  VI,  247. 

269 


PONTOKMO 

rine,"18  the  "Adoration  of  the  Magi,"19  in  the  courtyard  of  the  Annunziata, 
and  the  "Madonna  with  the  Infant  St.  John,"  in  the  Borghese,  shows  the 
slightest  trace  of  Pontormo  's  touch.  Vasari20  definitely  names  but  one  picture 
painted  by  Jacopo  for  Andrea:  the  lost  "predella"  of  the  "San  Gallo  Annun- 
ciation." And  he  adds  that  Bronzino  had  heard  Pontormo  himself  say  that 
Rosso  also  worked  on  this  "gradino. "  Evidently  we  must  not  take  too 
literally  Vasari 's  "molti  quadri  ed  opere."  On  the  same  page  Vasari  says 
that  Jacopo  had  not  been  much  time  with  Andrea  before  his  progress  was 
such  that  one  would  have  thought  that  he  had  practised  art  for  many  years.21 
In  all  probability  he  had.  For,  if  he  was  a  mere  child  when  he  entered 
Albertinelli 's  workshop,  he  already  had  behind  him  in  1512  more  than  nine 
years  of  apprenticeship.  The  groundwork  of  his  sense  of  form  had  been  laid 
with  Mariotto  and,  to  an  infinitely  less  degree,  with  Pier  di  Cosimo.  The 
''God  the  Father"  and  the  "Santa  Veronica"  of  the  Pope's  Chapel  are 
Albertinellian  with  a  hint  in  them  of  the  study  that  Jacopo  had  given  to 
figures  sketched  by  Michelangelo  during  the  years  that  were  chiefly  given 
to  the  "Battle  of  the  Cascina."  The  "San  Luca  Madonna"  carries  on  the 
tradition  of  Mariotto.  Indirect  evidence,  then,  would  lead  one  to  conjecture 
that  Jacopo  entered  Andrea's  "bottega"  in  the  autumn  of  1510  or  in  the 
spring  of  1511. 

In  his  "Life  of  Masaccio"  Vasari  states  that  Pontormo,  like  all 
Florentines  of  his  generation,  studied  the  frescoes  of  the  Brancacci  Chapel. 

18  Goldschmidt  (Pontormo,  Eosso  und  Bronzino,  Leipzig,  1911  [Dissertation],  p.  43) 
sees  without  reason  evidence  of  Pontormo 's  hand  in  this  picture. 

isLibro  del  Camarlingo  (1509-1512),  p.  106,  v.,  108,  111  v.  (November  5,  1511; 
November  21,  1511;  December  12,  1511.) 

20  VI,  247. 

21  Colasanti  (article  cited  above,  p.  47)  states  without  sufficient  evidence  that  Pontormo 
entered  Andrea's  workshop  in  1510. 


270 


APPENDIX  II 

Documents  Relative  to  the  Life  of  Pontormo 

Doc.  I.    Firenze:  Biblioteca  Nazionale.    Priorista  di  Monaldi, 
p.  267  verso. 

La  f amiglia  de  Carucci  gia  di  Monte  Pilli  e  di  Terzano  castella  che  furono 
nel  poggio  di  San  Martino  in  Valdarno  le  quali  nel  1340  cederono  ai  fiorentini 
sendo  fatti  cittadini  e  di  loro  fu  Giorgio  di  Benci  nel  1365  Gonfaloniere  e  di 
questi  il  p°  nel  1349  fu  Taddeo  di  Caruccio  e  1' ultimo  nel  1529  fu  Bonifazio 
di  Donato  Carucci  o  Chiarucci.  L'arme  loro  e  una  banda  celeste  intraverso 
sghembo  dentrovi  tre  rose  bianche  in  campo  d'  oro. 

Doc.    II.     Firenze:   Archivio   di    Stato.      Consorteria.      San 
Giovanni ;  Gonf  alone  Chiave,  I,  94  verso. 

Carucci  da  Colle.  Giov.  Battista  di  Mario  di  Bartolomeo  19  Nov.  1614. 
Mario  Alberto  di  Giov.  Battista  di  Mario  22  Aple,  1662. 

Doc.  III.    Firenze:  Biblioteca  Nazionale.    Codice  Riccardiano 
-  1894,  p.  132. 

S.  Croce  sotto  le  volte  nella  stanza  che  fu  gia  Compagnia  di  Loreto: 
"Filiorum  Carucci  1298." 

Doc.  IV.    Firenze:  Biblioteca  Nazionale.    Codice  Riccardiano 
1187. 

Ruggieri  di  Taddeo  Carucci  uno  degli  Ufficiali  di  Torre,  28  feb.  1380. 

Doc.  V.    Firenze :  Biblioteca  Marucelliana.    Codice  C  1,  p.  278. 

Ruggieri  di  Taddeo  Marucci  (sic)  vinaiuolo  nel  Marzo  1386  e  Aprile 
1387  della  Signoria  di  Firenze.  The  "  Priorista  del  Calamai"  mentions  the 
same  person :  Ruggieri  di  Taddeo  Carucci  vinaiolo  in  Firenze,  Marzo- Aprile, 
1386-7. 

271 


PONTORMO 

Doc.  VI.    Firenze:  Biblioteca  Nazionale.    Codice  Araldico,  p. 
129. 

Camcci,  Francesco  Pianellaio  a  1348  Sep°  in  S.  Pancrazio. 
Carucci,  Ruggiero  a  1460  Sep°  in  S.  Croce  e  S.  Remigi  Linaiolo. 
On  the  same  page  the  arms  of  Francesco  and  Ruggiero  are  displayed  as 
in  figs.  I  and  II  respectively. 


FIG.  I  FIG.  II 

Codice  B  VII  of  the  Biblioteca  Marucelliana  gives  (p.  14)  the  arms  of  the 
Carucci  as:  "stelle  gialle  in  campo  azzurro  sotto  sei  listre  a  sghembo  rosse  e 
bianche. ' '  Cf .  Doc.  I  where  the  arms  of  the  family  are  given  as  in  fig.  II,  but 
with  a  different  arrangement  of  the  tinctures. 

Doc.  VII.     Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.     Consorteria:  Santa 
Croce,  Vols.  I  and  II.    Gonf  alone  Bue :  Vol.  I,  p.  83. 

Charucci 

•P  Charuccio  di  Stefano  di  ruggieri  adi  2  di  maggio  1481. 
•P  Giovanj  di  Taddeo  di  ruggieri  adi  9  di  febbraio  1481. 
*P  S  Ruggierj  di  Taddeo  adi  p°  di  genaio  1495. 

Jacopo  di  8  Lucha  di  Ruggieri  adi  p°  di  Giugnio  1513. 
•P  Alex0  di  Gni  di  Alexadro  adi . . . 

Zanobi adi  7  di  marzo  1505. 

»P  Taddeo    )  A>          nr.-.  •,.  m   -,  -,  n  adi . . . 

Barto       f  dl Gm  dl  Taddeo  adi ... 

Taddeo    )  di  8  Ruggierj  di  Taddeo  adi  17  di  Dicembre  1531. 

Piero        [  adi  12  di  Aprile  1535. 


Idem,  Vol.  II,  p.  26  verso. 

Carucci 

•P  Jacopo  di  S  Luca  di  Ruggieri  po  giug°  1513. 
•P  Zanobi  di  Giovanni  di  Alessadro  7  marzo  1505. 

Taddeo  et  )  di  8  Ruggieri  di  Taddeo  17  xbre  1531. 

Piero          I  12Ap'lel535. 

Oratio      )  di  Pieri  di  Ruggieri 

Ruggieri  > 

Grazia      ) 

272 


DOCUMENTS 

Doc.  VIII.    Firenze :  Archivio  degl 'Innocent!.   Entrata  e  Uscita 
D.  1527-1528,  p.  54. 

A  ma  lisabecta  fu  di  paglo  Carucci  1.  sept,  s.  sei. 

Entrata  e  Uscita  Z,  1530,  p.  52.  X  doetobre  1530.    A  ma  lisabetta  dona 
fu  dipaglo  Carucci  D.  dua,  come  allibro  Rosso. 

Idem,  p.  54.     A  m°  Ant°  distefano  lombardo  1.  vetocto  sono  p  lui  a 
Checci  Carucci  da  avere  p  condisse  p  spesi  di  bestiame  stetti  in  valdimevole. 

Doc.  IX.     Firenze:  Biblioteca  Marucelliana,  Codice,  B  VII. 
14,  p.  11. 

Cappella  dei  Carucci  nel  Carmine  donata  ai  Delia  Moriana  da  Lionardo 
e  Jacopo  di  Giovanni  Carucci  nel  1624. 


Doc.  X.     Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.     Santa  Maria  Novella; 
Convento  102,  No.  89:  Ricordi,  p.  14. 

M°.  ccccc.viiij0 

Ricordo  Come  oggi  g,°  di  26  dimaggio  1509,  si  fece  uno  sinda|chato  nel 
caplo  del  nost°  coto  Rogato  p  mano  di  8  lorenzo  di  tho  di|  lorenzo  pogginj 
notj°  alpalagio  delpodesta:  en  alpnte  sta  nella  bojctegho  di  S  Lorenzo  violj. 
nel  qual  sindacato  furno  elect j  &  Crejati  sindachi  M°  Alexandro  dibartholomeo 
dipiero  luchini  et  M°|  Ant°  dimichele  dulino  et  fre  Lorenzo  dibernardo 
alpnte  spp'ore|  del  coto.  apotere  liberamete  vendere  &  Itrafacto  finire  Vna 

nosta|  Casa  posta  nella  via  digualfonda  co  suo  vocablj  & 
Vendita  di  cofini.  Laqual|  gia  fu  venduta  dal  nost°  coto,  adi  10. 

una  casa  in  dap'le  1503  auita  di  M°  Alexa|dro  &  auita  di  Jacopo 

Gualfonda  carucci.  Come  appe  Carta  p  mano  di  8  pieroj  daulcj 

libera  a  li  notj  alpodesta.  Et  qa  vendita  libera  si  fe:  pen  elnost0 

bro  Pagonazo  c5ue|to  /  era  strecto  da  molti  debiti  /  &  altre  necessita. 
Sto  G  a  3  et  maxle  ppotere|  pagare  uno  restante  didebito  /  en  elmost0 

et  in  Gle  a  42  coto  haueua  Colmunistero|  delpadiso  /  p  ilpodere  en  daloro 

sicopo  /  posto  atubiana  Comune  di|  prato.  Et  p  vigore 
dideo  sindachato.  Noi  MO  Alexadro  dibartho|lomeo  /  &  MO  Ant°  dimichele  / 
&  fre  Lorenzo  dibernardo  /  sindachi  pdcj :  vendemo  libere  &  Itrafacto  /  sotto 
di  26  dimaggio  sopa  dco|  la  sopa  dca  Casa  posta  Jngualfonda  /  Amariotto 
dipinctore  &  figli|uolo  dibiagio  battiloro  /  p  se  &  p  sua  heredi  /  p  pgio  di  ff 
octata  larghi|  do°  Io°  et  no  piu  alt0  et  p°  pche  dco  Mariotto  doueua  aspecta| 
re  tucto  elrestante  del  tpo  della  vita  di  dco  M°  Alexadro:  et  pche|  Anchora 
dco  mariotto  haueua  gia  Compato  da  dco  M°  Alexadroj  lujafructo  di  dca 
Casa  en  segli  potessi  puenire  durate  lasua  vita]  Intato  cli  Jnfra  quello  che 
el  nost°  coto  nebbe  p  la  vendita  fra  auita  |  di  M°  Alexadro  et  di  Jacopo  caruccj. 
en  nebbe  ff  quarata  larghi  doro|  10°  et  ff  octata  larghi  doro  I  o°  en  alpnte  ne 
pagha  dco  mariotto  |  alnost0  coto  viene  el  nost°  coto  hauerla  ueduta  preggio 
giusto  &  ragio|neuole  ptuche  sia  veduta  libera  &  Itrafacto:  et  p°  maxle: 
prispecto)  dellume  tolto  dalla  Compa  delpellegrino  alle  finestr6  didrieto. 

273 


PONTORMO 

E  qualj|  if  octata  larghi  dco  mariotto  gli  de  pagare  jn  q°  modo  cioe.  ff  30 1 
larghi  do0  10°  depaghare  I  suauna  scripta  p'uata  fea  di  mano[  di  m°  Ant° 
dimichele  sindacho  pdco  di  Consentimeto  de  dua  altrj  |  sindachi  copagnj  adca 
vedita:  sotto  scripta  diloro  mano  &  sotto  |  scripta  di  mano  didco  mariotto 
dipictore.  ratificado  ciaschu  dinoi]  sotto  scrip  tj  /  atato  qto  lessa  scripta  si 


contiene.    Laquale  scripta  e  appsso 
se  facta:  pen  prima:  en  sene  faccia 


didco  mariotto:  et  qsta  scripta  p'uata 
publeco  strumto  /  si  de  daroma  trarre 


anosta  spesa  una  licetia  &  c6fir|matioe  didca  vendita:  et  hauuta  &  obtenuta 
la  dca  licetia:  sidefare)  lauedita  publica  asua  gab" b" la  p  publicho  strumto  /  & 
pmano  di  publicoj  notj°  et  Insullo  strumto  fco  &  publecato.  dco  Mariotto: 
de  darej  &  finire  dipagare  elrestante  de  dcj  ff  octanta  larghi  doro  I  o°  chej 
sono  ff  cinqta  do°  I  o°.  Et  noi  sindachi  pdcj  promettiamo  p  dco  coto|  di  Sa 
ma*  nolla  adco  Mariocto  copatore  la  difesa  gnale  di  dca  Casa|  aluj  venduta  / 
obligado  tuctj  nostrj  benj  /  psentj  &  futurj  p  la  difesa  di|  dicta  Casa  venduta 
solamte.  Et  spetalmte  promettiamo.  pla  dca  di|fesa  elpodre  copato  dalle 
monache  delpadiso  posto  iquel  diprato]  p  gli  oblighi  &  debit j  del  quale: 
spetialmete  &  Ipte  se  venduta  la|  decta  Casa:  et  q,  disotto  simettera  lordine 
del  cotracto  colpagmto. 

Doc.  XI.     Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.     Official!  dei  Pupilli: 
Deliberationes  et  Partitiones,  1507-1508,  No.  119,  c.  114. 

M  c  c  c  c  c  vi  j 
Pro  her*e  Bartholomei  Jacobj  Pictoris  de  putormo 

Die  24  Januarij 
Licetia  vendendi  mobilia 

Prefati  officiales  tutores  dicte  hereditatis  seruatis  &c.  dederut  et  con- 
cesserut  licetiam  Bart0  aionis  actori  dicte  hereditatis |  vendendi  mobilia  dicte 
hereditatis. 

Die  xxiiij  Maij  1508 

Bedditio  rationu 

Prefati  officiales  simul  cohadunati  et  prestito  jurameto  seruatis  &c.|  viso 
quod  libro  temp  to  pdictum  Bartholomeu  angeli  dellajione  actorem  Sigto 
A  tempto  p  dicta  heredit  et  suscriptionej  facta  indicto  libro  8  manu  Petri 
zenobij  demarignollis  et  omnibus]  ineo  cotentis  dictu  libru  et  oratione  ineo 
descripte  appbaverut|  et  declarauerut  dictu  Bartholomeu  remississe  coputu 
sue  |  admtrationis  et  omnia  alia  fecisse  inptibus  oportuna. 

Die  xvj  Junij 

Fideiuxio 

Guido  ormannogii  dedetis  civis  Flor  preseti  et  ementi  dicti  Bartho|lomei 
dangeli  dellaione  prese  et  fide  . . .  penes  dictos  off  et  pmi . .  .|  dictis  offs  licet 
absentibus  ei  et  mihi  eoru  not8  peis  recipientibj  se  facturu  et  pdictis 
Bartholomeus  tegerunt  peum  hinc  adunu|  ann  pxe  futuru  redder  bonum 
coputum  et  de  omia  alia  facere  adq|  tenetur  secu  ofdi  flort  alias  desuo  pp° 
attendere  obseruarej  promisit,  rogans  &c.  Actuubisopa  presetib  Benedicte 
bart°  depuccinis  et|  Ant°  lusti  famulo. 

Die  xxi  Junii 

Appbatio 

Prefati  off  simul  cohadunati  &c.  seruatis  &c.  dictu  guidone  fideiuxorej 
appbauerunt. 

274 


DOCUMENTS 

Doc.  XII.  Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.  Convento  del  P.P. 
Serviti  della  Ilma  Anmmziata  di  Servi  di  Maria :  Convento 
119,  No.  705,  p.  113  verso. 

Novembre  1513 

A  muraglia  adi  dto  ff  uno  doro  p°  Jacopo  di  Bt°  dipintore  p  parte  di 
dipintura  sopra  larcho  dela  porta L  —  7 s 

Marzo  1513 
Idem,  p.  122  verso. 

A  muraglia  adi  dto  L  sette  suo  p  dipignare  larrae  di  deimedici  sopra 
a  larcho  dela  porta  p°  Jacopo  di  Bt° L  —  7 s 

Marzo  1514 

Idem,  p.  124  recto. 

A  spesse  de  muraglia  adi  dto  ff  quatro  doro  inoro  ff  tre  p°  andrea  dagnolo 
dipintore  p  oro  p  inorare  e  capitolli  de  sua  quadri  adipinto  ff  uno  doro  p° 
Jacopo  dipintore  sopra  alarcho  delauolta  sopra  ala  porta  di  sono  p  inorare 
qlle  figure L  —  28 s 

Aprile  1514 
Idem,  p.  127  recto. 

A  spesse  di  muraglia  adi  dto  ff  dua  doro  suo  p  parte  di  dipintura  sopra 
alarcho  dela  porta  p°  Jacopo  dipintore L  —  4 s 

Giugno  1514 

Idem,  p.  132  recto. 

A  muraglia  adi  decto  lire  cinquata  sei  sono  p  resto  della  di  pintura  sopra 
larcho  della  porta  della  ciesa  porto  iachopo  dipintore  e  adrea  en  mese  aoro 
cotati L  —  56 s 


Doc.  XIII.     Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.     Convento  dei  P.P. 
"  Serviti  della  Ilma  Annunziata  di  Servi  di  Maria :  Convento 
119,  No.  705,  p.  149  verso. 

•f-dicebre  1514 

A  p  spese  dimuraglia  iochopino  dipintore  adi  decto  lire  ueti  una  sono 
en  tati  gneue  ha  dare  el  coveto  p  il  quadro  fa  nel  ciostricino  e  resto  pago  fra 
mariano  porto  el  p.  priore  cotati L  —  21 s 

Aprile  1515 

Idem,  p.  161  verso. 

A  Jachopino  dipintore  adi  decto  lire  quatordici,  sono  per  parte  di 
dipintura  del  quadro  del  chiostricino  porto  el  p.  priore  contanti  lire 
quatordici L  — 14 s 

Maggio  1515 
Idem,  p.  165. 

A  Jacopino  dipintore  a  di  decto  lire  secte;  sono  per  parte  di  dipintura 
del  quadro  del  chiostricino  porto  contanti  lire  7 

275 


PONTORMO 

Marzo  1516 
Idem,  p.  192  verso. 

A  Jachopino  dipintore  adi  decto  lire  tre  soldi  10,  sono  per  parte  di  suo 
conto  porto  contanti  lire  3  soldi  10 

Maggio  1516 
Idem,  p.  200  verso. 

A  Jachopino  a  di  detto  lire  diciasette  dipintore,  sono  per  parte  di  suo 
conto  porto  contanti  lire  17 

Giugno  1516 
Idem,  p.  202  verso. 

A  Jachopino  dipintore  a  di  detto  lire  dicia  sette  soldi  10  sono  per  loro 
per  e  chapitegli  del  quadro  porto  contanti  lire  17  soldi  10 

Doc.  XIV.  Firenze :  Archivio  di  Stato.  San  Lorenzo  al  Monte : 
Debitor!  e  Creditor! :  1524-1532.  Convento  51,  No.  81,  p. 
xlviij. 

M.  D.  xxiiij 

Mr°  Jacopo  da  pontormo  depintore  Di  Dare  p  insino  adi  15  di  apUle  1524 
Duct  xxxa  L  ija. 

p  cassa  in  g°  a  49  como  si  vede  in  gle  Biancho  sto  L  a  3  Duct  30  L  2  s  — 

20  septembre  Duct  xx°  p  cassa  ing°  a  49  chome  si  vede  in  gle  Biancho 
sto  L  a  8.  Duct  20  L  —  s  — 

30  octobre  Duct  xx°  p  cassa  in  g°  a  58  chome  si  vede  in  gle  Bianeho  s*0 
L  a  23  Duct  20  L  — s  — 

1526  Marzo  adi  xxviiij0  Duct  vij°  p  cassa  in  g°  a  79  chome  si  vede  in  gle 
Biancho  st°  L  a  30  Duct  7  —  L  —  s 

Octobre  adi  v  Duct  ija  L  —  s  —  p  cassa  in  g°  a  79  chome  si  vede  in  gle 
Biancho  St°  L  a  34  Duct  2  L  —  s  — 

Decembre  adi  xv  Duct  iiij°  L  —  s  —  p  cassa  in  g°  a  79  si  vede  in  gle 
Biancho  St°  L  a  40  Duct  —  4  L  —  s  —  d 

Marzo  adi  xviii  Duct  vj  L  —  p  cassa  in  g°  a  79  chome  si  vede  in  gle 
Biancho  Sto  L  —  a  45  Duct  6  L  — 

Apille  adi  5  Duct  v  —  L  —  p  cassa  in  g°  a  88  chome  si  vede  in  gle  Biancho 
S*o  L  a  47  Duct  5  —  1—  s 

1527  decembre  adi  5  Duct  v°  L  v.  s  xiiij0  p  cassa  in  g°  chome  si  vede  in 
gle  Biancho  sto  L  a  55  Duct  1  —  L  5  s  14 

febraio  adi  xxviiij0  Duct  vj°  L  —  s  xv  p  entrata  in  g°  a  90  chome  si 
vede  in  gle  Biancho  Sto  L  a  58  Duct  6  L  —  s  15  —  d. 

Doc.  XV.  Firenze :  Archivio  di  Stato.  San  Lorenzo  al  Monte : 
Giornale  L.  Convento  51,  No.  16,  p.  3  verso. 

1524  adi  16  apHe 

Mr°  Jacopo  di  bartholomeo  da  pontormo  dipinctore  de  dare  p  cassa 
Duct  ff  trenta  L  dua  hebe  dato  p  avf  I  noue  volte  como  I  quad0  f  a  65  Duct 
30L2s  — d. 

276 


DOCUMENTS 

MDxxiiij  adi  xx  d.  setemb 

Idem,  p.  8  verso. 

Mr°  Jacopo  da  pontormo  dipentore  di  dare  p  cassa  Duct  dieci  ebe  de 
contanti  dal  p.  priore  como  se  vede  I  q°  di  cassa  sto  f  a  68  Duct  10  L  —  s  —  d. 

e  piu  adi  3  di  dicembre  Duct,  dieci  ebe  dal  p.  piore  como  inq°  sto  f  a 
69  Duct  10  L  — s  — d. 

fa  Duct  20  L  —  s. 

M  D  xxv  adi  30  doctobre 

Idem,  p.  23  destra. 

Mr°  Giacopo  da  pontormo  dipintore  di  dare  p  cassa  Duct,  x  porto  lui 
di  contanti  p  parte  como  si  vede  in  quad0  di  cassa  a  78  Duct.  10  L  —  s  —  d. 

E  piu  adi  20  di  dicembre  Duct  x  porto  lui  ebe  dal  pcur  p  parte  como  si 
vede  in  quad0  di  cassa  sto  f .  a  81  Duct  10  L  —  s  —  d. 

fa  Duct  20  L  —  s. 

M  D.  xxv 

Idem,  p.  30  destra. 

E  piu  Duct  uno  L  sei  pagamo  a  mro  Jac°  dipintore  p  tanti  colori  e  la 
cornice  p  fare  lo  cenaculo  de  la  despensa  como  in  q°  a  86  Duct.  1  L  6  s  —  d. 

mr°  Jacopo  inpentore  di  dare  p  cassa  Duct  sette  ebe  dal  pcur  e  fu  adi 
4  di  Junio  como  in  q°  d  cassa  a  86  Duct  7  L  —  s  — 

Idem,  p.  34  sinistra. 

mr°  Giac°po  dipintore  di  dare  p  cassa  Duct  dua  ebe  dal  p  cur  e  fu  adi 
12  de  agosto  eomo  sivede  in  q°  di  cassa  a  89  Duct.  —  2  L  —  s. 

Idem,  p.  40  destra. 

mr°  Giacopo  impentore  di  dare  p  cassa  Duct  quatro  ebe  dal  pcuratore  e 
fu  adi  15  di  nouembre  1526  come  ing°  de  cassa  Sto  f  a  94  Duct  4  L  —  s. 

Idem,  p.  45  destra. 

mr°  Jae°  dipintore  di  dare  p  cassa  Duct  sei  e  fu  adi  4  di  genaio  ebe  dal 
pcur  como  si  vede  ing°  di  cassa  Sto  f  a  96  Duct  6  L  —  s. 

Idem,  p.  47  verso. 

mr°  Jacopo  dipintore  di  dare  p  cassa  Duct,  cinqu  ebe  dal  pcur  como  in 
q°  di  cassa  Sto  f  e  f u  adi  15  daple  a  101  Duct  5  L. 

M  xxvij  (sic)  adi  5  decembre 

Idem,  p.  55  recto. 

mro  Giacopo  da  pontormo  dipintore  di  dare  p  cassa  Duct  uno  L  v  s  14 
P  Sta  6  difarina  e  paia  2  di  galloni  pago  lo  pcur  a  fra  Jer°  et  a  fra  franc0 
como  ing°  di  cassa  sto  f  a  108  Duct  1  L  5  s  14. 

M  D.  xxvij 

Idem,  p.  58  recto. 

Mr°  Jac°  da  pontormo  dipintore  di  dare  p  entrata  dadi  28  di  febraio  1524 
Duct  dua  L  quat°  s  dieci  sono  p  la  valuta  di  some  8  di  flasconi  ebe  in  piu  volte 
e  p  una  meza  catasta  di  legno  p  L  8  £  eli  flasconi  a  s  25  la  soma  posta  in 
firenze  a  Duct.  2  L  —  4  s  10. 

277 


PONTORMO 

E  piu  adi  3  dilugio  1526  L  tre  s  x  sono  p  la  valuta  di  uno  Bar  di  vino  di 
gtto  de  la  montagna  beuealo  queto  anze  vectura  e  gabella  Duct  —  L  3  s  10. 

E  piu  da  di  14  di  nouembre  1526  p  sino  adi  17  decto  Duct  dua  L  vi  s 
gindici  sono  p  la  valuta  di  una  cattasta  di  legne  ebe  in  dua  volta  e  some  3  di 
flasconi  posti  in  firenze  anza  victura  e  gabella  Duct.  2  L  6  s  15. 

fa  Duct  6  L  —  s  15. 

Doc.  XVI.    Firenze :  Archivio  di  Stato.    San  Lorenzo  al  Monte : 
Quaderno  di  Cassa  F.    Convento  51,  No.  40,  p.  65  destra. 

M.  D.  xxiiij 

26  deto  (Maggio) 

A  mr°  Jacopo  di  btholomeo  dapontormo  depintore  Duct  trenta  L  dua 
hebe  dal  pcuratore  in  9  volte  p  parte  da  di  4  di  Febraio  1522  p  insine  adi 
10  dapUle  1524  supra  ala  depintura  fa  nel  claustro  Duct  —  30  L  2  s  —  s. 

M.  D.  xxiiij0  adi  16  dagosto 
Idem,  p.  68  destra. 
Amr°  Jacopo  dipintore  duct  porto  lui  Duct.  10  L  —  s  —  d. 

M  D.  xxiiij0  adi  29  doctobr 
Idem,  p.  69  destra. 

adi  deto  Amro  Jacopo  di  pintore  duct  deci  hebe  lui  cotanti  dal  p  priore  p 
parte  Duct.  10  L  s  —  d. 

Idem,  p.  78  destra. 

Capsa  cotrassta  di  hau  p  sino  adi  30  de  oct-1525  duct  dieci  pagami  a 
Mr°  Jacobo  depintore  porto  lui  p  parte  Duct  10  L  —  s  —  d. 

M  D  xx  (sic) 
Idem,  p.  81  destra. 

20  decto  A  mro  Jac°  dipintore  Duct  dieci  ebe  dal  p  cur  fu  adi  19  d.  decebr 
Duct  10  L  —  s  —  d. 

M.  D.  xxvj  adi  29  d.  marzo 
Idem,  p.  86  destra. 

A  mr°  Jacopo  dipintore  Duct  sette  ebe  dal  pcuf  a  fu  adi  4  de  Junio  Duct 
7L  — s  — d. 

adi  25  de  agosto  1526 
Idem,  p.  89  destra. 

A  mr°  Jacopo  depentore  Duct  Dua  hebe  dal  pcurator  et  fu  adi  12  dagosto 
Duct  2  L  — s  — d. 

adi  pmo  di  Decembrio  1526 
Idem,  p.  94. 

L  tre  s  quatordeci  d  sei  p  gabella  de  legne  et  fraseoni  mandati  a  mr°  Jac° 
depitore  e  pto  de  la  casa  sua  Duct  —  L  3  s  14  d  6. 

278 


DOCUMENTS 

Idem,  p.  94. 

a  mr°  Jac°  Dapontormo  depetore  Duct  quat°  hebe  dal  pcuratore  et  fu 
adi  15  Novebrio  1526  a  suo  coto  Duct  4. 

adi  10  di  febraio  1526 
Idem,  p.  96  destra. 

A  mr°  Jac°  Depentore  dapontormo  Duct  sei  et  fu  adi  4  Digenaio  hebe 
dal  pcuratore  Duct  —  6  L  —  s  —  d. 

adi  5  dap 'le  1527 
Idem,  p.  101. 

A  mr°  Jac°  Depetore  Duct  cinqu  e  fu  adi  15  apUe  hebe  Dal  p  curatore 
porto  lui  Duct  5. 

adi  27  di  Nouebrio  1527 
Idem,  p.  108. 

Decebrio  6  A  mr<>  Jac°  Depetore :  Duct  uno  L  cinqu  s  xiiij  hebe  Sta  6  de 
farina  et  paia.  2.  degaline  pago  el  p  curatore 
Duct  —  1  L  —  5  s.  14  d. 

Doc.  XVII.  Firenze:  ArcMvio  di  Stato.  Monastero  di  Santa 
Felicita  di  Firenze.  Convento  83,  No.  115:  Libro  Ricor- 
danze  1485-1528,  p.  21. 

Rdo  come  oggi  questo  di  digenaio  1490  Ant°  di  Bnado  paghanelli  a  dato 
a  affitare  la  capella  della  nutiata  posta  nella  chiesa  di  Seta  Felicita  p  ladrieto 
della  casa  de '  barbadori  alpute  di  deto  ant°  a  f  buono  di . . .  busini  pte  fioretino 
p  di.  L  lano. 

Marginal  note : 

Compero  il  d°  Antonio  la  da  Cappa  da  Barbadori  e  da  Bernardo  suo  figlio 
fu  venduta  a  Ludovico  Capponi  p  scudi  200. 

Doc.  XVIII.  Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.  Accademia  del 
Disegno,  No.  I,  Registro :  Elenco  dei  Pittori,  p.  10  verso. 

*J*  Jachopo  d.  Btolomeo  dapuntormo  dipre  1525. 

Doc.  XIX.  Firenze :  Archivio  di  Stato.  Medici  e  Speziali,  No. 
11 :  Libro  Verde ;  Matricola  per  la  Citta,  p.  27  sinistra. 

Die  V  mesis  iunij  1526 

332 

Jacobus  bartei  Jacobi  de  putormo  pictor  in|  civitate  florentiae  uolens 
uenire  ad  magistrate  |  dicte  artis  et  describi  inter  al  matriculates  ppea  pmisit 
et  iuravit  et  obligavit  renumpsians  et  rogans,  &c. 

Nil  debet  soluere  benefitio  dicti  Jacobi  bartei  eius  patris  matriculati  in 
libro  pagonazo  a  181. 

279 


PONTORMO 

Doc.  XX.  Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.  Catasto:  Estimo  del 
Contado,  No.  5.  Quartiere  San  Giovanni,  1520;  Popoli 
1-95,  No.  128,  p.  57  sinistra. 

Jachopo  di  btlomeo  d.  Jacopo  da  puntonno  a  dua  siti  da  fare  possi  I  ditto 
popolo  invia  Laura  e  ce  da  p°  via  Se°  zanoby  orafo  3°  spedale  dinocieti  copo 
dallo  spe  dalle  di  iiocieti  p  ff  100  dr°  rt°  %  franc  Sasoly  adi  15  de  marzo  1529 : 

et  di  poij  a  murato  una  p  suo  abitare.  p  fare  la  bottega et  di  poy  ivero 

itutto  p  fare  il  suo  abitare. 

Andati  a  Jac°  detto  p  uso 

Doc.  XXI.  Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.  Catasto:  Libro  a 
Parte  1534.  Cittadini  a  parte:  Quartiere  Santa  Maria 
Novella  e  San  Giovanni  1534,  No.  11.  Quartiere  San 
Giovanni:  Gonf alone  Chiave,  p.  448  sinistra. 

Jac°  di  btolomeo  di  Jac°  dipitore  daputormo.    Sustanzie. 

po  alibro  No.  349.  Una  chasa  nelpp0  dis°  pro  maggiore]  in  via  laura  a 
p°  via  2°  zanobi  di|  ghabiello  orafo  3°  gino  scharpellino  da|  settigniano  4° 
orbatello  p  suo  uso  —  e  leuata  dasobb.  Sto  G1  No  5  (56)  dallui  detto  cne 
murata  dinuovo. 


Doc.  XXII.     Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.     Archivio  mediceo 
del  Principato :  Carteggio  Universale,  filza  567,  c.  187  e  225. 

Letter  of  Costantino  Ansoldi  to  Francesco  de'  Medici1 

germo  Principe 

Supplico  sua  Alteza  come  gia  molti  anni  Intesi  che  Soa  Alteza,  overo 
il  gran  Duca  fece  publicare  una  crida  in  Fiorenza  per  sapere  ove  si  trovasse 
II  ritratto  della  bona  memoria  del  Duca  Alessandro,  promettendo  bona 
remuneratione,  et  perch 'io  sono  statto  creatura  del  Detto  Duca  Alessandro 
mio  Signore  et  ancho  sempre  desideroso  di  farme  conoscer  alia  soa  Alteza 
per  suo  amorevolissimo  servitor,  subito  mi  mossi  a  pensare  nella  mente  mia 
se  potessi  In  qualche  modo  uenir  in  cognitione  di  detto  retratto,  venendome 
In  memoria  ch'  II  detto  Duca  mio  Signore  me  lo  dono  mentre  era  vivo,  et 
doppo  la  sua  morte  m'e  venuto  In  memoria  ch'io  lo  donai  a  una  Signora 
Thadea  Malaspina,  qual  f u  sorella  dell '  Illma  Marcha  di  Massa  che  f u  Madre 
dell '  Eccmo  Principe  hoggidi  di  Massa,  et  con  qsto  mi  partei  da  Casalmaggiore 

i  Gualandi  (III,  62-70)  published  this  letter  from  a  copy  made  by  F.  MoisS  in  1851 
in  which  the  latter  falsely  transcribed  the  name  of  the  artist  as  Jaeopo  da  Ponte.  Gualandi, 
unable  to  make  a  satisfactory  hypothetical  contact  between  the  lives  of  Bassano  and 
Alessandro  de'  Medici,  concluded  that  Ansoldi  was  guilty  of  gross  misrepresentation. 
Carnasecchi  reprinted  the  document  somewhat  more  accurately  (Eivista  d' arte,  VI  [1909] 
34-36)  and  indicated  its  connection  with  Pontormo.  Both  versions  are  in  varying  degrees 
inexact.  It  was  Cosimo  I  who  had  advertised  for  the  lost  portrait  of  his  ancestor  but,  since 
Ansoldi  writes  (1571)  after  the  retirement  of  Cosimo  (1564),  he  addresses  himself  to  the 
"principe  reggente"  Francesco  de'  Medici. 

280 


DOCUMENTS 

patria  mia  neH'anno  del  Sre  1568.  adi.  10.  di  915re  che  fu  la  vigilia  di  Sto 
Martino.  per  andar  a  camino  di  trovar  tal  ritratto,  desiderando  presentarlo 
alia  soa  Alteza,  parte  per  raffarmare  la  mia  antica  servitu,  parte  per  haver 
qualch'aiuto  dalla  mane  di  soa  Alteza  per  soccorrere  alii  bisogni  di  cinque 
mie  figliole  femine,  quali  sono  da  marito  et  senza  roba  et  senza  madre,  feci 
capo  a  Ferrara  a  una  Sra  lulia  Malaspina  figliola  della  detta  Sra  Thedea, 
dalla  Intesi  che  detto  ritratto  si  trovava  nella  guarda  robba  del  Principe 
di  Massa,  per  eh'essa  Sra  Thadea  era  morta  in  casa  del  detto  Principe,  nella 
qual'erano  restate  tutte  le  sue  spolie.  lo  inteso  questo  feci  ricapito  in 
Fiorenza  persuadendomi  che  la  servitu  ch'io  teneva  con  II  Sr  lulio  de  Medici 
qual  io  ho  alevato  et  fu  consignato  et  raccto  nelle  mie  mani  dal  detto  Duca 
Alessro  havesse  ad  operare  con  rillm<>  Principe  di  Massa  per  essersi  alevati 
loro  insiema  che  con  il  suo  meggio  detto  ritratto  pervenesse  nelle  mie  mani, 
ma  Intendendo  che  II  Sr  lulio  era  in  Pisa  mi  transfer!  da  Fiorenza  a  Pisa, 
et  havendoli  narrato  la  causa  della  mia  venuta  pregandolo  volessi  recuperare 
detto  ritratto  et  farmene  un  dono  in  ricompensa  della  mia  fedel  servitu  fatta 
alia  bona  memoria  del  Duca  Alessro  suo  Padre  et  anche  a  S.S. ;  mi  rispose 
ch'  a  tutte  sua  forze  1'haverebbe  ricuperato,  et  eh'  il  ritratto  saria  statto  il 
mio,  et  di  piu  che  lui  haveva  obligatione  di  far  tutto  quello  ch'  io  gli  chiedessi 
per  che  haveva  nel  suo  corpo  Panima  di  detto  Duca,  et  con  questa  speranza 
restai  in  Fiorenza  et  Pisa  cinque  mesi  con  mio  grandissimo  interesse,  et 
grandissima  infermita,  per  la  qual  fu  forzato  partirme  per  venir  a  casa, 
havendo  pero  prima  hauta  licenza  da  esso  Sre  lulio,  et  prowisione  sopra 
lasua  parola  di  non  mancarmi  nel  detto  servitio  et  hebbe  soccorso  di  denari 
per  il  mio  viaggio  dal  gran  Duca  per  mano  del  Sr  Thomaso  di  Medici,  gionsi 
a  casa  et  ricuperai  la  sanita  quando  piaque  al  Sr  Iddio,  et  alcuni  mesi  doppo 
il  Sr  lulio  mi  scrisse  ch'io  andassi  a  Fiorenza,  perche  haveva  ricuperato  con 
gran  difficulta  il  ritratto,  et  era  per  darmi  tutto  il  mio  intento,  come  posso 
justificare  per  sue  lettere  per  il  che  mi  partei  per  Fiorenza  a  di  5  maggio  1570 
et  subito  che  fu  gionto  da  S.S.  mi  prese  per  la  mano  et  mi  mostro  il  ritratto,  et 
perch 'io  instava  che  non  volesse  mancare  di  quanto  mi  haveva  promesso,  mi 
disse  che  lui  non  mi  voleva  ar  modo  alcuno  dare  quel  primo  et  autentico,  ma  che 
me  ne  haverebbe  datto  una  copia,  sopra  ch'io  gli  feci  contrasto,  tenendo  che 
matfchasse  della  sua  parola  atteso  che  questo  retratto  era  sta  sepulto  33  Anni, 
et  per  meggio  mio  era  stato  scoperto,  ma  non  potei  ottenere  altro  da  S.S.  per 
che  mai  volse  concedermi  1' original  di  detto  ritratto,  anci  ne  fece  fare  una 
copia,  qual  fu  principiata  da  Vincenzo  suo  pittore,  et  poi  finita  da  Salvio 
pittore  del  Cavalier  somo,  ma  detta  copia  riusci  sborgna,  et  io  recusai' 
d'accettarla,  et  gli  dissi  al  meno  S.S.  ne  doveva  far  fare  una  copia  per  man 
di  qualche  valent'homo,  ma  lui  mi  rispose  Constantino  non  lo  posso  fare, 
per  ch'il  gran  Duca  subito  lo  sapria  et  me  ne  privaria.  Onde,  io,  vedendo 
la  sua  ferma  risolutione  contraria  alia  speranza  ch'io  teneva  et  alia  parola 
dattami  da  S.S.  non  volsi  a  patto  alcuno  aecettarne  copia,  ma  mi  resolsi 
venirmene  a  casa,  et  cosi  venni  in  effetto  senza  fame  motto  ad  esso  Sr  lulio 
con  mio  grandissimo  interesse  di  borsa,  et  mala  satisfation  d'animo,  non 
havendo  possuto  adempire  1' intento  mio,  pero  ringratio  sempre  la  M**  Divina; 
germo  Principe  questo  retratto  e  il  vero  et  lusto  qual  fu  fatto  nel  tempo  che 
morse  la  bona  memoria  di  Papa  Clemente  in  Fiorenza  in  casa  di  Pazi,  per 
man  di  Jacobo  da  pontor  famoso  homo,  in  habito  da  corrotto,  in  tavola  a 
tutta  facia  et  sin 'alia  Cintura,  al  qual  non  gli  manca  altro  che  la  favella; 
cosi  ho  voluto  darne  noticia  alia  Alteza  sua,  per  ch'io  non  glielo  posso  dare 

281 


PONTOEMO 

con  le  mie  mani,  come  desiderava,  aceio  almeno  soa  Alteza  possi  con  le  mie 
ragioni,  queli  io  gli  renuntio  in  tutto  ricuperare  detto  ritratto.  et  far  quanto 
gli  pare;  Suppla  solamente  vogli  tener  memoria  di  me  Fidmo  et  antico 
servitore  del  Duca  Alessro  dignandosi  darme  qualche  soccorso  per  me  qual 
mi  ritrovo  povero  senza  faculta  di  sorte  alcuna  et  d'eta  de'  69  anno,  et  con 
cinque  figliole  femine  da  marito,  che  riconoscero  il  tutto  dalla  man  di  S.  Alteza 
et  il  Sr  Iddio  gli  ne  rendera  il  guiderdone  mantenendo  et  augumentando  il 
suo  felice  stato  come  fa;  et  quando  S.  Alteza  si  dignara  saper  quel  ch'io  son, 
et  sono  stato,  pigliara  informatione  dal  Cavalier  Carlo  da  Spello,  da  m.  lulio 
da  Pistoia,  da  maestro  augustino  sarto,  da  m  Stephano  Romano  camerier 
del  gran  Duca,  et  di  piu  dal  Sermo  gran  Duca,  da'  quali  credo  soa  Alteza 
havera  bonissimo  ragualio  delle  mie  actioni;  et  se  soa  Alteza  volesse  valersi 
di  me  in  cosa  alcuna  sara  servita  indrizare  la  Ira  in  Parma,  in  casa  del  Sr 
Scipion  Banzola,  per  che  havro  bon  ricapito  et  io  non  mancaro  di  far  quanto 
mi  comandara  soa  Alteza,  alia  qual  serviro  sempre  con  fede  et  con  la  verita, 
et  se  la  M<&  di  Dio  mi  eoncedesse  che  io  havesse  il  modo  di  poter  venire  alii 
Piedi  di  S.  Alteza  come  sarebbe  1'animo  mio,  gli  farei  conoscere  che  prima 
ch'  hora  ho  desiderato  far  cosa  grata  a  Soa  Alteza,  et  1'havrei  fatto  in  effetto 
se  il  Sr  lulio  non  me  havesse  ingannato  et  non  fosse  proceduto  con  me  con 
tanta  malignita  com'  ha  fatto,  ma  non  voglio  passare  piu  oltra,  in  scritto 
accio  soa  Alteza  non  mi  tenesse  uno  Aretino,  com'  in  effetto  io  non  son,  ne 
mi  movo  se  non  con  gran  ragione;  Et  con  questo  fine  humilte  baxio  li  piedi 
di  soa  Alteza,  alia  qual  N.  S.  Iddio  doni  ogni  felicita  insieme  con  tutti  li  soi 
descendenti.  Da  Casalmaggre  il  di  23  9bre  M.D.LXXI. 

Di  S.  A. 

Humiliss0  Servitore 

Costantino  Ansoldi. 
(a  tergo) 

Al  Serm°  Principe  di  Fiorenza 
overo  in  sua  absentia  al  Serm° 
gran  Duca,  mei  Sri 

In  Fiorenza. 

Doc.  XXIII.  Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.  Catasto:  Cittadini 
a  parte :  Quartiere  San  Giovanni :  Gonf alone  Chiave,  1549, 
No.  16,  p.  349  sinistra. 

Jac°  di  btmo  di  Jac°  dipintore  ttj°  dalibro  apte  36  (448)  una  casa  nelp° 
di  S°  pre  magiore  invia  laura  a  p°  via  2«  Zanobi  di  Gabrello  orafo  3°  bino 
scarpno  4°  orbatello  p  Xa  p  uso 

Doc.  XXIV.  Lettere  CXXVII  del  Commendatore  Annibal 
Caro  raccolte  dal  Conte  Giulio  Bernardino  Tomitano  opiter- 
gino  ed  ora  per  la  prima  volta  pubblicate  in  Venezia  per 
Antonio  Zatta,  1791. 

A  Mon.  Giov.  Guidiccioni  a  Fossombruno. 
Lettera  VI. 

282 


DOCUMENTS 

...  A  quest'  ora  il  ritratto  di  V.  S.  e  finite  del  tutto  ed  oggi  gli  si  da  la 
vernice.  II  Pastermo  si  e  portato  da  un  uomo  grande  ed  la  migliorato  assai, 
ma  io  non  me  ne  soddisfaccio  interamente  perche  V.  S.  e  degna  de'  Michelangeli 
e  de'  Bastiani. 

Volea  fare  intarciare  le  lettere  nell'  ornamento  ma  perche  sconficcandosi 
si  disordina  ogni  cosa,  mi  sono  risoluto  di  farvele  dipingere.  V.  S.  m'ordini 
quel  ehe  n'ho  da  fare  e  intanto  me  lo  vagheggiero  in  vece  di  Lei. 

Di  Eoma  alii  12  d'Ottobre  1539. 

Idem,  Lettera  VII.  To  the  Same 

...  II  ritratto  si  portera  questa  sera  al  Bernardi. 

19  Ottobre  1539. 

Some  of  the  letters  printed  in  this  volume  were  in  the  eighteenth  century 
in  the  private  collections  of  Duca  Mancciucca  di  Napoli  and  of  Don  Francesco 
Daniele,  Segretario  dell '  Accademia  Ercolanese.  Others  were  in  the  Biblioteca 
Borghese  and  in  the  Biblioteca  privata  del  Regnante  Pontefice.  Their  present 
whereabouts  is  unknown  to  me. 

Cav.  Visconti  printed  in  the  Giornale  arcadico,  Tomo  LXXX,  p.  93,  with 
certain  changes  of  spelling  among  which  Pastermo  to  Pontormo,  the  excerpt 
given  above  of  letter  No.  VI.  In  Seghezzi's  edition  of  Caro's  letters  (Milano, 
1807,  I,  117)  the  painter's  name  is  still  given  as  Pastermo. 

Doc.  XXV.    Firenze:  ArcMvio  degl'  Innocent!.    Libro  Nero: 
Debitor!  e  Creditor!  G.    1545-1551,  p.  446. 

1549 

Jacopo  di  bt°  di  contto  di  dare  adi  xx  dagosto  ff  cento  p  una  comessa 
nel  n«  spedale  comapare  al  giornle  R  (157)  a  p  patti  b  (419)  a  liro  comess* 
(72)  ff  100. 

Idem,  p.  ccccxlvi. 

Jacopo  d  bt°  dapuntormo  dipintore  di  aver  adi  xxiii  di  marzo  ff  cento 
di  m* . . .  dal  q<>  di  cassa  b  (210)  e  ent*a  S  (36)  dare  cassa  (444)  ff  100. 

Doc.  XXVI.     Firenze:  ArcMvio  degl'  Innocent!.     Libro  di 
Commessi  B.    1528-1549,  p.  ccccxviiii. 

Jacopo  di  btolomeo  da  puntormo  dipintore  di  auer  ogni  ano  durante  sua 
vita  naturale  che  deta  dani  55  sta  xxiiii0  di  grano  b*  vi°  di  vino  et  b°  1° 
d'olio  posto  in  fre  alia  casa  di  sua  abitazione  atempi  solid  et  q°  p  auer 
comesso  nel  n°  spedale  ff  cento  di  ma  comapare  algiornale  R  (157)  et  albro 
No  p  (446)  e  provata  da  sri  consoli  et  operai  di  nostra  arte  addi  xx  dagosto 
1549.  posto  al  1°  giallo  (177) 

Doc.  XXVII.    Firenze:  ArcMvio  di  Stato.    Depositeria  Vec- 
cMa,  No.  394,  p.  101  destra. 

Bastiano  del  gostra  pittore  con  m°  Jac°  dapontormo  conprouisione  de 
duca  dua  al  mese  cominciando  add  pmo  dimarzo  1554  et  di  havere  adi  28  di 

283 


PONTORMO 

febbraio  1556  p  tanti  messoli  auscita  Fissatasalariati  p  sua  prouisione  di 
marzo  aprile  et  magio  1555  pagatoli  di  conto  ff  36. 

Idem,  p.  101  sinistra. 

Bastiano  del  gestra  pittore  diet0  dedare  addi  xxvii  di  feb°  1556  ff  dua 
porto  lui  p  sua  provisione  di  marzo  1555. 

Resta  da  havere  ff  ventidua  p  sua  provisione  di  mesi  11  di  p°  anno  1555 
p  tutto  febbraio  fatto  creditore  alibro  desalariati  p  1557  di  ff  ventidua. 
Duet.  22. 

Doc.  XXVIII.  Firenze :  ArcMvio  di  Stato.  Medici  e  Speziali 
No.  251.  Libro  dei  Morti  1544-1560,  p.  92  recto. 

Genaio  1556 
Mr°  Jac°  di  Lorenzo  dapontormo  di  pntore  mri  Adi  2  spito  nella  nutiata. 

Doc.  XXIX.  Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.  Medici  e  Speziali: 
Libro  dei  Morti  1506-1560 :  Serie  della  Grascia,  p.  524  verso. 

Gennaio  1556 
M°  Jac°  diLz°  da  puntornio  sep°  nella  nunziata  adi  2. 

Doc.  XXX.  Firenze:  ArcMvio  di  Stato.  Notari:  G  300. 
Protocollo  di  Ser  Giovanni  Battista  di  Lorenzo  Giordani 
(1555-1556),  c.  399  r. 

3  febbraio  1557 

Item  posta  dictis  anno  1556  Indicne  15  etdie]  3°  mensis  februarij.  Actu 
Flor6  In  populo  sfi\  stephani  abbatia  Florne  presentibus  testib|  &  Priore  S  Ghei 
de  Gharadinis  et|  Luca  ant1  de  balieaccis  testore  draper. 

Publicer  pateat  quatr  Andreas  oli  Ant1]  Bart1  als  mei  testor  drapporu 

costitutusj  I  psentia  mei  et  testium  pmissoru|  Asserens  egregiu  magm  Jacm  q. 

Bat*  micupatum|   de  Potormo  pictore  mortuu  esse  et  decessisse 

aditio         jam  est  mesis  vel  circa  nullo  p  eu  codito  testameto  qd  sciatur 

here  nullis  relictis  liberis  sed  relicto  post  se|  dicto  Andrea  eius  attinete 

ditatis        et  coniucto|  I  gnto  gradu  et  pximiori  ipsi  mag°  Jacobo]  ex  latere 

matris  scilicet]  nato  ex  Dona  marghta  Giachi  calzolarij|  de  potormo 

sorore  patrueli  dicti  Andree|  et  nullis  aliis  post  se  relictis  subcessoribus|  dictu 

Andrea  excludere  ab  hereditate)  dicti  mag1  Jac1  seu  cu  eo  i  aliqa  pte|  cocurrere 

et  putans  hereditate  pdicta|  potius  utilem  q  inutile.    Idest  meliori,  &c. 

Doc.  XXXI.  Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.  Decima:  Ricerca 
delle  Case  di  Firenze  1561.  Quartiere  San  Giovanni,  p.  128. 

Pergola  via  o  via  della  Colonna 

1983  Andrea  di . . .  detto  il  Chiarrella|  tessitore  una  casa  contigua  alia 
dtta  cha|  Antonio  di  Gino  lorenzi  —  | 

Habita  apigione  Franco  di  Goro  pittore  p  ff  |  14  sta  ff  24  B  4  —  ff  14.  2.  2. 
Antonio  come  al  quaderno. 

284 


DOCUMENTS 

Doc.  XXXII.     Due  Lezzioni   di  messer  Benedetto  Varchi, 
Fiorenza:  Torrentino,  MDXLIX,  Appendix.1 

II  diletto  ch  io  so  che  voi,  mag.  M.  Benedetto,  pigliate  di  qualche  bella 
pittura  o  scultura,  e  in  oltre  lamore  che  voi  agli  huomini  di  dette  profession! 
portate,  mi  fa  credere  chel  sottilissimo  intelletto  vostro  si  muova  aricercare 
le  nobilita  e  ragioni  di  ciascuna  di  queste  due  arti,  disputa  certo  bella 
edifficilissima,  e  ornameto  proprio  del  vostro  si  raro  ingegno,  &  per  esser 
ricerco  con  tanta  benignita  da  una  vostra  de'  di  passati  di  dette  ragioni, 
non  sapero  o  potero  forse  con  parole  e  enchiostro  esprimere  interamente  le 
fatiche  di  chi  opera,  pure  per  qualche  ragione  e  essempio  semplicemente 
(senza  conclusione  non  dimanco)  ve  ne  diro  quello  chi  mi  occorre.  La  cosa 
in  se  e  tanto  difficile,  che  la  non  si  puo  disputare  e  manco  risolvere,  perche 
una  cosa  sola  ce,  che  e  nobile  che  el  suo  fondamento  e  questo  sie  el  disegno, 
e  tutte  quante  laltre  ragioni  sono  debole,  rispetto  a  questo  (vedetelo,  che 
chiunque  ha  questo  fa  1'una  e  1'altra  bene)  &  se  tutte  1'altre  arguitioni  sono 
debole  e  meschine  rispetto  a  questo  come  si  puo  ella  disputare  co  questo  solo, 
se  non  lassare  stare  questo  da  parte,  non  hauendo  simile  a  se  &  produrre 
altre  ragioni  piu  debole  senza  fine,  o  conclusione?  Come  dire  una  figura  di 
scultura  fabricata  atorno,  e  da  tutte  le  bande  tode,  e  finita  per  tutto,  con 
scarpelli,  e  altri  strumenti  faticosi,  ritrovata  in  certi  luoghi  da  non  potere 
pensare  in  che  modo  si  possa  co'  ferri  entrarui  o  finirui  essendo  pietra  o  cosa 
dura;  che  a  fatica  alia  tenera  terra  sarebbe  fattibile,  oltre  alle  difficulta 
d'un  braccio  in  aria  co  qualche  cosa  in  mano,  difficile,  e  sottile  a  condurla 
che  non  si  rompa,  oltre  di  questo  non  potere  rimediare  quando  e  leuato  un 
poco  troppo  (questo  e  ben  vero,  oltre  a  questo  hauerla  accord ato  benissimo 
per  un  verso)  &  poi  per  gli  altri  no  ve  1'ha  a  ritrouare,  quando  per  macamento 
di  pietra  in  qualche  lato,  per  la  difficulta  grande  che  e  in  accordare  propor- 
zionate  tutte  le  parti  insieme  a  tondo,  non  potendo  ben  mai  vedere  come 
1'ha  a  stare,  se  non  fatta  che  1'e,  e  se  le  non  sono  cose  minime  e  non  va 
rimedio;  ma  e  non  hara  non  ha  rimedio.  Ma  chi  non  avra  fondamento  di 
disegno,  incorrera  in  errori,  o  in  auertenze  troppo  euidente,  che  le  cose  minime 
si  possono  male  fugire  nelluna  e  nell'altra,  ecci  ancora  e  vari  modi  di  fare, 
come  di  marmo,  di  bronzo,  e  tate  varie  sorte  di  pietra,  di  stucho,  di  legno, 
di  terra  e  molte  altre  cose,  che  in  tutte  bisogna  gran  praticha,  oltre  alia 
fatica  della  persona,  che  non  e  piccola;  ma  questa  tiene  1'uomo  piu  sano, 
e  fargli  megliore  complessione ;  doue  che  el  Pittore  e  el  contrario,  male 
disposto  del  coropo  per  le  fatiche  dell'arte,  piu  tosto  fastidi  di  mente  che 
aumeto  di  vita;  (troppo  ardito),  e  volenteroso  di  imitare  tutte  le  cose  che 
ha  fatto  la  natura,-  co  colori,  perche  le  paino  esse  (e  ancora  migliorarle) 
per  fare  i  sua  lauori  ricchi,  e  pieni  di  cose  varie,  faccendo,  doue  accade  come 
dire,  splendori,  notte  con  fuochi,  e  altri  lumi  simili,  aria,  nugoli,  paesi 
lontani  e  dappresso,  casamenti  con  tante  varie  osseruanze  di  prospettiua, 
animali  di  tanta  sorti,  di  tanti  vari  colori  e  tante  altre  cose;  che  e  possibile 

i  Eeprinted  with  many  changes  of  spelling  and  punctuation  and  with  certain  omissions 
that  obscure  the  sense  of  several  passages,  as  well  as  with  the  erroneous  remark  that  it 
was  originally  addressed  to  M.  Benedetto  Cellini,  in  Bottari's  Raccolta  di  Lettere  sulla 
Pittura,  Scultura  ed  Architettura,  scritte  da'  piu  celebri  personaggi  dei  Secolo  XV,  XVI 
e  XVII  (edizione  Ticozzi,  Milano,  1822,  I,  20-25).  This  letter  was  really  written  by 
Pontormo  at  Varchi 's  request  and  formed  part  of  the  symposium  appended  to  his  lecture 
on  sculpture  and  painting  in  which  he  published  various  opinions  expressed  by  famous 
artists  on  the  relative  merits  of  the  two  arts. 

285 


PONTORMO 

che  in  una  storia  che  facci  vi  s'interuenga  cio  che  fe'  mai  la  natura,  oltre  a 
come  io  dissi  disopra,  migliorarle,  e  col  arte  dare  loro  grazia,  a  accomodarle, 
e  comporle  doue  le  stanno  meglio;  oltre  a  questo  e  varii  modi  di  lauorare,  in 
fresco,  a  olio,  a  tempera,  a  colla,  che  in  tutto  bisogna  gran  pratica  a  maneg- 
giare  tanti  vari  colori,  sapere  conoscere  i  loro  effetti,  mesticati  in  tanti  varii 
modi,  chiari,  scuri,  ombre,  e  lumi,  reflessi,  e  molte  altre  appartenenze  infinite 
che  io  dissi  troppo  ardito,  che  la  importaza  sie  superare  la  natura  in  volere 
dare  spirito  a  una  figura,  e  f aria  parere  viua,  e  farla  in  piano ;  che  se  almeno 
egli  hauesse  considerate,  che  quando  Dio  creo  1'huomo,  Io  fece  di  rilieuo, 
come  cosa  piu  facile  a  farlo  viuo,  et  no  si  harebbe  preso  uno  soggetto  si 
artifitioso,  e  piu  tosto  miracoloso  e  diuino. 

Dico  ancora,  per  gli  essempi  che  se  ne  puo  dare,  Michelagnolo  non  hauer 
potuto  mostrare  la  profondita  del  disegno,  e  la  grandezza  dell'  ingegno  suo 
diuino  nelle  stupende  figure  di  rilievo  fatte  da  lui,  ma  nelle  miracolose  opere 
di  tante  varie  figure,  e  atti  begli  essorsi  di  pittura  si,  hauendo  questa  sempre 
piu  amata,  come  cosa  piu  difficile,  e  piu  atta  allo  ingegno  suo  sopranaturale, 
non  gia  per  questo  ei  non  conosca  la  sua  grandezza,  e  eternita  dependere  da 
la  Scultura,  cosi  si  degna  e  si  eterna,  ma  di  questa  eternita  ne  participa  piu 
le  caue  de  marmi  di  carrara  che  la  virtu  dello  artefice,  perche  e  in  migliore 
soggetto,  e  questi  soggetto  cioe  rilieuo  appresso  di  gran  maestri  e  cagione 
di  grandissimi  premii,  e  molta  fama,  e  altre  degnita  in  ricompenso  di  si 
degna  virtu,  pesomi  dunche,  che  sia  come  del  vestire  che  questa  sia  panno 
fine,  perche  dura  piu  e  di  piu  spesa ;  e  la  pittura  panno  acotonato  dello  inferno 
che  dura  poco  e  di  manca  spesa  perche  leuato  che  gl '  ha  quello  riccolino  non 
se  ne  tiene  piu  conto,  ma  hauendo  ogni  cosa  hauer  fine,  non  sono  eglino 
eterne  a  un  modo,  e  ci  sarei  che  dire  in'  bondato,  ma  habbiatemi  per  scusato, 
che  no  mi  dare  el  cuore  far'  scriuer  piu  a  questa  penna,  altro  che  la  impor- 
tanza  di  tutta  questa  lettera  ilche  e  farui  noto  che  vi  sono  ossequente  e  a' 
piaceri  vostri  paratissimo,  Sommi  aueduto  che  la  ripreso  vigore,  e  non  le 
basterebbe  isto  quaderno  di  fogli,  non  che  tutto  questo  perche  le  ora  nella 
beva  sua,  ma  io  perche  le  non  vi  paressino  cerimonie  troppo  stuchevoli  per 
non  vi  infastidire  non  la  intignero  piu  nello  inchiostro,  pure  che  la  mi  serua 
cosi  tanto  che  io  noti  i  di  del  mese,  che  sono  XVIII  di  Febraio.  Vostro  lacomo 
in  casa. 


Doc.  XXXIII.  Firenze:  Archivio  di  Stato.  Guardaroba  No. 
28.  Inventario  della  Guardaroba  per  M.  Giuliano  del 
Touaglia,  M.  Giovanni  Ricci,  M.  Mariotto  Cecchi:  XXV 
d'Ottobre  1553,  p.  6  verso. 

Nelle  Camere  del  Duca  al  Piano  della  sala  de  200  nella  Camera  Terza. 
Quadro  di  nf  a  dna  con  ornamento  dorato  di  mano  del  Pontolmo. 

Idem,  p.  13  verso. 
Salotto  della  Duchessa. 

U°  quadro  di  pittura  drentui  una  uenere  con  Cupido,  et  fornimento  di 
noce  intagliato,  et  cortina  di  taffeta  uerde  di  mano  di  Jac°  da  potolmo. 


286 


DOCUMENTS 

Doc.  XXXIV.  Firenze:  ArcMvio  di  Stato.  Guardaroba  No. 
30, 1553-1560.  Inventario  generale  a  capi  della  Guardaroba, 
p.  54. 

Entrata 

Uno  quadro  di  Nfa  Donna  co  ornamento  dorati  del  Pont'olmo. 
Uno  quadro  cola  Venere  e  cupido  del  Pontolmo  co  ornamento  di  noce  e 
cortina  di  sta  uerde. 

Uscita 

Idem,  p.  58. 

A  S  Ea  addi  24  d'agosto  (1557)  Uno  quadro  grande  di  una  Dona  di  mano 
del  Pont'olmo  co  ornamento  dorato  et  per  lei  dato  di  com6  della  Due*  a  Don 
giovani  di  figana  p  portare  a  milano  al  giorle  a  100. 


Doc.  XXXV.  Firenze :  Archivio  di  Stato.  Guardaroba  No.  34 : 
Giornale  della  Guardaroba  di  Sua  Eccellenza  1555-1558, 
p.  100  verso. 

M.D.LVII. 

Addi  29  d'agosto.  Uno  quadro  di  nfa  Donna  dimano  del  Pont'olmo  co 
ornameto  dorato  di  bra  2£  dato  in  dono  a  Don  giovani  figana  p  ordine  della 
Sigra  Duca. 


Doc.  XXXVI.  Rime  Inedite  di  Raffaello  BorgMni  e  di  Angiolo 
Allori  detto  il  Bronzino,  a  cura  del  canonico  Domenico 
Moreni,  Firenze,  nella  stamperia  Magheri,  1822,  pp.  XXX- 
XL. 

SONNETS  ON  THE  DEATH  OF  PONTORMO 

Benedetto  Varehi  al  Bronzino 
Bronzin,  dove  poss'io  fuggir,  s'ancora 

In  questa  si  remota,  e  si  ronita 

Profonda  valle  il  duol  sempre  m'addita, 

Sol  perch 'io  pianga,  e  mi  lamenti  ognora? 
Lo  gran  Pittor,  che  dianzi  in  si  poc '  ora 

Impensata  da  noi  fece  partita, 

E  me  lascio,  perch 'io  morissi,  in  vita 

Con  voi,  cui  sorte,  e  danno  eguale  accora  ? 
Ohime  dunque  il  chiaro  vostro,  e  mio 

Puntormo  ha  spento  morte  anzi  '1  suo  giorno ; 

E  voi  vivete,  e  '1  Martin  vive,  ed  io  ? 
Pur  ne  consoli,  ch '  ei  non  lunge  a  Dio 

Lieto  il  rimira,  e  vedrallo  al  gran  giorno 

Quale  il  dipinse  a  noi  tra  f  ero,  e  pio. 

287 


PONTORMO 

Di  Bronzino 

lo  sono  oinai  si  di  me  stesso  fuora, 

Saggio,  e  buon  Varchi,  e  'n  si  misera  vita, 
Ch'ogni  conforto,  ogni  pietosa  aita 
Dello  sgravarmi  il  duol,  piii  m '  addolora. 

Lasso,  e  che  piu  dolor  d'uopo  mi  fora? 
Non  basta  a  far  da  me  1 '  alma  partita 
Quel  ch'io  sento?  o  si  dee  per  infinita 
Doglia  morte  allungar  piii  d'ora  in  ora ! 

Anzi  pur  questo  e  de '  miseri  il  rio 

Sentiero,  'n  morte  per  piu  danno,  e  scorno 
Fa  di  se  lungo,"  ardente,  e  van  desio. 

Ma  che  rispondo  !    Anzi  perche  travio 

Dal  pensier  giusto,  e  saldo !    Ecco  ch '  io  torno 
A  trar  dagli  ocehi  amaro  eterno  rio. 

Se  mai  sara,  che  dall '  interna  doglia, 

Che  si  m'  ingombra  1'  intelletto,  e  '1  core 
Onde  cade  da  lor  possa,  e  valore, 
Come  per  verno  rio  tenera  foglia, 

Gia  non  dich'io  poter  pari  alia  voglia, 
Ma  concesso  mi  sia,  ehe  no  '1  dolore 
Sempre  mi  tenga  a  guisa  d '  uom,  che  muore, 
Legati  i  sensi,  e  mai  non  gli  apra,  o  scioglia, 

Forse  potrebbe  un  di  pietosa  mente 

Da  questa  lingua,  e  quest '  indotte  carte 
Udendo  la  cagion  del  mio  gran  pianto, 

Meco  dolersi,  e  meco  reverente 

Ammirar  la  bonta,  1'  ingegno,  e  1'arte 
Del  gran  Puntormo  virtuoso,  e  santo. 

Quando  nell '  alto  mar,  che  non  ha  riva 
Delle  tue  lodi,  arnica  alma  beata, 
Entro,  e  mi  veggio  in  frale,  e  disarmata 
Barca,  d '  ajuto,  e  di  governo  priva, 

Pavento,  e  tremo,  e  nel  pensier  m '  arriva 

Se  mai  fu  audace  impresa  invan  tentata, 

Ond'io  calo  la  vela  al  vento  data 

Con  mente  offesa,  a  se  medesma  schiva. 

Ma  gli  onor  tuoi,  le  virtu  care,  e  tante 
Tornan  si  viva  in  me  la  giusta  voglia 
Di  fame  ricco  il  nostro  almo  paese, 

Che  pur  convien,  che  dal  lito  mi  scioglia, 
"E  guidandomi  amor  trapassi  avante 
Di  speme  acceso,  e  di  desir  cortese. 

Ben  fu  presagio  di  piu  grave  danno, 
Orme,  del  passo  tuo  1'  empia  ruina 
Poiche  partir  dovea  la  pellegrina 
Alma  del  tuo  gran  lume  anz '  il  quart '  anno. 

288 


DOCUMENTS 

Quella,  che  amo  si  '1  vero,  odio  1 '  inganno 
D '  arte  eccellente,  e  di  bonta  divina, 
Che  1'Arno  altero  a  par  teco  cammina 
Colmo  di  gloria,  e  di  pietoso  affano. 

Dolce,  vago,  gentil  chiaro  ruscello 

Piangi  con  meco,  e  da  quest'  occhi  prendi 
Piu  che  dal  fonte  tuo  forza,  e  vigore. 

Tu  perso  hai  '1  figlio,  io  1 '  amico,  e  '1  f ratello, 
Anzi  '1  padre,  '1  maestro :  or  meco  rendi 
Debito  officio  a  cosi  giusto  amore. 

Amico  spirto  al  ciel  tomato,  d'onde 
Partisti  quasi  accorto  pellegrino 
Fornito  il  voto,  e  quest '  aspro  cammino 
D '  oliva  ornato,  e  di  laurea  f ronde, 

Com'  hai  sofferto,  ohime,  lasciarmi  all'  onde 
Nemiche  in  mezzo  ?  e  senza  me  divino 
Goderti  albergo  ?    Al  sommo  Sol  vicino 
Pur  vedi  il  tutto,  e  nulla  ti  s '  asconde ; 

Chiaro  t '  e  il  cor  con  quanto  ardore,  e  f ede 
T'ama,  e  che  senza  te  perdendo  vassi, 
Poiche  del  Varco  tuo  1 '  Orme  non  vede, 

Ne  suol  pieta  soffrir,  ch '  amico  lassi 

L'altro  nei  lacci,  ond'  ha  ritratto  il  piede 
Potendo  aitarlo,  e  sol  libero  passi. 

Se  quell '  ardor  pien  d '  amorosa  f  ede 
D '  onesta  carita  provata,  e  salda 
Piu  che  mai  per  te  m '  arde,  e  non  pur  scalda, 
Come  vera  amicizia  ama,  e  richiede, 

Arnica  luce  or,  che  chiaro  si  vede 

Da  te  '1  mio  core,  e  la  sincera,  e  calda 
Voglia,  che  quasi  al  sol  mi  strugge,  e  sfalda 
Tenera  neve,  e  non  piu  spera,  o  crede. 

Gli  occhi,  che  per  mia  doglia  in  terra  chiusi 

Nel  cielo  apristi,  ond'  ei  s'allegra,  e  schiara, 
Kivolgi  al  tuo  fedel,  negletto,  e  solo, 

Che  quaggiu  vive  oscura  vita  amara 

Soccorril,  prego,  e  '1  troppo  amor  lo  scusi, 
Se  la  tua  pace  in  ciel  turba  il  suo  duolo. 

Dalla  sublime  sua  stellante  soglia 

Jj '  unica  luce  mia  ver  me  riguarda, 
Perch'  io  la  segua,  e  parle  ogni  ora  tarda, 
Ch '  altro  non  ha  nel  cielo,  onde  si  doglia ; 

Ond'  io,,ch'  al  cor  non  ho  piu  calda  voglia, 
Quanto  a  lassu  volar  preme,  e  ritarda 
Disgombro,  e  scarce,  accio  leve,  e  gagliarda 
L'alma  sormonte,  e  di  quaggiu  si  scioglia; 

E  con  piu  cura  all '  opre  sante,  e  belle 

Di  lei  mi  specchio,  e  sforzomi  esser  tale, 

289 


PONTORMO 

Che  quale  in  terra  in  ciel  m'accoglia,  ed  ame: 
0  felice  quel  di,  ch'  aperte  1'ale 

Per  acquetar  le  pari  oneste  brame 
Volaro  seco  alle  sue  pari  stelle. 

Se  virtu  qui  f  ra  noi  pregiar  si  deve, 

E  se  bontade  il  eiel  gradisce,  ed  ama, 
Sacro  seggio  or  esalta,  orna  e  riceve 
Mia  luce,  e  'n  terra  avra  perpetua  f  ama ; 

Che  quanto  d'arte,  ingegno,  o  studio  brama 
In  lei  rilusse,  e  ne  die  saggio  in  breve, 
Che  nei  tre  lustri  a  quei,  che  il  secol  chiama 
Piu  chiari,  a  par  sen  gio  secura,  e  leve. 

Crebbe  col  tempo  in  lei  bontade,  ed  arte, 
Felici  amiche ;  a  quanto  saggia  umile, 
Mai  sempre  aggiunse  al  dotto  il  santo  stile. 

Or  in  ciel  premio  a'suoi  merti  simile 

Si  gode,  e  '1  mondo  a'  suoi  pregi  comparte 
Onor  supremi,  e  meco  piange  in  parte. 

Pioche  la  luce  mia  da  mille  chiare 
Opre  ritrasse  1'onorata  mano, 
Dato  allo  stile,  ed  ai  color  sovrano 
Loco,  e  dimostro  quanto  arte  puo  fare. 

In  nuova  illustre,  e  magna  opra,  ch'  ornare 
Dovesse  il  tempio  del  gran  Re  Toscano 
La  pose,  ove  cerco  sopr'  ogni  umano 
Poter  se  stessa,  e  tutti  altri  avanzare ; 

Ma  quando,  ohime,  non  molto  lungi  al  fine 
Seguiva  intenta  il  vago,  alto  lavoro, 
D '  orror,  di  meraviglia,  e  d  'Arte  pieno, 

Soverchi  studj  a  sue  voglie  divine 

Fermaro  il  corso,  e  dal  terreno  coro 
Void  al  celeste,  al  vero  lume  in  seno. 

Di  Messer  Tommaso  Porcacchi. 

Chiusa  col  padre  suo  sotto  atra  terra 

Col  capo  alquanto  in  fuor,  col  viso  chino 
La  maestra  di  voi,  chiaro  Bronzino, 
Cos!  la  voce  al  dir  mesta  disserra. 

Che  fo?    Chisono?    Or  chi  mi  sbrana,  e  atterra? 
Dov  'el'  arte  ?  il  color  ?  1 '  ingegno  ?  il  fino 
Pronto  disegno  ?    Ohime,  spento  il  divino 
Pontormo,  acerba  morte  or  mi  sotterra  \ 

Gia  vive,  e  lo  so  ben,  de '  suoi  colori 

Dell'  onne  sue  nuovo  Pontormo  eletto, 
A  questo  eguale,  Apelle  oggi  a'  migliori 

Dunque  nel  mio  Bronzino  i  tristi  umori 
Rasciugo,  in  lui  mi  poso ;  cosi  detto 
S '  ascose,  e  solo  oggi  per  voi  vien  f uori. 


290 


DOCUMENTS 

Bronzino  a  Madonna  Laura  Battiferra  degli  Ammannati 

Donna,  che  '1  secol  nostro  oscuro,  e  vile 
Rendete  sovr'  ogni  altro  illustre,  e  caro 
Primo  di  Febo  onor,  primo,  e  phi  chiaro 
Di  cortese  onesta  lume  gentile, 

Troppo  sete  ver  me  dolce,  ed  umile 

Per  medicar  1'altiero  colpo  amaro, 
Che  morte  diemmi,  e  che  non  ha  riparo, 
Se  non  col  farmi  a  chi  mel  die  simile. 

Morte  mel  diede,  e  sola  puo  far  morte 
A  me  sol  grata,  a  tutti  altri  molesta, 
Che  1'alta  piaga  all' alma,  e  al  cor  si  chiuda. 

Ben  rallenta  il  dolor,  che  non  men  forte 
M'e  duopo  vostra  man  soave,  e  presta, 
Ma  phi  s '  allunga,  onde  pieta  m  'e  cruda. 

Alia  Medesima 

La  notte,  ch'  al  mio  duol  principio  diede, 

Ch'  altro,  che  morte  omai  finir  rion  puote, 
E  che  lascio  le  mie  speranze  vote 
Di  si  'intera  amicizia,  e  chiara  fede, 

Con  si  grave  dolor  nel  cor  mi  riede, 

Anzi  e  pur  sempre,  che  da  lui  remote 
Gioia,  e  quiete  ogni  altra  cura  scuote, 
Che  pianger  lasso,  e  sospirar  non  chiede : 

Onde  s'avvien,  che  mano,  o  voce  porga 

Donna,  ond'  io  scriva,  e  la  ragion  discopra 
Del  comun  danno,  e  di  mie  doglie  acerbe, 

Tal  dal  petto  sospir,  dagli  occhi  sgorga 

Pianto,  che  f orza  m '  e,  lasciata  ogni  opra, 
Mostrar,  ch'  a  sol  tormento  il  ciel  mi  serba. 

Alia  Medesima 

Mentre  sepolto,  e  di  me  stesso  in  bando 

Mi  sto  com'  uom,  che  phi  non  veggia,  e  senta 
Che  tenebre,  e  martir,  poiche  m '  ha  spenta 
Morte  ogni  gioia,  ohime,  si  tosto,  e  quando ! 

Si  dolce  udir  mi  par  1 '  aura  vi  destando 
Le  vive  gemme,  e  si  bel  raggio  intenta 
Far  la  mia  vista,  che  ridurmi  tenta 
L '  alma,  u '  si  vive,  i  suoi  danni  obliando ; 

O  vitale  armonia,  celeste  lume, 

S'al  destin  si  potea  tor  Tanne,  vostra 
Era  la  gloria,  e  ben  temer  si  vide. 

Ma  ch' io  sol  la  sua  voce  ode,  e  mi  guide 
Lo  buon  Pittor,  che  fu  dell 'eta  nostra 
Specchio,  e  gia  termo,  e  'n  doglia  mi  consume. 


291 


PONTORMO 

Di  Madonna  Laura  Risposta 

Se  fermo  e  nel  destin,  che  lacrimando 
L'alma  vostra  gentil  viver  eonsenta 
Per  quella,  ch'  oggi  in  ciel  lieta,  e  contenta 
Gode  del  vostro  gir  si  lamentando ; 

lo,  che  fuor  (mal  mio  grado)  talor  mando 
Qual  roco  angel,  voce  imperfetta,  e  lenta, 
E  se  pur  luce  scopro,  ella  diventa 
Oscura  nube  in  cieca  parte  errando. 

Vi  prego  umil,  che  1 '  onorate  piume 

Seguiate,  e  '1  dolce  suon,  che  si  vi  mostra 
Quel,  che  dal  volgo  vil  parte,  e  divide ; 

Che  forse  un  di,  se  morte  non  recide 

Anzi  tempo  il  mio  stame,  all '  alta  chiostra 
Con  voi  saro  fuor  d '  ogni  mio  costume. 

A  Madonna  Laura 

S '  al  vostro  alto  valor  f  amosa  pianta 

Ai  chiari  merti  del  mio  Duce,  o  al  mio 

Grave  dolore,  o  a  quel  caldo  desio, 

Che  d'onorarlo  il  cor  mi  strugge,  e  schianta, 

Pari  avess'  io  '1  poter,  qual  piu  si  vanta 
Securo  nome,  dal  futuro  oblio 
Vincerei,  credo,  a  dal  piu  crudo  al  pio 
Saria  sua  f ama  reverita,  e  pianta : 

Ma  poiche  '1  vostro  ogni  valore  avanza, 
Ne  piu  pud  meritar  1'ottimo,  e  saggio, 
E  mia  doglia,  e  voler  passa  ogni  segno. 

Al  vostro  sol  valor  ricorro,  al  degno 

Merto,  e  a  mia  voglia,  e  duol  pari,  e  quindi  aggio 
Speme  d'alzarlo,  ov'  io  non  ho  possanza. 

Di  Madonna  Laura  in  Risposta 

Al  gran  merto  dell 'alma  eletta,  e  santa, 

Che  ritornando  al  cielo  in  grembo  a  Dio, 
Lasso  voi,  lasso,  in  tenebroso,  e  rio 
Stato,  e  noi  privi  di  ricchezza  tanta ; 

Qual  tromba  suona,  o  pur  qual  Musa  canta 
Tanto  altamente,  e  cosi  chiara,  ch'  io 
Bassa,  a  scura  non  veggia?  che  desio 
La  vostra  udir,  cui  grave  doglia  ammanta. 

Ella  puo  sola,  ond'  io  certa  ho  speranza 
Vedere  anzi  '1  fornir  del  mio  viaggio 
Dare  algi  alti  suoi  pregj  onor  condegno. 

Allor  quanto  alzar  puossi  umile  ingegno, 
Sebbene  a  ciascun  passo  in  terra  caggio 
Pur  di  seguirvi  prenderei  baldanza. 


292 


DOCUMENTS 

A  Madonna  Laura 

L'Aura  vostr'  Alma,  or  che  '1  fier  Borea  ammorza 
Alle  campagne  i  piu  vaghi  colori, 
E  '1  corso  impetra  ai  vivi  argenti,  e  fuori 
Vedova,  e  attrista  ogni  terrena  scorza ; 

Col  suo  dolce  spirar,  di  nuova  forza 

Par,  ch '  aer  nraova,  e  nuova  terra  irrori, 
Nuovo  Sol  n '  apra,  e  piante,  acque,  erbe,  e  fiori 

Ne  renda,  e  ta',  ch'  a  rallegrar  ne  sforza. 

Ond '  io  quel  f  ronda  al  piu  nemico  verno 

Dentro  agghiacciato,  e  fuori,  atro,  e  negletto, 
Orbo  del  caro  mio  buon  padre,  e  duce, 

Vigor  riprendo,  e  '1  giel  distruggo  interno, 
Degli  onor  suoi  mi  vesto,  e  '1  suo  diletto 
Seren  m'innalza,  e  scuopre  la  mia  luce. 

Di  Madonna  Laura  in  Risposta 

Bronzino  in  ciel  1 '  alma  beata  luce 

Quant '  altro  vago,  e  luminoso  aspetto 
Atto  a  produr  f  ra  noi  piu  degno  effetto 
Come  f u  gia  del  mondo  onore,  e  luce ; 

Talche  1'erto  sentier,  ch'  a  Dio  conduce 
Fuor  di  questo  mortal  breve  ricetto, 
Mostra  si  piano  al  vostr'  alto  intelletto, 
Ch '  uopo  non  ha  di  miglior  guida,  o  duce. 

Et  io,  che  'n  alto  mar  senza  governo 

Quando  e  piu  nudo  il  ciel  de '  suoi,  splendori, 
Erro  sempre  alternando  or  poggia,  or  orza, 

Gia  fatta  preda  al  gran  Nettuno,  e  scherno, 
Sorgo  non  lunge  i  suoi  lucenti  albori 
Si  che  la  stanca  nave  si  rinforza. 


293 


APPENDIX  III 

Diary  of  Pontormo1 

Doc.  XXXVII.     Firenze:  Biblioteca  Nazionale.    Miscellanea 
magliabecchiana,  catalogo  VIII,  1490. 

I 

Carte  5 

adi  30  digenaio  1555  comicioqelle  rene  di  quella  figura  en  piagne  quello 
babino|  adi  31  feci  quelpoco  delpanno  cnlacigne  en  fucattiuo  tepo  eemj  doluto 
j  2  dj|  lostomaco  e  lebudella  laluna  afatto  lap 'ma  quarta|  adi  2  dj  febraio  I 
sabato  sera  euenerdi  magai  1°  cauolo  etuctadue  qe  sere|  cenai  6  16  dipane  epno 
hauere  patito  fredo  alauorare  no  me  forse  doluto  |  eleorpo  elostomaco  eltepo 
emolle  epiouosoj  adj  1°  difebraio  feci  dalpanno  igiu  eadi  5  lafinii  eadi  16  feci 
quelle  gabe  diquella)  babino  en  le  sotto  en  fu  isabato  eluenerdi.  comlcio  a  ee 
beltepo  ecosj  elsabato  detto  efre|ddo  —  eprima  era  durato  apiouere  tucta 
uia  seza  puto  difredo  eadi  21  en  fu  berligaccio|  cenai  co  brozino  lalepre  eueddi 
lebagattelle  elasera  dicarnouale  ui  cenaj|  adj  24  I  domenica  lunedi  emartedi 

i  The  order  in  which  the  pages  of  the  original  manuscript  follow  one  another  has 
been  preserved  in  transcribing  the  Diary,  but  a  blank  page  has  been  ignored  with  the  result 
that  the  last  page  is  numbered  23  and  not  24.  This  is  not  the  order  in  which  Pontormo 
made  these  notes,  but  their  true  sequence  will  be  found  in  the  chronological  analysis  of 
the  Diary  which  immediately  follows  the  text.  In  the  margins  of  many  of  the  pages  one 
finds-Jittle  sketches  drawn  by  Pontormo  to  indicate  the  figure  in  the  choir  of  San  Lorenzo 
upon  which  he  was  at  work  on  the  day  in  question.  The  reduced  facsimile  of  page  4,  which 
forms  part  of  the  illustration  of  this  volume,  gives  an  idea  of  the  disposition  of  these 
sketches  some  of  which  correspond,  as  I  have  pointed  out  elsewhere,  to  drawings  by  Jacopo 
that  are  preserved  in  the  Print  Koom  of  the  Uffizi. 

The  authenticity  of  this  fragment  is  indisputable;  the  handwriting  is  identical  with 
that  which  appears  on  a  number  of  Pontormo 's  drawings  (Dessins,  p.  42  f.).  We  have,  it 
is  true,  no  trace  of  it  earlier  than  1625  at  which  date  it  came  into  the  possession  of  the 
Strozzi,  probably  among  the  numerous  acquisitions  made  by  Carlo  di  Tommaso  Strozzi. 
In  1786  Alessandro,  the  last  descendant  of  Carlo,  sold  his  collection  to  the  Grand  Duke 
Leopoldo.  Pontormo 's  Diary  is  not  mentioned  in  the  first  catalogue  of  the  codices  that 
once  belonged  to  the  Strozzi  Library  (Florence,  Biblioteca  Nazionale,  Catalogo  dei  codici 
della  libreria  strozziana),  but  the  second  catalogue  of  the  same  collection  mentions  it  and 
its  provenance. 

A  copy  (h.  266,  w.  198  mm.)  of  eight  pages  of  the  Diary,  including  the  sketches  that 
appear  in  the  margins,  was  made  early  in  the  seventeenth  century.  It  is  now  No.  621 
(33-E,  5, 6, 32)  of  the  Biblioteca  Nazionale  of  Florence.  It  is  labelled  "Diario  del 
Pontormo,  pittor  fiorentino"  and  once  belonged  to  Gaetano  Poggiali  and  of  it  Gaye 
(Carteggio,  III,  166-169)  quotes  a  few  pages.  The  identification  of  the  original  is  due 
to  Colasanti  (Diario  di  Jacopo  Carrucci,  Bullettino  della  societa  filologica  romana,  II  [1902], 
35-59)  whose  article  was  reviewed  by  Fabriczy  (Das  Tagebuch  Jacopos  da  Pontormo, 
Repertorium,  XXVI  [1903],  95  f.).  Colasanti  transcribed  only  a  few  lines.  He  attempted 
to  determine  the  chronological  sequence  of  the  pages,  but  his  arrangement  is  inexact. 

295 


PONTORMO 

emercoledi  en  fuelp'mo  di  di  guaresima  duro  tepo  come  dap'le  e  bello 
giouedipoi  eomicioueto  secco  epiutosto  freddo|  eh  fu  hitimo  di  difebraio 
eio  feci  eldj  latesta  diquella  figura  en  e  sopa  quelle  cnsta  cosij  domenica 
mattina  desinai  cobr°  epareuami  ee  moltopieno  I  modo  cn|  lasera  ionocenai| 
adi  4  dimarzo  feci  queltorso  eh  e  sotto  a  quellatesta  detta  eleuami  la  bora 
lanzj  dj|  domenica  fumo  adi  10  detto  desinai  c5b°  elasera  a  bore  23  cenamo 
quello  pesce  grosso  eparechj  picholifrittj  en  spesi  soldi  12  en  ueraattauiano 

elunedi  feci  quello  braccio  diquella  figura  ditesta  en  alza 
elasera  D  elasciala)  isino  quiui  come  mostra  q°  scizo|  martedj  emerco  ledi 
comicio  feci  quel  uechio  elbracci  suo  en  stacosi|  adi  15  dimarzo  comiciaj 

eltepo  quello  braccio  en  tiene  lacoregia  itesta  en  f  u  I  uenerdjj  elasera 

aguas  cenaj  1°  pesce  duouo  cacio  ficbi  enoce  eo  11  dipane|  mercoledi 

tarsi  adi  20  fornj  elbraccio  diuenerdj   elunedi  lanzj   haueuo  fatto| 

enera  du  quello  busto  elmartedj  fecj latesta  diquello  braccio  cnio  dieo 
rato  pa  giouedimattina]  mileuaj  abuonora  et  uidi  simaltepo  eueto  efredo 
rechi  di  en  ionolauoraj  e  mj|  stettj  I  casa  uenerdj  feci  quello  alt0  br° 
bello  en  sta  atrauerso  esabato  upoco  di|  capo  azurro  en  fumo  adi  23 

seza  elasera  eenj  ii  o  dipane  dua  huoua  espinacj|  en  fu  ladom  lunedi 

piouere  adi  25   desinai  cobr°  elasera  cenai   icasamia  1°  pesce   duouo  | 

martedj  feci  quellatesta  delputto  en  china  eeenai  5  10  dipane 
eebi  1°  sonetto1  daluarcbi|  mercoledi  feci  quelloresto  delputto  eebj  disagio  a 
quello  stare  chinato  tucto  di| 

II 

Imodo  en  mi  dolse  giouedj  lerene  (euenerdi  oltre  aldolermj  ebimala] 
dispositione  enomiseti  bene  elasera  nocenaj  elamattina  en  fumo  a  di  (frac° 
I  giu  . . .)  29  1555 1  feci  lamano  emezo  ebraccio  diquella  figura  grade  elginochio 
ed  1°  pezodigaba]  doue  eposa  lamano  en  fu  eluenerdj  detto  e  la  detta  sera 
nocenai  estettj.  D.|  isinalsabato  sera  emagiai  10  6  dipane  eduahuoua  e  ia 
I  salata  di  Fiorj  diborana|  31  dimar  zo  ladomenica  mattina  desinai  I  casa 
danjello  pesce  ecastrone  elasera  nocenai  |  elunedi  mattina  misismosse  elcorpo 
codolore  leuamj  epoi  p  ee  fredo  eueto  |  ritornai  neleto  estettjuj  Isino  a  bore 
18  eltucto  dipoi  no  miseti  bene  pure  lasera|  cenaj  upoco  digota  lessa  co  delle 
bietole  e  burro  esto  cosi  seza  sapere  quello  cn|  a  ee  dime  peso  en  mi  nocessj 
assaj  quello  ritornare  neletto  pure  ora  en  sono|  bore  4  mipare  stare  asaj  bene| 
adi  3  dap'le  feci  quella  gaba  dalginochio  igiu  eco  gra  fatica  dibuioediveto 
e  ditonico|  elasera  cenai  o  14  dipane  radicbio  e  duoua[  giouedi  cenai  6  10 

i  This  was  in  all  probability  the  following  sonnet  which  one  finds  in  De'  Sonetti  di 
M.  Benedetto  Varchi,  Fiorenza,  1555,  p.  248,  and  which  is  quoted  by  Colasanti  (Bull.  d. 
soc.  filol.  romana,  II,  41,  n.  2). 

MENTEE  io  con  penna  oscura,  e  basso  inchiostro 

Tanti  anni,  e  tanti  un  uiuo  LAVRO  f  ormo, 

Voi  con  chiaro  pennello  alto  PVNTOEMO 

Fate  pari  all '  antico  il  secol  nostro : 
Anzi  mentre  io  col  uolgo  inerte  dormo, 

Voi  nuouo  pregio  alia  cerussa,  e  all '  ostro 

Giugnete  tal,  che  fuor  del  uile  stormo, 

A  dito  sete,  e  per  essempio  mostro. 
Felice  uoi,  che  per  secreto  calle, 

Oue  orma  ancor  non  6  segnata,  solo 

Ven  gite  a  gloria  non  piS  uista  mai. 
Onde  la  donna  piti  ueloce  assai 

Che  strale,  o  uento,  e  ch '  6  sempre  alle  spalle, 

Inuan  darauui  homai  lultimo  uolo. 

296 


HIS  DIARY 

dipane  dua  huoua  afretlle  radichio|  uenerdi  comlciaj  ia  hora  I  anzj  di  quelle 
schiene  ch  sono  sotto  aquella)  cenai  ia  liba  dipane  sparagi  ehuoua  efu  1°  bello 
dj|  sabato  cenaj  |  domenica  ch  fu  luliuo  desinai  I  casa  br°  certi  crespellj 
mirabili|  lunedj  damattina  ebj  1°  nelorto  en  lego  eacocio  lorto  lauaga]  martedj 
feci  quella  gaba  co  lacoscia  sotto  aquelle  schiene  dette  di  sopa  cioe|  elasera 
cenai  la  meza  testa  dicauretto|  mercoledi  dua  huoua.  elasera  casco  lagociola 
a  cecho  fornaio|  giouedi  laltera  meza  fritta|  uenerdi  ch  fueldj  sco  cenaj  1° 
pesce  duouo  solo  co  zucnro  e  5  8  dipane.  |  sabato  lauorai  quelmasso.  euenne 
el  duca  asco  lorezo  cioe  aluficio.  lasera  poi  nocenaj|  pajsqua  domenica  fui° 
grafredo  egraueto  eaqua  desinai  co  br°  6  6  dipane  elasera  nocenaj]  lunedi 
piu  fredo  e  ueto  eaqua  elasera  cenai  Icasa  daniello  6  6  dipane  |  martedi  fuasaj 
bello  elasera  cenai  o  10  dipane  |  mercoledi  mattina  fu  fredo  estettimi  Icasa 
cenai  6  9  dipane  agnello  elpiu  bello  en  sipossa]  giouedi  lauoraj.  quelle  dua 
braccia.  ecenai  6  9  dipane  earne  ecacio  efu  frediccio|  uenerdi  feci  latesta 
coquel  masso  en  le  sotto  eenaj  6  9  dipane  1°  pesce  duouo  eia  Isalata|  e  ho  elcapo 
en  mi  gira  u  bud  dato.|  sabato  feci  broeone  e  masso  elamano  ecenai  6  10 
dipane  |  domenica  cenai  6  10  dipane  estettj  tucto  eldi  stracho  debole  efastidioso 
fubellisimo  dj  efe  laluna|  lundedj  adi  22  dap'le  stettj  bene  ogni  male  eraito 
uia  magiai  6  8  dipane  no  haueuo  piu|  capogirli  enoero  debole.  e  ho  buona 
speraza.  | 

III 

adi  23  lasera  cenai  copiero1  magiai  o  9  dipane  en  uera  eluillanoj  adi  24 
lasera  cenai  copiero.  sparagi  e  huoua|  adi  25  cenai  Icasa  1°  armoncino  dagnello 
lasera  disamarco|  adi  26  cenai  copiero.  |  adi  27  cenai  copiero  eldi  fini  quella 
gaba  sola  ch  sta  cosi  adi  28  idomenica  mattina  desinaj  cobrozo  elasera  no 
cenai  |  lunedj  cenai  copiero  ubuodato  e  cosacce  o  12  dipane  |  martedj  cenaj 
6  12  dipane  cacio  enoce|  mercoledj  adj  p°  dimagio  cenai  o  12  dipane  la  £ 
testieuola  cacio  ebacelli|  giouedj  lalta  meza  acena|  uenerdj  sera  cenai  copiero 
1°  pesce  duouo  Isalata  fichj  sechj.  lasera  di  sea  croce]  sabato  1°  pesce  duouo 
cosugo  dibietole  zuchro  eminestra  dibietole  eo  10  dipane  [  domenica  cenai  dua 
huoua  |  lunedi  1°  fegato  fritto  dagnello  |  martedi  sera  cenai  1°  cuore  dagnello 
carne  secha  lessa  e  o  10  djpane|  ecomiciai  quel  br°  di  quella  figura  ch  sta  cosi| 
mori  eltasso|2  mercoledj  egiouedi  lafinj.  elasera  adai  acena  co  daniello  cauretto 
arosto  epesce|  uenerdj  sera  1°  pesce  duouo  ela  Isalata  5  10  dipane  uino  macho 
ch  mezetta]  sabato  sera  cenai  co  piero  pesce  darno  ricatta  huoua  ecarciofi 
emagiai]  troppo  emaxime  della  ricotta  elamattina  desinai  co  br°  elasera  no 
cenai  |  en  fulauetura  mia  ch  haueuo  magiato  tropoj  lunedisera  magiai  carne 
delgiouedj  cota  eno  mi  fa  bene.  5  10  di  pane)  3  martedi  comlciai  afare 
queltorso  ch  tiene  elcapo  alogiu  cosij  cenai  la  Isalata  e  1°  pesce  duouo  6  10 
dipane  mercoledj  ebi  1°  itonico  si  faticoso  ch  io  no  pesoch  glabia  a  far  bene 
ch  sono  |  tucte  le  poppe  come  siuede  la  comettitura  ecenai  huoua  e  6  10  dipane  | 
giouedi  feci  1°  bra|  uenerdi  lalt°  bra|  sabato  quella  coscia  diquella  figura  ch 
sta  cosi  |  19  dim | agio  |  domenica  desinai  ecenai  cobro.  elamatina  posi  quegli 
peschi  lunedi  comlcai  quel  braccio  di  detta  figura  ch  stacosi  elasera  cenai  | 
6  10  dipane  huoua  episegli|  martedi  quello  al°  bra|  22  mercoledi  eltorso 

1  This  cannot  be  Pierino  da  Vinci,  the  sculptor,  who  died,  it  would  seem  (Vasari,  VI, 
131),  in  1554. 

2  Battista  del  Tasso,  the  son  of  Marco  del  Tasso,  and  himself  a  great  craftsman. 
He  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Bronzino,  Cellini  and  Luca  Martini,  and  died,  as  Pontormo 
records,  on  May  7,  1555.     Cf.  Vasari,  III,  350-353.     Pontormo  mentions  him  again  on 
page  XVII. 

297 


PONTORMO 

egiouedi  ch  fu  lasesione  desinai  cobro  elasera  co  danjello]  uenerdj   quella 
coscia.  6  dieej  dipane  1°  pesce  duouo  efini  lafigura| 

IV 

sabato  sera  cenai  i°  isalata  edua  huoua  eldi  feci  certe  leterej  domenica 
mattjna  adai  asafrac0  epoi  desinai  I  casa  danjello  elasera  no  cen . . .  |  lunedj 
martedj  |  mercoledj  feci  quel  capo  ch  sta  sottoaquella  figfa  cosij  . . .  di  30 
ma|(g)io|  giouedi  lacoscia[  uenerdi  quelle  schiene|  sabato  finj  lafigura  cenai 
6  10  dipane  ciriege  e  1°  pesce  duouo  j  domenica  sera  desinai  cobro.  en  fula 
sera  dello  spirito  scoj  lunedi  mattina  codaniello  elasera  cenai  icasa  mia| 
martedi  sera  codaiello  cogloni  efegato  el°  quarto  arosto]  mercoledi  sera  icasa 
mia  1°  pezo  dipane  diramerino  e  huoua  e  feci  quelle  spall . . .(  diquella  figura| 
ch  sta  cosi|  giouedi  feci  elbraccio  emagiai  upoco  dicarne  arosto  |  uenerdi 
lafornj  emagiai  1°  pesce  duouo  eadormetamj  uestito|  sabato  mileuaj  molto 
male  disposto  cenai  copiero  poco  e|  seza  uoglia  elanocte  ebi  lafebre  co  gra 
fuoco  adosso  eno  dormj  mai|  domenica  cnsiamo  adi  9  di  gugno  1555  cenai 
copiero  |  lunedi  gra  dogle  dicorpo]  martedi  gra  dogle  dicorpo  |  mercoledi  quel 
medesimo  ne  mai  lasera  ho  passato  upane  ouero  agiuto]  adj  13 1  giouedi  mattina 
desinaicobro  en  fu  elcorp'  donj  elasera  acora  uicenaj]  uenerdi.  lauorai]  sabato 
cenai  copiero  elauoraj]  domenica  desinai  cobr°  ecenai|  lunedi  cenai  I  casa 
mia  6  10  dipane  came  e  isalata]  martedi)  mercoledi  feci  quellatesta  dimorto 
co  labarba.  en  e  sopa  qa  figura  giouedi  feci  quella  testa  e  braccio  diquella 
figura  ch  stacosi|  uenerdi  feci  el  torso)  sabato  legabe  e  lafinj  ecenaj  6  9  dipane 
huoua  e  susine  en  fu  adj  23  —  |  digugno  domenica  |  lunedi  |  martedj  sidisfece 
elpote  mercoledi  sirimuro  lebueli.  giouedi  feci  quelcn  uaismo  al  c . . .  |  sabato 
fu  sapiero)  domenica  desinai  codaniello  en  fu  1°  gra  caldo  erauj  brozo  elasera 
cenai  copiero  |  giouedi  adi  4  diluglo  comiciai  quella  figura  ch  sta  cosi| 


elasera  stettj  adisagio  aspettare  lacarne  en  batista  era  zoppo  eelporta 
ua|  eh  gla  berogato  fuora.  eqdo  suo  padre  staua  male  no  uistaua  e  q°  e|  en  gla 
hauto  eletto  dadormire  datrotella|  uenerdi  sabato  feci  I  sino  alegabe. 
ladomenica  desinaj  co  brozo  |  adi  8  lunedi.  feci  no  so  ch  lettere  ecomlciomi 
luscita]  martedi  feci  ia  coscia.  crebemi  luscita.  co  dimolta  colera  sagu|igna 
ebiacha  mercoledi  stetti  pegio  ch  forse  io  uo  tre  opiu  ch  a|  ogni  hora  bizognaua 
talch  io  mistettj  I  casa  ecenai  upoco  dj|  minestraccia  elmio  batista  ando 
difuora  lasera  e  sapeua  ch  io  mi|  setiuo  male  e  no  torno  talch  io  laro  tienere 
amete  sepre|  giouedi  feci  quella  alta  gaba  edelle  idispositionj  delcorpo  sto 
upoco  |  meglo  ch  sono  4  uolte  ho  cenato  I  sa  L°  ebeuto  upoco  digreco|  noch 
mipaia  stare  bene  pch  ogni  tre  hore  mi  uiene  lostringimeto|  adi  12  uenerdj 
sera  cenai  copiero.  ecredo  sia  passata  luscita  cioe  q1  dolor j|  sabato  sera  cenai 
icasa  pesce  marinato  e  br  uera  eldj  lauorai  quello  doccone|  lungo  rasete 
lassito  elasera  feci  quistione  colfattore.  elui  dise  chio  miprouedessi|  domenica 
mattina  desinai  cobro  elasera  aspettai  elfattore  ch  ado  alegnaia.  e  mi|  disse 
io  tornero  a  buonotta  e  no  torno.  cenai  1°  grapolo  duua  e  no  alt°[  lunedj  |  adi 
16  martedj  comiciai  quella  figura  e  la  sera  cenai  upoco  di  carnaccia)  ch  mi 
fece  pocopro  ch  batista  disse  ch  io  miprouedessi  pch  era  stato|  gridato  da 
nocetj|  mercoledi  magiai  dua  huoua  neltegame.]  giouedi  mattina  cacai  dua 
strozoli  no  liquid  j  edreto  nusciua  ch  se  fu-|sino  lucignoli  lughi  di  babagia 
cioe  grasso  biancho  easai  bene|  cenai  I  saL°  upoco  dj  lesso  asaj  buono  efinj 
lafigura |  uenerdj.  pesce  e  1°  huouo|  sabato  batista  euenuto  p  tucti  e  colori 

298 


HIS  DIARY 

macinati  epenegli  e  olio[  elasera  cenai  dua  huoua  pere  e  la  mezetta  diuino  uue 
e  cacio|  domenica  cenai  co  bro.  elamatina  batista  ado  alegnaia  etorno  lasera| 
adi  22  lunedi  desinai  codaniello  elasera  cenai  co  br°.  eho  difetto  I  sulagola 
en  io|  ndposso  ighiottire.  ebatista  notorno:  eldi  aputai  quello  cartone  en  bata 
portoj  martedi  stetti  diguno  enoeenai  duolmj  1°  dete  e  feci  1°  pezodipanno| 

VI 

mercoledi  sera  cenai  zucha  lessa  6  16  dipane  edeluua|  giouedi  desinai 
co  br°  elasera  nocenaj]  uenerdj  feci  quella  testa  en  guarda  I  qua  cioe  di 
quello  foglo  en  io  portai]  en  sta  cosi|  sabato[  domenica  |  lunedj  |  30  martedj 
comiciai  lafigura|  mercoledi  isino  alagaba|  adj  p°|  dagosto]  giouedj  feci 
lagaba.  elasera  cenai  copiero  upaio  dipipionj  lessj|  uenerdi  feci  el  bracio  en 
sapogiaj  sabato  quella  testa  de  la  figura  en  le  sotto  en  sta  cosi|  domenica  cenai 
icasa  daniello  cobro  en  fu  alle  polpette]  lunedj  |  martedi  [  mercoledj  quella 
testa  en  lafigura  gliposa  lamano  I  capo]  giovedj  cenai  upoeo  di  buonacarne 
efeci  quelcapo  co  laloro|  uenerdj.  lauoraj  estetti  diguno  en  fulauilia  disa  L°| 
sabato  eldi  prouai  ateso  —  e  alterami  lostomaco|  domenica  mattina  stetti  subito 
leuato  en  io  fui  euestito  nelorto  en  era  fresco,  ubuodato  auedere  certi  disegni 
en  mi  mostro  fuscellino|  epati  fredo  enoso  pen  misi  sdegiio  lostomaco  lasera 


cenai  cobro0 
auer  lafebre 


popone  e  1°  pipione  elamattj  dipoi  mi  setiuo  male  epareuami 
lunedi  matti  haueuo  efebre  e  lostomaco  sdegnato  cenai  en  no 


mi  piaque|  nulla  neluino  magiai  o  7  dipane  carne  e  poca  epoco  bere  6  la 
dimador  . . .  |  martedi  sera  la  curatella  ia  pesca  o  12  dipane  e  o  miglore  gusto] 
ecomiciaj  latesta  diquella  figura  en  sta  cosj|  mercoledi  ebraccio)  15  — 
giouedi: |  uenerdj  elcorpo  |  sabato  lecosce]  domenica |  lunedi  martedj  — 
comiciaj  quelle  rene  sotto  alia  testa |  mercoledi.  lafinj.|  giouedi  uenerdi  sabato 
domenica  desinai  co  br°  enoudi  messa|  adj  2  lunedi  comiciaj  afare  sopa  la 
cornice  martedi  feci  latesta  di  qa  figura  |  ebi  1°  barile  dolio| 

VII 

mercoledi  isino  afiachj  elasera  comicio  apiouerej  giouedj  lecosce  e  fiachj| 
uenerdj  elbraccio|  sabato  quella  testa  dimorto  en  gle  alato]  Domenjca  en  fu 
ladonna  desinaj  co  bro  elaseracenaj  co  gra  dogla  dideti|  lunedi  ebi  sturbo  e 
I  ba§°  eno  lauoraj  eisino  asabato  stetti  icasa|  adisegnare  domenica  desinai 
co  br°  elasera  nocenaj|  lunedi  disegnai|  martedi  comiciaj  quellafigura  sotto 
alia  testa |  mercoledj  elcorpo  sotto  a  le  poppe  g|  giouedi  tutta  la  gaba|  uenerdi 
piouej  sabato  fu  sco  matteo|  domenica  |  domenica  adj  5  dottob.  batista  ado 
alpogio  elasera  |  cenaj  tucte  cosacce  e  diuogla  erestomj  el  duolo  de  detj|  lunedi 
magiai  castrone  isalata  uue  e  cacio  e  6  15  dipane  |  efeci  quellatesta  en  e  sotto 
aquella  figura  disegnata  di  sopa[  martedi  feci  quella  alta  testa  en  gle  alato 
emercoledi  elresto|  sabato  vi  fecj  quelcorpo]  domenica  desinaj  co  br° 
uermicegli|  lunedj  quello  elmo|  martedi  quella  testa  cosi|  mercoledj.  quel 
busto  elasera  no  cenaj  |  giovedi  quel  braccio  elasera  cenai  1°  pesce  duouo| 
uenerdi  elcorpo  en  fu  sea  luca  cenai  uoue  e  6  14  dipane  e  1°  cauolo]  sabato 
elbraccio  e  doue  e  siede  cenai  huoua  e  6  9  dipane  e  2  fichi  sech . . .  |  domenica 
desjnaj  co  bro  uermicegli  elasera  cenaujj  lunedi  martedi  mercoledi  giovedi 
uenerdj  lauorai  sotto  a  detta  figura  diseg0  isino  alcornicione  sabato  ordinaj 
elcartone  en  ghera  alato  cenaj  1°  ca|  uolobuono  cotto  dimia|  mano  elanotte  mi 
leuaj|  ia  scegia  du  dete  e  magio|  u  poeo  meglo|  Domenica  elunedi  cossi  dame 
upoco  diuitella]  en  mi  copo  baa  estetti  queduo  di  icasa  adisegnaf|  e  cenai 
quelle  3  sere  dame  solo| 

299 


PONTORMO 


VIII 

martedi  adi  29  dottob|  mercoledi  30)  noueb"  adi  p°  uenerdi  mattina  desinai 
cobro  aguilla  copesci  darno|  sabato  domenica  elunedi.  fu  fredo.|  adi  9  feci 
quella  testa  en  e  sotto  aquella|  figura  en  sta  cosi|  adi  16  uenequello  cartone 
eportossi  quellalt0  easettalo  pcomiciare|  alauorare  eldi  dinazj  fu  1°  bellissimo 
di  saza  nugolj  esaza  fredo)  adi  12  rifeci  quella  testa  en  e  cosa  daricordarsj 
quale  /  cioe  I  martedj  |  adj  17  desinaj  co  br°  e  cenaj  esetti  tuctodi  I  casa 
elamattina  pagai|  1°  miglacio  elasera  cenauj  efuel  di  en  b°a  mi  uene  adire  de 
fratj|  adi  18  nolauoraj  e  adai  aparlare  afratj)  adi  19  lauoraj  que  2  testi 
dimortj  eh  sono  sotto  alculo  dicolej|  adi  20  sibollj  elbucato)  adj  24  desinai  co 
br°  en  uera  la  madre  dela  maria  en  mi  pmise]  1°  pane]  diramejrino]  bello  |  adj 
27  comicaj  sotto  aquelle  figure  en  stano  cosi  adi  28]  adi  29 1  adi  30  fusca  andrea 
en  cenai  copiero  e  donomj  50  fichi  sechj|  domenica  mattina  desinaj  co  br° 
elasera  co  daniello  la  lepre  e  en  uenne  luca  martin j  i  fireze)  lunedi  martedj 
mercoledj  giouedj  uenerdj  fu  sea  nicolo  en  fu  1°  bello  |  di  e  edurato  I  si  aogi  en 
siano  adi  9  de  diceb|  adi  8  cenaj  lasera  co  br°  pollastrinj  mortj  dalla  faina 
erecane  delpane  diramerino]  lunedi  cenai  quella  ligua  diporco]  martedj  cenaj 
icasa  daniello  co  m  luca  martinj  eluarchi]  mercoledj  cenaj  dua  huoua  ia  Isalata 
dluidia  6  14  dipane  efichj  sechj  euino|  giouedi  cenaj  carne  dicastrone  en  fu 
lasera  delle  diuisionej  adj  13  uenerdi  cenaj  dame  ecomiciaj  afare  dame 
ebatista  siserro  I  camera  |  sabato  cenaj  co  bro  em  luca  1°  pesce|  domenica  adi 
22  desinai  co  br°  ep'ma  adi  20  en  fueluenerdj  delle  digune|  comicio  eltepo 
arisehiarare  coueto  buono  e  acociarsi  eedurato  otto  di  iterj  |  ep '  ma  era  stato 
timese  tuctauia  o  poco  a  asaj  ogni  di  apiouere  co  certo]  i  grassameto  dusci  e 
dumido  dimura  quato  io  miricordj  a  gra  pezo|  talcn  glagenerato  aq°  beltepo 
scesi  rouino  en  presto  amazano 


IX 


1556 


pagolo1  daterra  rossa  morj  lauilia  dipasqua|  cioe  adi  24  cenaj  I  casa  br<> 
luca  martinj  etucti  dicasa  daniello  |  lamattina  dipasqua  desinaj  ecenaj  quiuj| 
adi  26  adamo  asa  frac°  etornamo  adesinare  en  uera  lalexadra]  co  mona 
lucretia  estemouj  lasera  etornamo  tuctj  a  le  6  hore|  adi  27  adamo  br°  eio 
amote  oliueto  estemo  tuctamattina  co  giouabatista]  strozj2  tornamo  tardj  eio 
stetti  Isino  alasera  digiuno  ecenaj  icasa  mia|  adj  28  adamo  auolsaminiato 
edesinamo  aloste  espedemo  s  20  p  1<>  erauamo  5|  elasera  no  cenaj  |  adj  29 
domenica  mattina  adamo  Isino  asadomenico  tornamo  tardj  I  modo  en  io| 
nouollj  desinare  edugaj  alasera  icasa  danjello|  lunedj  cenaj  i  casa|  martedj 
cenaj  I  casa|  adj  p°|  genai|  1556|  mercoledj  desinaj  co  br°  ecenaj  atauiano 
eio  1°  germano)  giouedj  sera  cenai  porco  lesso  e  1°  farciglo  ebatista  no  uolle 
cenare]  uenerdj  eenai  co  br°  1°  pesce  en  midette  elpadouano  1°  limone  e 
deluoua]  sabato  mattina  comicio  apiovere  eaguastarsi  eltepo  cnra  durato  bello  | 
dieci  di  en  maj  no  fu  1°  nugolo  elasera  tornaj  co  1°  pitocho  en  migosto]  lire 
12  eriscotraj  ba°  en  porto  quatro  scudj  afrati  dellapigione]  domenica  desinaj 
co  bro|  la  befania  lunedj.  adamo  aspasso  emagiorno  pane  di  miglio  poi  lasera 
cenaj  codanielo]  martedj  [  mercoledj  |  giouedj  sera  cenai  colp'ore  denoceti  lui 
eio  solj  agelatina  e  huoua|  uenerdi  adi  10  ahore  24  1°  carro  mistrise  leginochia 
rasete  1°  muriciuolo|  e  ba°  uenne  acasa  p  hauere  danarj  dalattazioj  sabato 
ebe  A  dua  eportogli  a  frati  p  lapigione]  domenica  piove  e  fu  gra  ueto  efreddo 

1  This  was  perhaps  Pagolo  il  Eosso,  Varchi  's  friend. 

2  The  celebrated  poet. 

300 


HIS  DIARY 

tucto  eldi  eio  comiciajj  amagiare  su  dame.  1°  pezo  darista  ecosi  martedi  uene 
abotega  del  gello  mercoledj|  adj  15  sera  bro  uene  acasa  p  me  co  ottauiano 
pch  io  adassi  acenaseco  eio  dalospetiale]  delcapello  la  lasaj  en5  miruede| 
giouedj  sera  cenaj  giu  colfattore  huoua  |  sea  atoi|nio|  uenerdi  sera  huoua  I 
1°  tegamino]  sabato  sera  huoua  I  1°  tegamino| 


domenica  sera  cenaj  c5piero  tordi  lissj  earosto  en  glelo  auea  pmesso] 
lamattina  dasapiero  e  lasera  altardj  br°  eatauiano  passorno]  efui  apto  loro 
luscio  dalfattore  seza  fermarsj  solo  disse  en  di  fac°|  poi  I  su  le  2  hore  attauiano 
uene  apichiare  domadado  dime|  didedo  en  lalesadra  miuoleua  dice  elfattore 
adi  20 1  sc°  ba°|  lunedj  pioue  tucto  eldj.  scosse  rouinose  egratuonj  ebalenj 
elasera  eenai  1°  resto  ditingolo  edarista  auazata  digiouedi  borana|  cotta  5 
9  dipane  e  6  4  di  pane  diramerino|  adi  21  pioue  tuctoeldj  cenaj  dua  huoua 
1*  libra  dipane  la  isalata)  adj  22  cenai  porco  lesso  e  1°  poco  dicauolo  epane 
diramerino  6  9  dipane  |  adj  23  giouedi  eenaj  castrone  ebiadare  cobatista 
abelochio  ereeane)  ecenamo  isieme  e  ucelomj  duo  dj  dicedo  en  no  netrouaua| 
adi  24  cenai  6  10  dipane  borana  ecacio  e  dua  huoua |  adi  25  ba°  micopo  20 
mele  10  qi  ecenai  dua  huoua  eia  isalataj  adi  26  tornado  acasa  ahore  24  fui 
sopa  guto  da  atauiano  daniello|  elalezadra  e  altre  donne  ch  ueniuano  p  me 
ch  io  adassi  acasa  br°|  adamo  efecesi  ueglia  Isino  ahore  12 1  adi  27  cenai  icasa 
12  6  dipane  emele  cotte|  adi  28  desinai  cobr°  colobascj|  adi  29  cenai  dua 
huoua|  adi  30  castrone  ch  copo  batista  9  q*|  adi  31  huoua|  febraio  adi  5  huoua| 
adi  2  desinaj  co  br<>  ecenaj  Icasa  daniello  lasera  |  adi  3  cenai  ia  torta  co  lacarne 
di  mia  mano|  adi  4  cenaj  1°  pesce  duoua  colcacio|  adi  5  upoco  dicastrone.|  adi 
6  comlciai  alauorare  ecenaj  porcho  arosto]  adi  7  uenerdi  cenaj  upesce  duouo 
colcacio|  adi  8  cenai  1°  pesce  duouo  elamattina  ebi  12  staia  di  brace)  el  fattore 
fece  delpane  cioe  menacilia  edisse  pch|  io  laueuo  madato  p  1°  fiascho  di  uino 
ch  io  no  gli  co|madassj  piu  o  ch  io  facessj  dame  o  io  toglessj  chj  i|  facessi 
elasera  lasaj  fenita  quella  figura  disegnata] 

XI 

difebraio  1556 

domenica  adj  16  desinaj  co  br°  elasera  cenaj  icasa  |  daniello  br°  e  attauiano 
eio  aspettado  daniello  I  sino  alle  5  hr6]  lunedj  sera  magiaj  upoco  di  buech 
ba°  micopo  |  ch  no  arebe  magiato  ecanj  come  quello  ch  no  emeglo|  ch  glatri 
toglendo  pse  elbuono  latp  /  e  luj  sanio|  martedi.  cenai  di  quello  bue| 
mercoledj  ba°  micopo  28  q1  darista.  cenaj  dua  huoua  o  10  djpane|  berllga|ccio 
giouedi  cenaj  acasa  br°  e  fecj  queltorso  diqella  figa  ch  sta  cosi]  uenerdj  cenaj 

2  huoua  cacio  efichi  sechj|   sabato  ia  torta  neltegamuzo  eba°  mireco  s  15 
diuitella  egraso|  domenica  desinai  ecenai  co  br°  elasera  sifece  laueghia  ch 
uera|  eluarchi)  lunedi  sera  icasa  daniello  ch  zando  auedere  lacomedia  I  uia 
magic]  martedi  fu  1°  grafredo  eneuico  lanocte  eio  cenai  i°  cauolo  icasamia 
mercoledi|  adi  20  giouedj  feci  quella  testa  ch  grida  ecenai  lasera  uitella 
esino  1  29  lascaj  finite  tucto  Isino  iterra  quel  ch  sotto  adettatesta]  marzo  adi 

3  feci  latesta  di  quellafigura  disegnata  qui|  adj  4  dimarzo  fecj  i°  pezo  ditorso 
I  sino  alepope  e  pati  fredo  eueto|  tale  ch  lanocte  io  afiocaj  elalt0  dipoi  nd 

potei  lauorare)  adi  6  fecitucto  eltorso]  adi  7  fornj  legabe)   adi  8 adai 

auedere  1°  hercole  coelrotella|  lunedj  9  feci  la  testa  sottole)   martedi  adaj 
auedere  latauola  di  br°  cioe  quello  sabartolomeo]  mercoledi  la  testa  sottole| 

301 


PONTORMO 

giouedi  leuaj  le  bullette  cfterano  cofitte  lasu  altoj  uenerdj  ia  testa  sottole]  I 
tonicai  dame  ia  testa  ebi  della  pigione  lire  4|  sabato  14  lasera  adai  auedere 
quella  testa  di  sadrino  eh  mapse  lales|adra  eft  senadoj  uia  e  italsera|  cenai 
co  piero|  eft  uera|  15  domenica  fupichiato  dabr°  epoi  eldi  dadanjello  no 
so  quello  eft  siuolessino|  18  fecj  quello  itonico  dimacigno  sotto  alefinestre  | 

XII 

5  la  finita|  giouedi  19  riscotraj  daniello  e  attauiano  eft  mi  uoleuano 
dare  desinare  epoi  scrotraj  br°  da  salorezo  eft  madaua]  lasua  tauola  apisa 
uenerdi|  sabato |  domenica  uene  br°  daniello  e  atauiano  acasa  eio  eopai 
canne|  esalci  p  lorto  e  br°  miuoleua  adesinare  eturdadosi  midisse]  epare  eft 
uoj  uegnate  acasa  1°  uro  nimjco  e  lasciomi  ire|  elunedj  sera  cenai  Icasa  daniello 
1°  capretto  di  s  34  molto|  buono  eft  uera  br°  sadrino  e  gulio  eio  eitaldi 
lalesadra  si|  rupe  elcapo  co  certj  ebricjj  martedi  sera  madai  p  1°  fiasco  dibiacho 
a  gaddj  soldi  ii|  adi  25  mercoledi  laluna  opositjone|  adi  26  comlciai  quello 
braccio  di  quel  babino  eft  gle  sotto  |  uenerdi  mileuai  ia  hora  I  anzj  di  efeci 
quel  torso  dalbraccio  I  giu|  sabato  feci  ia  coscia  efecesi  la  festa  dellatregua 
elasera  cossi  1°  riso|  decauretto]  adi  29  domenica  delluliuo  desinai  co  br°[ 
lunedj  feci  latesta  diquelputto.  |  martedi  feci  icasa  no  so  cft|  adi  1°  da|p'le 
mercoledi  feei  questa  altra  coscia  co  tucta  lagaba  elpie|  giouedi  sco  uenerdi 
mileuaj  abuonora  e  feci  quel  torso  dibabino|  giouedi  feci  le  gabe  adi  9  uenerdj 
1°  capo  azurro  eadai  acena  copiero|  sabato  fecj  sotto  alefinestre  diuerso  la  -S- 
uechia  quellapietraj  ejtorno  aquella  figura  eft  uiua  emandaj  gli  sparagi  e 
nouj|  cenaj  acasa  piero|  domenica  ebi  1°  berlingozo  damena  ugenia  eadai  acena 
co  bro.|  lunedi  lauorai  quelgli  docioni  sotto  alefinestre  |  pier  frac°  /  martedj 
mercoledi  sasetto  elpalco.  da  poter  lauorare) 

XIII 

13  giouedi  mileuaj  ia  hora  I  azj  di  ecomiciai  quella  figura]  sotto  alatesta 
eft  sta  cosi|  uenerdi  eltorso|  18  dap'le  sabato  legabe|  lunedi  sottole  isino 
isulcoro)  adi  6  dimagio  uedei  20  sta  digrano  e  ebi  ia  poliza  delmonte  6  [scudi]  | 
adi  p°  dimagio  uenerdj  sabato  |  domenica  desinaj  co  br°  eft  fu  sea  "f1!  lunedi 
comlciai  quella  figura  eft  sta  cosi|  martedi  feci  latestaj  mercoledi  eltorso 
6  [scudi]  |  giouedi  legabe]  uenerdi  esabato  sotto  le  . .  .|  domenica  desinai  ecenai 
cobr0  —  eadamo  aspasso  dalla  porta  alprato]  martedi  comlciai  quel  braccio 
di  quella  figa  eft  sta  cosi|  mercoledi  lalt°  braccio  elagaba  eft  fu  la  uilia 
dellascesionej  14  giouedi  cenai  edesinai  co  br°|  uenerdi  esabato  fini  lafigura| 
domeniea  desinaj  c5  br°  elasera  no  cenaj  ecomiciaj  anomisetire  bene|  lunedi 
sera  I  sule  2  hore  uenne  1°  tepo  cotuonj  ebalenj  eaqua  efreddo|  eacordura  eft 
siano  amercoledj  apiouere  ogni  di  eft  p'  maerastato[  2  mesj  beltepo|  28  giouedi 
comicia  quella  figura  eft  sta  cosj  sotto  alia  testa  |  uenerdi  la  fini  —  sabato  feci 
quello  libro|  domenica  no  desinai  e  lasera  cenai  cdpiero  1°  paio  dipipionj] 
lunedi  adi  p°  digugno  feci  quello  moretto]  adi  7  desinai  ecenai  cobr°  elasera 

siseti|  male  |  adi  9  comiciaj  quella  figura  eft  sta  cosi j  10  I  mercoledi  | 

giouedi  |  uenerdi  sabato  feci  quello  poco  del  braccio  elasala  finita  cft| 

XIV 

eft  e  tucta  finita  difigure  itere  ia  storia|  domenica  sera  cenai  copiero  torta 
di  latte|  lunedi  adi  15]  lacioltre  daelrotella)  uenerdi  adi  19  comiciaj  quella 
figura  eft  sta  cosi|  sabato  feci  lebraccia|  domenica  2i  fui  trouato  da  br°  isca 

302 


HIS  DIARY 

maria  delfiore|  epromessj  dadare  adesinare  seco  chi  haueuano  poi  aire] 
auedere  eltoro  elasera  erorimasto  dicenaruj  e  madaj]  p  1°  fiasco  diuino  apiero 
eft  uera  lalesadra  etornamocene  isiene]  dispiaquemj  ubuSdato  lacena  tale  eft 
io  stetti  diguno  I  sino  amarte  dj  sera  eft  beui  diqueltrebiano  eft  di  uinegia 
e  2  huoua|  eaueuo  fatto  amazare  quello  galletto  eft  si  gitto  uia|  adj  24  mercoledj 
sera  eeenaj  codaniello  eft  uera  elmarignolle1  e  br°|  giouedj  feci  quelle  2  teste 
segnate  disopa  efui°  tepo  edipiouere|  edituoni  edifredo  straordinario]  uenerdi 
sirimuro  tucte  quelle  bucft  di  sul  coro  dj  quella  p'ma  stor|  sabato  feci  quelle 
dua  braecia  e  no  cenaj  |  domenica  28  desinai  co  br°  elasera  cenai  eft  fuqdo  e 
copo  certi  pesjci  ecft  noj  adamo  alprato  ognisatj  eft  uera  sadrino  ebernardo] 
lunedi.  feci  qellateretta.  martedi  quellaltra  teretta|  adj  p°  di  luglio  mercoledi 
giouedi  uenerdi  sabato  la  sera  no  cenaj  djsegnaj]  5  domenica.  desinai  cobr° 
eft  fu  quella  mattina  eft  io  lotrouaj|  da  sea  maria  delfiore  cftera  coatauiano 
e  parlaua  co  m|  lorezo  puccj  cftero  auiato  copare  lalattuga  pratese|  elasera 
cenauj  eft  fuqdo  io  madaj  apiero  peluino  a  s  9|  12  domenica |  14  martedi 
comicciai  eltorso  diquella  figura  grade  mero  quel  poco  di  bra°|  giouedisirimuro 
le  dua  bucft  sabato  quelle  schiene  eft  glisono  sotto  di  quaj  19  domenica  mattina 
desinai  cobr°  elasera  copiero  torta  diper|rogie  elsabato  inazi  cenaj  quel  pezo 
diticha  cioe  lasera  iaz| 

XV 

(15)  20  lunedi  sera  luglo  cenai  estetti  diguno  I  sino  amercoledj  sera|  feci 
quello  pezo  dibra0  e  1°  pezo  digaba  diquelle  schie|ne  dette  martedi  ehiesi  eft 
bta  cocessi.|  22  mercoledi  feci  quella  testa  equello  poco  della  spalla  cenai 
co  |  daniello|  giouedi  feci  I  quelcato  I  sulcoro  della  storia  finita]  uenerdi  feci 
quella  gaba  diquella  figura  grade  itera]  adi  20  detto  lasera.  lamattina  ebi 
1°  mogio  digrano  lasera  mj|  lauaj  epiedi.  e  pcossj  ne  luscio  co  1°  calcio  tale 
cftio  mi  |  feci  male  e  duolmj  isino  aogi  eft  siano  adi  25  cioe| — 5  sabato  feci 
quella  coscia  grade]  domenica  desinai  copiero  uitella  e  lasera  nocenai]  lunedi 
mileuaj  abuonora  e  feci  quellotorso  eft  e  sotto  |  mercoledi  feci  quello  stico 
della  coscia  grade]  uenerdi  seracenai  copiero  pesce  abatista  lascio  lapoli  cosi] 
eft  deceua  eft  notornaua  eft  fu  qdo  egli  acatto  el  giachio]  cercha  alauoro  da 
di  detto  disopa  cioe  29  di  luglo  |  isino  adj  26  dagosto  ioho  fatto  quella  figura 
no  uestita]  ditesta  co  quelpoco  dellaria  e  ordinato  el  sco  lorezo  |  circa  elmagiare 
portai  ia  gallina  ecenai  c6bro|  elasera  uiceno  danjello  e  attauiano  espeseno 
3  lire]  eftmitocha  soldi  20  e  1°  giouedi  sera  ui  cenai  cfte  brozo|  copo  pmio  coto 
1°  poco  dj  castrone]  adj  27  detto  portai  el  cartone  del  sco  lorezo  eapicossi 
dapoterlauorare|  adj  10  disetteb"  fece  ma  adia  delpane  1°  quarto) 

XVI 
1556 

adi  11  disetteb  ibottaj  3  b1  e  2  /  1  diuino  dacalezano]  elasera  eenaj  copiero  | 
sabato  feci  quella  testa  diquel  babino  cfttiene  lacorona]  13  domenica  cenai 
icasa  dajello  eft  uera  br°  ia  testa  diuitella]  eft  spesi  2  barilj]  lunedj  lacorona 
mercoledi  eft  fuledigune  feci  quel  braccio]  giouedj  uenerdj  feci  eltorso  elasera 
nocenaj  (d  48)  |  sabato  legabe  cenai  ia  liba  dipane]  20  domenica  lunedi  cftfusc0 
matteo  tuctauia  ia  lib  dipane  j  emartedi  eft  no  lauoraj]  mercoledi  comleiaj 
quello  babino  del  calice  eeenaj  6  8  di  pan(e)|  adj  26  Isabato  sera  adamo  alia 
tauerna  attauiano  e  brozoeio)  cenamo  pescj  ehuoua  euino  ueehio  e  tocho  s 

i  Probably  Lorenzo  Marignolli,  the  sculptor. 

303 


PONTOBMO 

17  p  1°|  domenica.  desinai  co  br°  /  elasera  uicenaj  cnuera  attauiano]  lunedi 
I  casa|  martedi  en  fu  sco  mjchle  uidesinaj  elasera  uicenai  en]  cera  uenuto 
luca  martin j :  (mercoledj  acasa |  giouedi  sera  uicenaj  eft  uera  eluarchj  e  m 
luca  elamattin(a)  senado  apisa  en  fu  luenerdj]  sabato  piove  tucta  nocte  e 
mezo  el  dj  edesinaj  zucn  fritte  co|  bro°  erecane  1°  fischo  di  colore|  4  domenica 
adaj  a  safrac0  estettj  tucto  eldi  tornaj  ecenaj  1°  lesso |  di  castrone  e  ebi  1° 
fiasco  diuino  uechio  dal  busino]  lunedj  feci  quelcapo  di  quel  babino  I  capegli 
cenaj  2  ucellin(i)  martedi  mileuaj  ia  bora  I  azj  dj  efeci  queltorso  del  putto 
en  ha  |  elcalice  elasera  cenaj  castrone  buono  maio  bo  male  alla|  gola  cioe 
noposso  sputare  ia  cosa  apicata  en  io  soglo  auere|  adi  ii  domenica  adai  acertosa 
elasera  cenaj  (daniello  gulio  alpiouano|  anguilla  arosto  en  toco  s  15  J  adi  18 
domenica  desinaj  copiero  castrone  elasera  cenai  I  casa  br°|  fegato  fritto 
[uenerdi  comicio  aee  fredo  elasera  cenamo  alia  tauernaj 

XVII 

(17)  0  elunedi  sera  cobrozo  en  ui  uenne  luca  martinj  e  tasso  polio 
elepre  e  6  8  dipane|  martedi  sera  cenai  upoco  dicastrone  co  10  dipane 
ecomiciomj  ari  piacere|  eluino  dipiero  dormedo  bene  lanoctej  mercoledi  sera 
en  sono  ledigune  no  cenai  eancora  ho  quella  bocaccia  asetata)  giouedj  sera 
en  fu  lauilia  di  sco  tomaso  cenaj  borrana  cocta  edua  huoua  ecosij  uenerdi 
sera  tato  en  I  dua  sere  io  magiai  27  6  dipane  |  esabato  sera  D.  I  sino  alia 
domenica  sera  ch  cenai  upoco  dicarne  arosto  |  lunedi  en  fu  lauilia  della  pasqua 
cenai  I  casa  brozo  e  Isino  alasera  stettj[  ecenaj  seco  ia  acegia  la  secoda  festa 
lamattina  a  lasera  magiai  quiui|  e  lasera  di  sco  giouannj  cenai  co  daniello 
bene  diquegli  farciglonj  e  o  8  dipane  |  uenerdj  e  sabato  magiai  Icasa  o  30 
dipane  huoua  burro  e  altre  cose|  domenica  sera  cenai  porco  arosto  e  o  16 
dipane  |  lunedj :  ia  isalata  diborana  e  1°  pesce  duouo  e  o  19  dipane  |  genaio 
marte.  en  fu  Kaledj  cenaj  cobrozo  6  10  dipane |  mercole.  cenai  6  14  dipane 
arista.  ia  isalata  diuidia  e  cacio  e  fichi  sechi|  giouedj  cenai  o  15  dipane  | 
uenerdi  6  14  dipane  sabato  no  cenai  |  domenica  matina  desinai  e  cenai  co 
brozo  miglacj  efegategi  (elporco)  |  lunedi  sera  cenai  6  14  dipane  arista  uue  e 
caeio  e  isalata  diuidia)  martedi  sera  cenai  ia  isalata  diuidia  5  ii  dipane  1° 


rochio  e  mele  cocte  itigolo 
magiai  porco  lesso  neluino 


mercoledj  sera  e  giouedj  sera  6  24  dipane  en 
adi  11  digenaio  I  uenerdj  dasera  o  11  dipane 


luidia  1°  pesce  duouo  |  adi  12  cenai  1°  pesce  duouo  isalata  dmidia  6  12  dipane 
e  I  talsera  epici  la  botte  delujno  dipiero  en  ne  leuaj  17  fiaschi  eaepierla  seruj 
13  fiaschj  I  tucto  restomene  quatro  fiaschi  e  prima  naueuo  autj  Isino  adi 
detto  fiaschi  6|  I  modo  en  itucto  sono  fiaschj  23  el  detto  di  na  auto  dame  1° 
barile  diuino  delmio|  domenica  desinai  ecenai  Icasa  br°  adi  13  digenaio  1555 1 
lunedi  adai  a  saminiato  cenai  1°  rochio  disalsicia  6  10  dipane |  martedi  1° 
lobo  midia  e  la  libra  dipane  gelatina  e  fichi  sechi  e  cacio  |  adi  20  cenai  I  casa 
daniello  ia  gallina  didia  en  uera  attauiano  ch  f u  I  domenica  sera|  adj  27  dj 
genaio  desinai  ecenai  icasa  b°  eueneui  dopo  desinare  lalesadra  e  stette  Isino 
asera  epoi  senado  efuquella  sera  en  b°  eio  uenimo  acasa  auedere  elpetrarcha 
cioe  fiachi  stomach  j  ec  epagai  quello  ch  sera  gucato|  (. . .  .alta  daso  . . .  ne  5) 

XVIII 

(18)  disorte  en  setitroua  disordinato  dexercitio  /  dipannj|  odicoito  o  di 
supfluita  dimagiare  puo  elpochi  giornj  spaciartj  o  fartimale  p  ho  edausare 
laprudetia|  gugno  luglo  eagosto  e  meza  settebr  esudori  teperatj  esopa  tucto 

304 


HIS  DIARY 

alueto  qdo  hai  fatto  exercitio  hai  hauere  cura|  eancora  del  magiare  ebere 
qdo  se  caldo  dipoj  tiprepara|  damezo  setteb  Ila  allo  autunno  ch  p  ee  edi  picolj 
eltepoj  coxniciare  humido  elumidita  del  here  supfluo  ch  hai  fatto  |  nella  state 
tibisogna  co  diguni  epoco  bere  elughe  uigilie  e  exercitio  p  parartj  ch  efredj 
deluerno  noti  nuochino|  no  titrouado  bene  disposto  eno  frequetare  tropo 
lacarne]  emaxime  delporcho  edamezo  genaio  Ila  no  ne  magiare  |  pen  e  molto 
febricosa  ecattiua  euiui  dogni  cosa  teperato|  p  en  le  sachate  deglomorj  edelle 
scese  siscuoprano  alfebraio]  almarzo  e  allo  ap'le  p  en  neluerno  elf  redo 
glicogela]  e  abi  cura  challeuolte  secodo  chome  achade  nella  luna  ee  1°  fredo| 
epoi  subito  Ihumidire  ogni  cosa  cogelata  ediqui  nasce] 

XIX 

(19)  scese  moltorouinose  egociole  o  alt1  mali  picolosj]  en  tucto  precede 
qdo  e  que  fredj  magiato  ebeuto]  supfluo  pen  elf  redo  telo  coporta  erapiglia 
masubito|  altepo  dolcie  ehumj  do  loriscalda  ericresce  erigofia]  e  po  chome  io 
dissj  disopa  .i.  nelprlcipio  qdo  se  aq°|  modo  carico  habi  cura  allo  exercitio 
delrafreddare]  pch  uccide  o  subito  o  Ipochj  giornj  sich  se  haj[  humor j  supfluj 
aquistatj  lauernata  tienj  lordine|  ch  io  djssj  dsopa  e  sopa  tucto  sta  I  ceruello 
elmarzoj  emaxime  nella  luna  10  di  p'  ma  e  10  poi  cioe  alcomiciare  della  luna 
nuoua  dimarzo  esia  Isino  a|  passata  la  qulta  dicima  en  tucte  le  lune  ch  sepiono 
sono  nociue  se  1°  e  ripieno  e  iporta  riguardarsi  p '  ma|  Ricordo  adj  5  dinoueb 
1555  ch  mipare  ch  ebi  sognj  ch  io  comuch|  io  ho  qualch  ipedimeto  o  distomaco 
o  dicapo  o  didogle  pe  fianchj  |  o  alle  gabe  o  bracca  o  didetj :  ch  siano  cotinouj 
eno  bisogna  ch  io  feccj|  come  p  ladreto  mach  subito  io  uirimedj  colmagiare 
poco  ocolostare)  diguno  e  igegnarsj  pie  4  tepora  oseruare  edigiunj  comadatj 
pch  |  e  dipiu  auiene  aleuolte  setirsj  pieno  delmagiare  agrauato  dal|  somo  e 
dalcibo  ch  pare  chiosia  gofiato  alora  e  da  riguardarsj  |  pch  e  sanita  superflua| 
nelanno  1555  p  la  luna  chcomicio  dimarzo  e  duro  Isino  adi  25  dap '  le 

itucto  quella  luna|  naqai  ifermjta  pest jf ere  ch  ama- 
io  conosco  zorno  dimolti  huominj  regalatj  ebuonj  e  forse|  seza 

ch  no  Io  face  disordinj  e  atuctj  sicuaua  sague  credo  ch  gla  uenissi 

do  io  me  ne  peto  ch  elf  redo  no|  fu  digenaio  esfogossi  I  qa  luna  dimarzo 

ch  si  setiua  1°  fredo  uelenoso] 

XX 


20  I  domenica  sera 

adj  7  digenaio  1554  caddj  epcossj  laspalla  elb°  estettj  male]  e  stettj  acasa 
br°  sei  di  poi  mene  tornaj  acasa  estettj  male  Isino  |  acarnauale  ch  fu  adi  6 
difebraio  1554 1 

sordo  cobattere  colaria  rifocolata  dalastagione  degiornj  gradi]  chera  come 
setire  frigere  elfuoco  nelaqua  talchio  sono  stato  eogra|  paura  eluatagio  e  stare 
preparato  mazj  ch  etri  la  luna  dimarzo  |  ch  la  titruouj  sobrio  dicibo  dexercitio 
eco  gra  riguardo  delsudore]  enosisbigottire  ch  passata  ch  le  dipochj  giornj 
luomo  no  sa  chome |  lasistia  o  dode  siuegha  ch  dimaldjsposto  subito  luomo  sisete 
bene  |  come  iteruiene  ame  ogi  q°  dj  22  dap'le  delp°  giorno  della  luna  nuoua  | 
setirmj  bene  e  p  adreto  mai  ee  mj  mai  setito  bene  tucto  dee  procedere|  da  1° 
certo  fredo  ch  no  era  acora  smaltito  ehauea  durato  Isino  adi  21 1  ma  ogi  q° 
di  sopa  detto  mefatto  caldo  esetomj  bene  pch  eltepo  ha  forse  la|  stagione  sua.| 

305 


PONTORMO 

XXI 

Ins 

21 

adj  ii  dimarzo  1554  I  domenjca  mattina  desinaj  co  brozino  |  polio  euitella 
esetimj  bene  [ueroe  eh  uenedo  p'me  acasa  ioero|  neletto  era  asaj  be  tardj 
eleuadomj  mi  setiuo  gofiato  epieno  era|  asaj  beldj]  lasera  cenaj  upoco  di  carne 
secha  arosto  en  haueuo  sete|  elunedj  sera  cenaj  1°  cauolo  e  1°  pesce  duouo| 
elmartedj  sera  cenai  la  meza  testa  dicauretto  e  laminestra|  elmercoledi  sera  lalta 
meza  fritta  edelzibibo  1°  buo  data  e  5  qi  dipane  e  eaperj  I  insalata]  giouedi  sera 
la  minestra  dibuono  castrone  e  Isalata  dibarbe  |  uenerdj 
giouedi  matti  sera  isalata  dibarbe  e  dua  huoua  I  pesce  duouo  |  sabato 

na  miuene  D,  domenica  sera  eft  fu  lasera  delluliuo  cenaj  1°  poco 

el  capo  girlo  dicastrone  ne  lesso  emagiai  1°  poco  disalata|  e  douetti 

cB  mi  duro  tucto          magiare  da  tre  quatrinj  dipane |  lunedj  sera  dopocena 
dj  e  dapoi  sono  misetj    molto    gagliardo    ebedisposto    magiai  |     Isalata 

stato  tuctauia  dilattuga  ia  minestrina  dibuono  castrone  e  4  qi  dipane | 

maldisposto  martedj    sera   magiai   ia   isalata   dilattuga   e   1°   pesce 

e  del  capo  debole          duouo  |  mercoledj  sco  sera  2  qi  dimadorle  e  1°  pesce  duouo 

giouedj 
uenerdj 


e  noce  efeci  quella  figura|  en  e  sopa  la  zucha 
uene  la  D  asco  sera  ia  isalata  dilattuga  edelcauiale  e  e  1°  huouo 


16  el  duca  sera  1°  pesce  duouo  della  f  aua  e  1°  poco  dicauiale  e  4 

uene  anco  qi  dipane  sabato  sera  magiai   dua  huoua|    ela  donna 

domenica  en  fu  lamattina  dipascua  adai  adesinare  co 
bro  elasera  cenauj|  lunedi  sera  magiai  ia  isalata  cnera  diborana  e  1°  mezo 
limone  e  2  huo|ua  ipesce  duouo.  |  Martedisera  erotucto  afiocato  e  magiai 
i°  pane  diramereno  e  1°  pe  duouo  |  eia  isalata  e  defichj  sechj|  mercoledi  D 
giouedi  sera  1°  pane  dir°  1°  pe  duno  huouo  e  la  isalata  e  4  qi  dipane  itucto 
uenerdi  sera  isalata  minestra  dipisegli  e  1°  pesce  duouo  e  5  qi  dipane  |  sabato 
burro  isalata  zucnro  epesce  duouo  [  adi  i  dap'le  domenica  desinaj  co  br° 
elasera  no  cenaj  | 

XXII 

lunedi  sera  cenai  i°  pane  bollito  col  burro  e  1°  pesce  duouo  e  21  5  ditorta| 
martedj  |  mercoledi  |  giouedj  |  uenerdj  |  sabato  adai  alatauerna  asalata  epesce 
duouj  ecacio  esetimj  bene|  domenica  desinai  ecenaj  co  brozino  |  lunedi  1° 
armoncino  lesso  dagnello  buono|  martedj  dua  huoua  afrettelate  eia  Isalata  | 
mercoledj  |  giouedj  sera  4  qi  dipane  la  isalata  dello  agnello  lesso  malcotto)  adj 
13  —  uenerdj  sera  cenai  radichio  cotto  1°  pane  di  4  qi  e  1°  pesce  duouo  |  sabato 
sera  |  domenica  sera  cenai  carne  dagnello  lesso  e  Isalata  cocta  ecacio  |  mercoledi 
adj  23  dimagio  cenaj  dellacarne|  giouedi  en  fuel  corp°  dnj  desinaj  cobrozino 
ebi  delgreco  carne  |  epesci  elasera  ia  oca  ditorta  eopoca  carne  epoca  uogla 


dimagiare|  adj  2  digugno  sabato  sera  ebi  lasegiola  cB  miuiene  Ijre  16 
9  digugno  1554  comlcio  marco  moro  amurare  elcoro  eturare  i  sco  lorezo : 


adj 


*  adi  18  lasera  discoluca  comlciai  adormire  giu  col  coltrone  nuouo|  adj 
19  dottob"  misetiuo  male  cioe  Ifredato  e  dipoi  no  poteuo  riauere|  lospurgho 
e  cogra  fatica  duro  parechj  sere  uscire  djquella  cosa]  sotto  dellagola  come 
alle  uolte  io  ho  hauto  distate  no  so  se  se  stato  |  p  ee  durato  ubuondato  bellissimj 
tepi  emagiato  tuttauia  bene|  eadi  detto  comlciaj  ariguar  darmj  upoco 
eduromj  3  di  30  oce  dipane  |  cioe  10  oce  apasto  cioe  la  uolta  eldj  eco  poco 
bere  ep'ma  adj  16 1  didetto  ibottaj  barili  6  djuino  daradda] 

306 


HIS  DIARY 

XXIII 

1554 

23 

adj  22  detto  tornai  estettj  icasa  solo  aspettare  elfattore  Isino  alle  4|  hore 
edipoi  magiai  i°  pesce  duouo  8  oce  dipane  ia  noce  e  1°  fieo  secho|  e  dua  meluze 
cotte  adj  23  la  sera  magiai  minestra  dicastrone  lesso  e  dua  mele  cotte  e  10 
oce  dipane  |  e  1°  meza  mezetta  diuino  ecomlciato  amanomettere  la  botte. 


307 


Reconstruction  of  the  Sequence  of  the 
of  Pontormo's  Diary 


1554 

Sunday,  January  7  to  Tuesday,  February  6, 
Sunday,  March  11  to  Sunday,  April  1, 
Monday,  April  2  to  Sunday,  April  15, 
"Wednesday,  May  23  to  Thursday,  May  24, 
Saturday,  June  2,  . 
Saturday,  June  9,  . 
October  16,  18  and  19,     . 
Monday,  December  17  to  Monday,  December  31, 

1555 

Tuesday,  January  1  to  Tuesday,  January  15,     . 

Sunday,  January  20,       ..... 

Sunday,  January  27,       ..... 

Wednesday,  January  30  to  Saturday,  February  2, 

Saturday,  February  16,  . 

Thursday,  February  21,  . 

Wednesday,  February  27  to  Thursday,  28, 

Sunday,  March  3  to  Monday,  March  4, 

Sunday,  March  10  to  Tuesday,  March  12,  . 

Friday,  March  15  to  Saturday,  March  16,  . 

Monday,  March  18  to  Saturday,  March  23, 

Monday,  March  25  to  Wednesday,  March  27,     . 

Thursday,  March  28  to  Monday,  April  22, 

For  April  21  and  22,  see  also  page  21 

Tuesday,  April  23  to  Friday,  May  24, 

Saturday,  May  25  to  Sunday,  June  30, 

Thursday,  July  4  to  Tuesday,  July  23, 

Wednesday,  July  24  to  Sunday,  August  25, 

Monday,  September  2  to  Wednesday,  September  4, 

Wednesday,  September  4  to  Sunday,  September  21, 

Sunday,  October  6  to  Wednesday,  October  9,     . 

Saturday,  October  12  to  Monday,  October  28,     „ 

Tuesday,  October  29  to  Monday,  November  4,    . 

Tuesday,  November  5,     . 

Saturday,  November  9,  . 

Tuesday,  November  12,  ..... 

Friday,  November  15  to  Wednesday,  November  20, 

Sunday,  November  24,    . 

Wednesday,  November  27  to  Saturday,  December  14, 

Friday,  December  20, 

Sunday,  December  22,     . 

Tuesday,  December  24  to  Tuesday,  December  31, 


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308 


HIS  DIARY 


1556 

Wednesday,  January  1  to  Saturday,  January  18, 

Sunday,  January  19  to  Saturday,  February  8,  . 

Sunday,  February  16  to  Saturday,  February  29, 

Tuesday,  March  3  to  Wednesday,  March  18, 

Thursday,  March  19  to  Friday,  April  3,     . 

Thursday,  April  9  to  Wednesday,  April  15, 

Thursday,  April  16  to  Saturday,  April  18, 

Monday,  April  20,  ... 

Friday,  May  1  to  Sunday,  May  10,  . 

Tuesday,  May  12  to  Monday,  June  1, 

Sunday,  June  7,    . 

Tuesday,  June  9,   . 

Friday,  June  12  to  Saturday,  June  13, 

Sunday,  June  14  to  Monday,  June  15, 

Friday,  June  19  to  Sunday,  July  5,  . 

Tuesday,  July  14,  . 

Friday,  July  16,     . 

Saturday,  July  18  to  Sunday,  July  19, 

Sunday,  July  19  to  Monday,  July  27, 

Wednesday,  July  29, 

Friday,  July  31  to  Thursday,  August  27, 

Thursday,  September  10, 

Friday,  September  11  to  Monday,  September  14, 

Wednesday,  September  16  to  Wednesday,  September 

Saturday,  September  26  to  Tuesday,  October  6, 

Sunday,  October  11,       ..... 

Friday,  October  16, 

Sunday,  October  18,        ..... 


23, 


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309 


Analysis  of  Pontormo's  Diary 
1554 

Sunday,  January  7,  he  falls,  hurts  himself  and  remains  six  days  with  Bronzino 
who  nurses  him;  he  is  ill  until  Tuesday,  February  6  (Carnival). 

Sunday,  March  11,  lunches  with  Bronzino;  the  food;  his  health;  the 
weather;  in  the  evening  sups  at  home;  his  food;  his  thirst.  Monday,  12th, 
his  food.  Tuesday,  the  13th,  idem.  Wednesday,  14th,  idem.  Thursday, 
15th,  idem;  he  is  ill.  Friday,  16th,  his  food.  Saturday,  17th,  fasts.  Sunday, 
18th  (Palm  Sunday),  his  food;  its  cost.  Monday,  19th,  he  feels  well;  his 
food.  Tuesday,  20th,  his  food.  Wednesday,  21st  (Ash  Wednesday),  San 
Lorenzo;  his  food.  Thursday,  22d,  his  food;  the  Duke  comes  to  San  Lorenzo 
with  the  Duchess.  Friday,  23d,  his  food.  Saturday,  24th,  his  food.  Sunday, 
25th  (Easter)  lunches  and  sups  with  Bronzino  (Annunciation).  Monday, 
26th,  his  food.  Tuesday,  27th,  he  feels  hoarse;  his  food.  Wednesday,  28th, 
fasts.  Thursday,  29th,  his  food.  Friday,  30th,  idem.  Saturday,  31st,  his  food. 

Sunday,  April  1,  lunches  with  Bronzino;  in  the  evening,  fasts.  Monday,  2d, 
his  food.  Saturday,  7th,  he  goes  to  the  tavern;  he  feels  well;  his  food. 
Monday,  9th,  his  food.  Tuesday,  10th,  idem.  Thursday,  12th,  idem.  Friday, 
13th,  idem.  Sunday,  15th,  idem. 

Tuesday,  May  22.  Wednesday,  23d,  his  food.  Thursday,  24th  (Corpus 
Christi),  lunches  with  Bronzino;  his  food;  ill. 

June  2,  buys  a  chair  for  16  lire.  Saturday,  9th,  Marco  Moro  begins  working 
on  the  walls  and  scaffolding  of  San  Lorenzo. 

October  16,  bottles  six  barrels  of  wine.  18th  (St.  Luke),  begins  to  sleep 
downstairs  with  a  new  coverlet.  19th,  ill  with  cold;  suffers;  the  weather; 
his  food;  fasts. 

Monday,  December  17,  spends  evening  at  Bronzino 's;  Luca  Martini; 
Tasso;  his  food.  Tuesday,  18th,  his  food;  he  begins  to  feel  and  sleep  better. 
Wednesday,  19th,  fast  day;  fasts;  feels  ill.  Thursday,  20th  (Eve  of  St. 
Thomas),  his  food.  Friday,  21st,  his  food.  Saturday,  22d,  fasts.  Sunday, 
23d,  fasts;  his  food.  Monday,  24th,  sups  with  Bronzino;  passes  the  evening 
there.  Tuesday,  25th,  lunches  and  sups  at  Bronzino 's.  Thursday,  27th 
(St.  John's  Day),  sups  at  Bronzino 's;  his  food.  Friday,  28th,  sups  alone; 
his  food.  Saturday,  29th,  sups  alone;  his  food.  Sunday,  30th,  his  food. 
Monday,  31st,  idem. 

1555 

Tuesday,  January  1,  sups  at  Bronzino 's;  his  food.  Wednesday,  2d,  his  food. 
Thursday,  3d,  idem.  Friday,  4th,  idem.  Saturday,  5th,  fasts.  Sunday,  6th, 
lunches  and  sups  at  Bronzino 's;  his  food.  Monday,  7th,  his  food.  Tuesday, 
8th,  idem.  Wednesday,  9th,  idem.  Thursday,  10th,  idem.  Friday,  llth, 

310 


HIS  DIARY 

idem.  Saturday,  12th,  idem;  puts  his  wine  into  "fiaschi";  notes  how  much 
wine  he  has.  Sunday,  13th,  lunches  and  sups  at  Bronzino's.  Monday,  14th, 
goes  to  San  Miniato;  his  food.  Tuesday,  15th,  his  food.  Sunday,  20th,  sups 
at  Danielle's;  his  food;  Ottaviano.  Sunday,  27th,  lunches  and  sups  at 
Bronzino's;  Alessandra;  Petrarcha.  Wednesday,  30th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Thursday,  31st,  San  Lorenzo;  ill. 

Friday,  February  1,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  2d,  his  food;  his  health; 
the  weather.  Saturday,  16th,  San  Lorenzo;  the  weather.  Thursday,  21st 
(Berlingaccio),  sups  at  Bronzino's;  his  food.  Wednesday,  27th  (Ash 
Wednesday),  the  weather.  Thursday,  28th,  San  Lorenzo. 

Sunday,  March  3,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  his  health;  fasts.  Monday,  4th, 
San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  10th,  lunches  and  sups  with  Bronzino;  food;  Otta- 
viano; the  weather.  Monday,  llth,  San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  12th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Friday,  15th,  San  Lorenzo ;  his  food.  Saturday,  16th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Monday,  18th,  San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  19th,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  20th, 
San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  21st,  remains  at  home;  bad  weather.  Friday,  22d, 
San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  23d,  San  Lorenzo ;  his  food.  Monday,  25th,  lunches 
at  Bronzino's;  sups  at  home;  his  food.  Tuesday,  26th,  San  Lorenzo;  his 
food;  sonnet  of  Varchi's.  Wednesday,  27th,  San  Lorenzo;  his  health. 
Thursday,  28th,  his  health.  Friday,  29th,  his  health;  fasts;  San  Lorenzo. 
Saturday,  30th,  his  food.  Sunday,  31st,  lunches  at  Daniello's;  fasts  in  the 
evening. 

Monday,  April  1,  his  health;  his  food;  ill.  Wednesday,  3d,  San  Lorenzo; 
difficulties  of  the  work;  his  food.  Thursday,  4th,  his  food.  Friday,  5th, 
San  Lorenzo ;  his  food ;  the  weather.  Saturday,  6th,  sups  at  home.  Sunday, 
7th  (Palm  Sunday),  lunches  with  Bronzino;  food.  Monday,  8th,  his  garden. 
Tuesday,  9th,  San  Lorenzo;  his  food.  Wednesday,  10th,  Ceccho  fornaio; 
food.  Thursday,  llth,  food.  Friday,  12th  (Good  Friday),  his  food. 
Saturday,  13th,  San  Lorenzo ;  the  Duke  comes  to  mass  at  San  Lorenzo ;  fasts 
in  the  evening.  Sunday,  14th  (Easter),  the  weather;  lunches  at  Bronzino's; 
foodr;  fasts  in  the  evening.  Monday,  15th,  the  weather;  sups  at  Daniello's; 
his  food.  Tuesday,  16th,  the  weather;  food.  Wednesday,  17th,  the  weather; 
stays  at  home;  his  food.  Thursday,  18th,  San  Lorenzo;  food;  the  weather. 
Friday,  19th,  San  Lorenzo;  food;  his  health.  Saturday,  20th,  San  Lorenzo; 
his  food.  Sunday,  21st,  his  food ;  his  health ;  the  weather ;  the  moon.  Monday, 
22d,  he  feels  well;  food.  Tuesday,  23d,  sups  at  Piero's;  food.  Wednesday, 
24th,  he  sups  at  Piero's;  food.  Thursday,  25th  (St.  Mark),  sups  at  home. 
Friday,  26th,  sups  at  Piero's.  Saturday,  27th,  sups  at  Piero's;  San  Lorenzo. 
Sunday,  28th,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  fasts  in  the  evening.  Monday,  29th, 
sups  at  Piero's;  food.  Tuesday,  30th,  his  food. 

Wednesday,  May  1,  food.  Thursday,  2d,  food.  Friday,  3d  (Holy  Cross), 
sups  at  Piero's;  food.  Saturday,  4th,  food.  Sunday,  5th,  food.  Monday, 
6th,  idem;  sells  grain  and  buys  a  policy  in  the  "Monte."  Tuesday,  7th, 
idem;  San  Lorenzo;  Tasso  dies.  Wednesday,  8th,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday, 
9th,  San  Lorenzo;  sups  at  Daniello's;  food.  Friday,  10th,  food.  Saturday, 
llth,  sups  at  Piero's;  food;  he  eats  too  much.  Sunday,  12th,  lunches  at 
Bronzino's;  fasts  in  the  evening.  Monday,  13th,  food.  Tuesday,  14th,  San 
Lorenzo ;  food.  Wednesday,  15th,  San  Lorenzo ;  his  fatigue ;  food.  Thursday, 

311 


PONTORMO 

16th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  17th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  18th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Sunday,  19th,  lunches  and  sups  at  Bronzino's;  his  peach-trees. 
Monday,  20th,  San  Lorenzo ;  food.  Tuesday,  21st,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday, 
22d,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  23d  (Ascension),  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  sups 
at  Danielle's.  Friday,  24th,  San  Lorenzo;  food.  Saturday,  25th,  food;  he 
writes  letters.  Sunday,  26th,  goes  to  San  Francesco;  lunches  with  Danielle; 
fasts  in  the  evening.  Wednesday,  29th,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  30th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Friday,  31st,  San  Lorenzo. 

Saturday,  June  1,  San  Lorenzo;  his  food.  Sunday,  2d  (Pentecost), 
lunches  at  Bronzino's.  Monday,  3d,  spends  the  morning  at  Danielle's;  the 
evening  at  home.  Tuesday,  4th,  spends  the  evening  at  Danielle's;  food. 
Wednesday,  5th,  stays  at  home;  food;  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  6th,  San 
Lorenzo;  food.  Friday,  7th,  San  Lorenzo;  food;  fatigue.  Saturday,  8th, 
ill;  sups  at  Piero's;  fever;  sleeplessness.  Sunday,  9th,  sups  at  Piero's. 
Monday,  10th,  ill.  Tuesday,  llth,  ill.  Wednesday,  12th,  ill.  Thursday,  13th 
(Corpus  Christi),  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  fasts  in  the  evening.  Friday,  14th, 
San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  15th,  sups  at  Piero's;  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  16th, 
lunches  at  Bronzino  's  and  sups  with  him  also.  Monday,  17th,  sups  at  home ; 
food.  Wednesday,  19th,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  20th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Friday,  21st,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  22d  (Jacopo  mistakes  the  day  of  the 
month),  San  Lorenzo;  food.  Tuesday,  25th,  San  Lorenzo;  scaffolding. 
Wednesday,  26th,  San  Lorenzo;  holes  made  in  the  walls  there.  Thursday, 
27th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  29th  (St.  Peter).  Sunday,  30th,  lunches  at 
Daniello  's ;  the  weather ;  Bronzino ;  sups  at  Piero  's. 

Thursday,  July  4,  San  Lorenzo;  ill;  Naldini;  food.  Friday,  5th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Saturday,  6th,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  7th,  lunches  at  Bronzino's. 
Monday,  8th,  letters;  ill.  Tuesday,  9th,  San  Lorenzo;  ill.  Wednesday,  10th, 
ill  at  home;  food;  Naldini  unkind  to  him.  Thursday,  llth,  San  Lorenzo; 
his  health.  Friday,  12th,  sups  at  Piero's;  his  health.  Saturday,  13th,  sups 
at  home;  visit  from  Bronzino;  San  Lorenzo;  his  "fattore."  Sunday,  14th, 
lunches  at  Bronzino's;  quarrels  with  the  "fattore";  sups  at  home;  food. 
Tuesday,  16th,  San  Lorenzo ;  food ;  quarrels  with  Naldini.  Wednesday,  17th, 
food.  Thursday,  18th,  his  health ;  sups  at  San  Lorenzo ;  work.  Friday,  19th, 
food.  Saturday,  20th,  Naldini;  food.  Sunday,  21st,  sups  at  Bronzino's; 
Naldini  goes  to  Legnaia.  Monday,  22d,  lunches  at  Daniello 's ;  sups  at  Bron- 
zino's;  ill;  Naldini;  works  on  a  cartoon.  Tuesday,  23d,  fasts;  San  Lorenzo; 
ill.  Wednesday,  24th,  food.  Thursday,  25th,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  fasts 
in  the  evening.  Friday,  26th,  San  Lorenzo;  a  cartoon.  Tuesday,  30th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  31st,  San  Lorenzo. 

Thursday,  August  1,  San  Lorenzo ;  sups  at  Piero 's.  Friday,  2d,  San  Lorenzo. 
Saturday,  3d,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  4th,  sups  at  Danielle's;  Bronzino. 
Wednesday,  7th,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  8th,  San  Lorenzo;  food.  Friday, 
9th  (Eve  of  St.  Lawrence),  work;  fasts.  Saturday,  10th,  ill.  Sunday,  llth, 
his  garden;  drawings  shown  him  by  Fuscellino;  ill;  sups  at  Bronzino's. 
Monday,  12th,  ill;  fever;  food.  Tuesday,  13th,  food;  San  Lorenzo. 
Wednesday,  14th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  16th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday, 
17th,  San  Lorenzo.  Monday,  19th,  San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  20th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  21st,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  25th,  lunches  at  Bron- 
zino's; goes  to  Mass. 

312 


HIS  DIARY 

Monday,  September  2d,  San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  3d,  San  Lorenzo;  barrel 
of  oil.  Wednesday,  4th,  San  Lorenzo;  the  weather.  Thursday,  5th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Friday,  6th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  7th,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday, 
8th  (Birth  of  the  Virgin),  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  has  a  toothache  in  the 
evening.  Monday,  9th,  ill.  Tuesday,  10th,  idem;  stays  at  home  and  draws. 
Wednesday,  llth,  idem.  Thursday,  12th,  idem.  Friday,  13th,  idem. 
Saturday,  14th,  idem.  Sunday,  15th,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  fasts  in  the 
evening.  Monday,  16th,  makes  drawings.  Tuesday,  17th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Wednesday,  18th,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  19th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  20th, 
the  weather.  Sunday,  21st  (St.  Matthew). 

Sunday,  October  6th  (Pontormo  mistakes  the  day  of  the  month),  Naldini 
goes  to  Poggio;  food;  toothache.  Monday,  7th,  his  food;  San  Lorenzo. 
Tuesday,  8th,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  9th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  12th, 
San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  13th,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  food.  Monday,  14th, 
San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  15th,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  16th,  San  Lorenzo; 
fasts  in  the  evening.  Thursday,  17th,  his  food.  Friday,  18th  (St.  Luke), 
his  food;  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  19th,  San  Lorenzo;  food.  Sunday,  20th, 
lunches  at  Bronzino  's ;  sups  there  too.  Monday,  21st,  San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday, 
22d,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  23d,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  24th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Friday,  25th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  26th,  San  Lorenzo;  a 
cartoon;  sups  at  home;  food;  toothache.  Sunday,  27th,  stays  at  home  to 
draw;  sups  at  home.  Monday,  28th,  stays  at  home  to  draw;  sups  alone. 

Friday,  November  1,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  food.  Saturday,  2d,  the 
weather.  Sunday,  3d,  idem.  Monday,  4th,  idem.  Tuesday,  5th,  his  health. 
Saturday,  9th,  San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  12th,  San  Lorenzo;  fatigue.  Friday, 
15th,  the  weather.  Saturday,  16th,  a  cartoon;  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  17th, 
lunches  at  Bronzino's;  sups  at  home;  Naldini;  the  monks.  Monday,  18th, 
he  goes  to  see  the  monks.  Tuesday,  19th,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  20th, 
the  washing.  Sunday,  24th,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  Maria's  mother. 
Wednesday,  27th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  30th  (St.  Andrew),  sups  at 
Piero's. 

Sunday,  December  1,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  sups  with  Daniello;  food; 
Luca  Martini.  Friday,  6th  (St.  Nicholas),  the  weather.  Sunday,  8th,  sups 
at  Bronzino's;  food.  Monday,  9th,  food.  Tuesday,  10th,  sups  at  Danielle's; 
Martini;  Varchi.  Wednesday,  llth,  food.  Thursday,  12th,  the  ' ' Divisione. " 
Friday,  13th,  sups  at  home;  he  begins  to  do  his  own  housework;  Naldini. 
Saturday,  14th,  sups  with  Bronzino  and  Martini.  Friday,  20th  (fast  day), 
the  weather.  Sunday,  22d,  lunches  with  Bronzino.  Tuesday,  24th,  the  death 
of  Pagolo;  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  Martini;  Daniello  and  his  family. 
Wednesday,  25th,  lunches  and  sups  with  Bronzino.  Thursday,  26th,  goes 
to  San  Francesco;  lunches  with  Alessandra;  Lucretia.  Friday,  27th,  goes 
with  Bronzino  to  Monte  Oliveto;  Strozzi;  fasts;  sups  at  home.  Saturday, 
28th,  goes  to  San  Miniato;  lunches  at  the  tavern;  fasts  in  the  evening. 
Sunday,  29th,  goes  to  San  Domenico;  fasts;  goes  to  see  Daniello.  Monday, 
30th,  stays  at  home.  Tuesday,  31st,  idem. 

1556 

Wednesday,  January  1,  lunches  at  Bronzino's;  sups  at  home  with  Otta- 
viano.  Thursday,  2d,  sups  at  home;  food;  Naldini.  Friday,  3d,  sups  with 

313 


PONTORMO 

Bronzino ;  food.  Saturday,  4th,  the  weather ;  buys  a  cloak ;  Naldini ;  business. 
Sunday,  5th,  lunches  at  Bronzino 's.  Monday,  6th  (Epiphany),  he  takes  a 
walk;  sups  with  Daniello.  Thursday,  9th,  sups  with  the  Prior  of  the  Inno- 
cents ;  food.  Friday,  10th,  an  accident ;  Naldini.  Saturday,  llth,  two  ' '  scudi ' ' 
to  Naldini.  Sunday,  12th,  the  weather;  he  eats  at  home;  food.  Tuesday, 
14th,  goes  to  the  "bottega."  Wednesday,  15th,  the  weather;  a  visit  from 
Bronzino  and  Ottaviano.  Thursday,  16th,  sups  with  the  porter ;  food.  Friday, 
17th  (St.  Anthony),  food.  Saturday,  18th,  food.  Sunday,  19th,  sups  with 
Piero;  food;  at  San  Piero;  in  the  evening  a  visit  from  Bronzino  and  Otta- 
viano. Monday,  20th  (San  Sebastiano),  the  weather;  food.  Tuesday,  21st, 
the  weather;  food.  Wednesday,  22d,  food.  Thursday,  23d,  food;  Naldini. 
Friday,  24th,  food.  Saturday,  25th,  food;  Naldini.  Sunday,  26th,  spends 
the  day  at  Bronzino 's  with  Ottaviano,  Daniello,  Alessandra,  and  others. 
Monday,  27th,  sups  at  home;  food.  Tuesday,  28th,  sups  at  Bronzino 's. 
Wednesday,  29th,  food.  Thursday,  30th,  food;  Naldini.  Friday,  31st,  food. 

Saturday,  February  1,  food.  Sunday,  2d,  lunches  at  Bronzino 's;  sups  at 
Daniello 's.  Monday,  3d,  cooks  for  himself.  Tuesday,  4th,  food.  Wednesday, 
5th,  food.  Thursday,  6th,  San  Lorenzo;  food.  Friday,  7th,  food.  Saturday, 
8th,  food;  charcoal;  the  porter;  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  16th,  lunches  at 
Bronzino 's;  sups  at  home  with  Bronzino  and  Ottaviano.  Monday,  17th, 
food;  Naldini.  Tuesday,  18th,  food.  Wednesday,  19th,  food;  Naldini. 
Thursday,  20th,  sups  at  Bronzino 's;  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  21st,  food. 
Saturday,  22d,  food;  Naldini.  Sunday,  23d,  lunches  and  sups  at  Bronzino 's; 
passes  the  evening  there;  Varchi.  Monday,  24th,  sups  with  Daniello;  goes 
to  a  comedy  in  Via  Maggio.  Tuesday,  25th,  the  weather;  sups  at  home. 
Thursday,  27th,  San  Lorenzo;  food.  Friday,  28th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday, 
29th,  San  Lorenzo. 

Tuesday,  March  3,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  4th,  San  Lorenzo;  he  takes 
cold.  Thursday,  5th,  ill.  Friday,  6th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  7th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Sunday,  8th,  he  goes  to  see  a  Hercules.  Monday,  9th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Tuesday,  10th,  he  goes  to  see  a  picture  of  St.  Bartholomew  by  Bronzino. 
Wednesday,  llth,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  12th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  13th, 
San  Lorenzo;  has  four  "lire"  from  rent.  Saturday,  14th,  he  goes  to  see  a 
head  of  Sandrino's;  sups  with  Piero.  Sunday,  15th,  a  visit  from  Bronzino 
to  whom  he  does  not  open  the  door;  another  from  Daniello  to  whom  he  does 
not  open.  Wednesday,  18th,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  19th,  lunches  at 
Daniello 's  with  Ottaviano;  meets  Bronzino  who  is  just  sending  a  picture  to 
Pisa.1  Sunday,  22d,  visit  from  Daniello  and  Ottaviano;  quarrels  with 
Bronzino.  Monday,  23d,  sups  with  Daniello;  food;  Bronzino,  Sandrino, 
Giulio,  Alessandra.  Tuesday,  24th,  buys  a  "fiasco"  of  wine.  Wednesday, 
25th,  the  moon.  Thursday,  26th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  27th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Saturday,  28th,  San  Lorenzo ;  feast2  of  the  "Tregua" ;  sups  at  home.  Sunday, 
29th  (Palm  Sunday),  lunches  with  Bronzino.  Monday,  30th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Tuesday,  31st,  stays  at  home. 

Wednesday,  April  1,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  2d  (Holy  Thursday).  Friday, 
3d,  San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  9th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  10th,  San  Lorenzo; 

i ' '  Christ  and  Saints ' '  for  the  Cathedral  of  Pisa.  For  the  documents,  see  Centof anti, 
Not.  di  art.  tratto  dai  doc.  pis.,  Pisa,  1898;  also  Supino,  Arch.  stor.  dell'  arte,  VI,  448. 

2  The  famous  truce  between  the  Emperor  and  the  King  of  France  published  in  Siena, 
March,  27,  1556. 

314 


HIS  DIARY 

sups  at  Piero's.  Saturday,  llth,  San  Lorenzo ;  food ;  sups  at  Piero's.  Sunday, 
12th,  receives  a  ' '  berlingozo "  from  Mona  Ugenia;  sups  with  Bronzino. 
Monday,  13th,  San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  14th,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  15th, 
San  Lorenzo;  scaffolding;  Pier  Francesco.  Thursday,  16th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Friday,  17th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  18th,  San  Lorenzo.  Monday,  20th, 
San  Lorenzo. 

Sunday,  May  3  (Holy  Cross),  lunches  at  Bronzino 's.  Monday,  4th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  5th,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  6th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Thursday,  7th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  8th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  9th, 
San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  10th,  lunches  and  sups  with  Bronzino;  they  go  out 
for  a  walk.  Tuesday,  12th,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  13th  (Eve  of  Ascen- 
sion), San  Lorenzo.  Thursday,  14th,  lunches  and  sups  with  Bronzino. 
Friday,  15th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  16th,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  17th, 
lunches  at  Bronzino 's;  fasts  in  the  evening;  his  health.  Monday,  18th,  the 
weather.  Thursday,  28th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  29th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Saturday,  30th,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  31st,  fasts;  sups  with  Piero;  food. 

Monday,  June  1,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  7th,  lunches  and  sups  with 
Bronzino;  ill.  Tuesday,  9th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  12th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Saturday,  13th,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  14th,  sups  with  Piero.  Friday,  19th, 
San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  20th,  San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  21st,  meets  Bronzino 
at  Santa  Maria  del  Fiore;  goes  to  see  a  bull;  lunches  with  Bronzino;  wine 
from  Piero;  Alessandra;  his  health;  fasts.  Tuesday,  23d,  his  food;  kills  one 
of  his  chickens.  Wednesday,  24th,  sups  with  Danielle;  Marignolle;  Bron- 
zino. Thursday,  25th,  San  Lorenzo ;  the  weather.  Friday,  26th,  San  Lorenzo ; 
the  holes  in  the  walls  of  the  choir.  Saturday,  27th,  San  Lorenzo;  fasts  in 
the  evening.  Sunday,  28th,  lunches  with  Bronzino;  they  go  to  Prato 
Ognissanti  and  there  meet  Sandrino  and  Bernardo.  Monday,  29th,  prepares 
paints.  Tuesday,  30th,  prepares  paints. 

Saturday,  July  4,  fasts  in  the  evening;  makes  a  drawing.  Sunday,  5th, 
lunches  at  Bronzino 's,  whom  he  met  at  Santa  Maria;  Lorenzo  Pucci;  Otta- 
viano;  sups  with  Bronzino;  wine  from  Piero.  Tuesday,  14th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Thursday,  16th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  18th,  food.  Sunday,  19th,  lunches 
with  Bronzino ;  sups  with  Piero.  Monday,  20th,  San  Lorenzo ;  hurts  himself ; 
receives  a  "mogio"  of  grain;  washes  his  feet.  Tuesday,  21st,  fasts;  San 
Lorenzo;  Naldini.  Wednesday,  22d,  fasts;  San  Lorenzo;  sups  with  Danielle. 
Thursday,  23d,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  24th,  San  Lorenzo.  Saturday,  25th, 
San  Lorenzo.  Sunday,  26th,  lunches  with  Piero;  food;  fasts  in  the  evening. 
Monday,  27th,  San  Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  29th,  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  31st, 
sups  with  Piero;  Naldini  quits  Lappoli. 

Wednesday,  August  26th,  sups  with  Bronzino,  Ottaviano  and  Daniello. 
Thursday,  27th,  sups  with  Bronzino;  prepares  a  cartoon.  From  the  end  of 
July  to  the  20th  of  August  he  mentions  in  an  indefinite  way  that  he  worked 
on  one  figure  at  San  Lorenzo. 

Thursday,  September  10,  Mona  Adia  makes  bread.  Friday,  llth,  he  bottles 
three  barrels  of  wine;  sups  with  Piero.  Saturday,  12th,  San  Lorenzo. 
Sunday,  13th,  sups  with  Daniello;  Bronzino;  food.  Monday,  14th,  San 
Lorenzo.  Wednesday,  16th  (fast  day),  San  Lorenzo.  Friday,  18th,  San 
Lorenzo ;  fasts  in  the  evening.  Saturday,  19th,  San  Lorenzo ;  food.  Monday, 

315 


PONTOKMO 

21st  (St.  Matthew),  food.  Tuesday,  22d,  takes  a  holiday.  Wednesday,  23d, 
San  Lorenzo;  food.  Saturday,  26th,  evening  at  the  tavern;  Ottaviano; 
Bronzino;  food.  Sunday,  27th,  lunches  with  Bronzino;  sups  with  Bronzino 
and  Ottaviano.  Monday,  28th,  stays  at  home.  Tuesday,  29th  (St.  Michael), 
lunches  and  sups  with  Bronzino;  Martini.  Wednesday,  30th,  stays  at  home. 

Thursday,  October  1,  sups  at  Bronzino 's;  Varchi;  Martini.  Friday,  2d, 
Martini  goes  to  Pisa.  Saturday,  3d,  the  weather;  lunches  with  Bronzino; 
a  ' '  fiasco ' '  of  colour.  Sunday,  4th,  goes  to  San  Francesco  for  the  day ;  food. 
Mondayr  5th,  San  Lorenzo.  Tuesday,  6th,  San  Lorenzo;  food;  ill.  Sunday, 
llth,  goes  to  Certosa ;  sups  at  Piovano  with  Danielle  and  Giulio ;  food ;  small 
expenses.  Friday,  16th,  he  begins  to  feel  the  cold;  sups  with  friends  at  the 
tavern.  Sunday,  18th,  lunches  with  Piero;  food;  sups  with  Bronzino;  food. 


316 


Topical  Analysis  of  Pontormo's  Diary 

The  days  on  which  Pontormo  mentions  working  at  San  Lorenzo. 

1554  March  21,  22 ;  June  9. 

1555  January  30,  31 ;  February  1,  16,  28 ;  March  4,  11,  12,  15,  16,  18,  19, 

20,  22,  23,  26,  27,  28;  April  3,  5,  9,  13,  18,  19,  20,  27;  May  7,  8,  9,  14, 
15,  16,  17,  18,  20,  21,  22,  24,  27,  30,  31 ;  June  1,  5,  6,  7,  14,  15,  19,  20, 

21,  22,  25,  26,  27 ;  July  4,  5,  6,  9,  11,  13,  16,  18,  23,  26,  30,  31 ;  August  1, 
2,  3,  7,  8,  9,  13,  14,  16,  17,  19,  20,  21 ;  September  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  17,  18, 
19;  October  7,  8,  9,  12,  14,  15,  16,  17,  18,  19,  21,  22,  23,  24,  25,  26; 
November  9,  12,  19,  27. 

1556  February  6,  8,  20,  27,  28,  29 ;  March  3,  4,  6,  7,  9,  11,  12,  13,  18,  26,  27, 
28,  30;  April  1,  3,  9,  10,  11,  13,  14,  15,  16,  17,  18,  20;  May  4,  5,  6,  7, 
8,  9,  12,  13,  15,  16,  28,  29,  30;  June  1,  9,  12,  13,  19,  20,  25,  26,  27; 
July  14,  16,  20,  21,  22,  23,  24,  25,  27,  29;  August  1,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8, 
10,  11,  12,  13,  14,  15,  17,  18,  19,  20,  21,  22,  24,  25 ;  September  12,  14, 
16, 18, 19,  23 ;  October  5,  6. 

The  days  on  which  Pontormo  mentions  that  he  was  ill. 

1554  January  7  to  February  6 ;  March  11,  15,  27 ;  April  1 ;  May  24 ;  October 
19;  December  19. 

1555  January  31 ;  February  2 ;  March  3,  28 ;  April  1,  19 ;  May  11,  26 ;  June 
8,  10,  11,  12,  13 ;  July  4,  8,  9,  10,  11,  18,  22,  23 ;  August  10,  11,  12 ; 
September  8,  9,  10,  11,  12,  13,  14;  October  6,  26;  November  5. 

1556  January  10 ;  March  5 ;  May  17 ;  June  7 ;  July  20 ;  October  6,  16. 

He  mentions  Bronzino :  1554,  March  11,  25 ;  April  1,  8 ;  May  24 ;  December 
17,  24,  25 ;  1555,  January  1,  6,  13,  27 ;  February  21 ;  March  3,  10,  25 ;  April  7, 
14,  28 ;  May  12,  19,  23 ;  June  2,  13,  16 ;  July  7,  14,  21,  25 ;  August  11,  25 ; 
September  8 ;  October  13,  20 ;  November  1,  17,  24 ;  December  1,  8,  14,  22,  25 ; 
1556,  January  1,  3,  5,  28 ;  February  2,  16,  20,  23 ;  March  29 ;  April  12 ;  May 
3,  10,  14,  17 ;  June  7,  21,  28 ;  July  5,  19 ;  August  26,  27 ;  September  27,  29 ; 
October  1,  3,  18.  Daniello :  1554,  December  27 ;  1555,  January  20 ;  March  31 ; 
April  15 ;  May  9,  23,  26 ;  June  3,  4,  30 ;  July  22 ;  August  4 ;  December  10,  29 ; 
1556,  January  6 ;  February  2,  24 ;  March  19,  23 ;  June  24 ;  July  22 ;  September 
13.  Piero :  1555,  April  23,  24,  26,  27,  29 ;  May  3,  11 ;  June  8,  9,  15,  30 ;  July 
12 ;  November  30 ;  1556,  January  19 ;  April  10,  11 ;  May  31 ;  June  14;  July  19, 
26,  31 ;  September  11.  Naldini :  1555,  July  4,  10,  21,  22 ;  October  6 ;  November 
17;  December  13;  1556,  January  2,  4,  10,  11,  23,  25,  30;  February  17,  19; 
1556,  February  22;  July  31.  Ottaviano:  1555,  January  20;  March  10;  1556, 
January  2,  15 ;  February  16 ;  March  22 ;  July  5 ;  September  27.  Varchi :  1554, 
March  26;  1555,  December  10,  23;  1556,  October  1.  Luca  Martini:  1554, 
December  17;  1555,  December  1,  10,  14;  1556,  September  29;  October  1,  2. 
Tasso:  1554,  December  17;  1555,  December  24.  Strozzi:  1555,  December  27. 

317 


PONTOKMO 

Borghini:  1556,  January  9.  Sandrino:  1556,  March  14;  June  28.  Giulio: 
1556,  March  23;  October  11.  Lorenzo  Pucci:  1556,  July  5.  Lappoli: 
1556,  July  31.  Marignolle:  1556,  June  24.  "II  fattore":  1555,  July  13,  14; 
1556,  January  16;  February  8.  Pier  Francesco:  1556,  April  15.  Pagolo: 
1555,  December  24.  Marco  Moro :  1554,  June  9.  Ceccho  fornaio :  1555,  April 
10.  The  monks:  1555,  November  17,  18.  Petrarcha:  1554,  January  27. 
Alessandra :  1554,  January  27 ;  1555,  December  26 ;  1556,  January  26,  March 
23,  June  22.  Lucretia:  1555,  December  26.  Mona  Ugenia:  1556,  April  12. 
The  mother  of  Maria:  1555,  November  24.  Fuscellino:  1555,  August  11. 
Bernardo:  1556,  June  28.  Mona  Adia:  1556,  September  10.  The  "Monte": 
1555,  May  6.  Gaddi,  March  24,  1556. 


318 


INDEX 


INDEX 


Academy  of  Florence:  ''Assumption 
of  the  Virgin,"  Granacci,  224; 
"Beheading  of  St.  John,"  as- 
cribed to  Andrea,  14,  138-139; 
"Holy  Trinity,"  Albertinelli,  8; 
"Hospital  of  San  Matteo,"  115; 
"Pieta,"  ascribed  to  Pontormo, 
199-200;  "Supper  at  Emmaus," 
41,  114,  115. 

Acciaiuoli,  Margherita,  22,  157. 

— ,  Roberto,  157. 

Achiardi,  d',  201. 

Adia,  Mona,  303. 

"Adoration  of  the  Magi,"  Pitti,  23, 
25,  72,  81,  135-136;  date  of,  24, 
135;  drawings  for,  24,  135-136; 
mentioned  by  Vasari,  135,  136. 

Agnew,  242. 

"Agony  in  the  Garden,"  Certosa,  42, 
.,107-108;  date  of,  108;  mentioned 
by  Vasari,  107. 

Alamanni,  Antonio,  13. 

Albertinelli,  6,  11,  253,  267,  268; 
death  of,  268;  document  con- 
cerning house  of,  273-274;  "God 
the  Father,"  8;  "Holy  Trinity," 
8;  Pontormo 's  apprenticeship  to, 
5,  6,  8,  11,  12,  15,  26,  267,  268; 
"Visitation,"  15. 

Aldighieri,  Paolo,  141. 

Alessandra,  mentioned  in  Pontormo 's 
diary,  94,  300,  301,  302,  303,  304. 

Alessandra,  Pontormo 's  mother,  4. 

Alessandro  VI,  Pope,  181. 

Alexandre  K.  Collection,  246. 


Alinari.    See  Photographs. 

Allegrini,  151,  177,  261. 

Allori,  Alessandro,  119,  144,  219, 
234;  portrait  of  Pontormo,  81; 
Eicordi,  177,  228;  work  at  Pog- 
gio,  29,  35,  175,  176. 

Alnwick  Castle,  193,  211. 

Altamira,  Duke  of,  261. 

Altissimo,  Cristofano  dell',  95,  151. 

Alton,  Collection  d',  144. 

Altoviti,  Bindo,  145. 

Ambras  Castle,  101,  237. 

American  Art  Association,  242. 

Ammirato,  3,  28. 

Ancisa,  1. 

Ancona  d',  148,  149. 

Anderson.    See  Photographs. 

Andrea  d' Antonio  di  Bartolommeo, 
284. 

Andrea  del  Sarto,  8,  10,  14,  33,  55, 
58,  105,  115,  119,  139,  153,  154, 
159,  165,  166,  200,  210,  219,  223, 
224,  229,  231,  234,  236,  253,  254, 
261,  269;  "Adoration  of  the 
Magi, "  270 ;  "  Assumption, ' ' 
Pitti,  95,  154,  207;  "Birth  of 
the  Virgin,"  16;  "Caesar  Re- 
ceiving Tribute,"  29,  175; 
"Deposition,"  Pitti,  154;  "Dis- 
puta, ' '  154 ;  draughtsmanship, 
8;  imitation  of  Diirer,  39;  in- 
fluence on  Pontormo,  6,  8,  11, 
15,  17,  18,  20,  22,  23,  24,  26,  37, 
77,  94,  95,  118,  169,  267;  "Life  of 
Joseph, ' '  22, 154,  200 ;"  Madonna 
and  Little  St.  John,"  Borghese, 


321 


INDEX 


270;  "Madonna  and  Saints," 
Pitti,  255;  "Madonna  del 
Saeco,"  118;  "Madonna  di 
Porta  Pinti,"  29,  129;  "Mar- 
riage of  St.  Catherine,"  10,  139, 
269-270;  panels  for  Borgherini, 
22,  157;  "Pieta,"  Vienna,  200; 
Pontormo's  drawings  compared 
with  those  of,  33;  Pontormo's 
portraits  compared  with  those  of, 
87;  "Sacrifice  of  Isaac,"  56; 
San  Filippo  Benizzi  frescoes,  16, 
267,  269;  "San  Gallo  Annuncia- 
tion," 253,  269;  "San  Godenzo 
Annunciation, ' '  269 ;  Scalzo  fres- 
coes, 17,  39,  232 ;  work  at  Poggio 
a  Cajano,  28,  175,  176;  work  in 
the  Annunziata,  9;  work  on 
triumphal  arches,  14. 

Andros  de  la  Rue  Collection,  241. 

Anguillesi,  261,  263. 

"Annunciation"  (lost),  253. 

"Annunciation,"  Santa  Felicita,  52, 
122;  date  of,  122;  drawings  for, 
48,  122. 

Annunziata,  9,  79,  81,  119,  200; 
"Faith  and  Charity"  at  the,  7, 

11,  116;  "Visitation"  at  the,  15, 
117-119. 

— ,  Chapel  of  San  Luca,  7,  79 ; 
"Madonna  and  Saints"  in,  6,  8, 

12,  15,  117,  254;  "Holy  Trinity" 
in,  200. 

"Anonimo  fiorentino,"  209. 
Ansoldi,  Costantino,  64,  65,  170,  171, 

280-282. 

Antinori,  arms  of  the,  130. 
— ,  lost  portrait  of  Amerigo,  64. 
Antonio  da  Lucca,  225,  226. 
Appendices,  267-318. 
Arazzieri,  78. 
Archbishop  of  Capua.    See  Nicolaus 

von  Schomberg. 


Archives  of  Florence,  1,  3 ;  Accademia 
del  Disegno,  57,  279;  Annun- 
ziata, 9,  16,  116,  119,  269,  270, 
275-276;  Carteggio  di  Cosimo  I, 
14;  Carteggio  mediceo  del  Prin- 
cipato,  64,  65,  173,  184,  200, 
280-282;  Carte  Pucci,  20;  Carte 
Riccardi,  128;  Catasto,  3,  5,  57, 
68,  80,  280,  282;  Consorteria,  1, 
271,  272;  Decima,  284;  Deposi- 
teria  Generale,  78,  158,  164,  208, 
264;  Depositeria  Vecchia,  78, 
283-284;  Filza,  No.  273,  185; 
Guardaroba,  70,  71,  142,  184, 
185,  186,  261,  286,  287;  Indice 
mediceo,  255;  Libro  dei  Battez- 
zati,  102 ;  Libro  dei  Morti,  4,  79, 
284;  Libro  dei  Morti,  Serie  della 
Grascia,  79,  284;  Libro  dell'  Eta, 
102;  Medici  e  Speziali,  57,  279; 
Pupilli,  274;  Rogiti  di  Giovanni 
Giordani,  80,  184,  284;  Santa 
Felicita,  47,  120,  121,  279;  San 
Giovanni  di  Boldrone,  104;  San 
Lorenzo  al  Monte,  39,  41,  44,  78, 
108,  113,  115,  276-279;  Santa 
Maria  Novella,  5,  125,  273-274; 
Scalzo,  17,  232;  Scritture  Cap- 
poni,  47;  Strumenti  Pucci,  128. 

—  of  Hospital  of  the  Innocents,  1,  72, 

106,  132,  249,  263,  273,  283. 

—  of  Pisa,  4,  178. 

—  of  San  Lorenzo,  264. 
Archivio  storico,  173. 

Archivio  storico  dell'  arte,  155,  181, 

209,  216,  231,  235. 
Ardinghelli,  lost  portrait  of  Niccolo, 

86,  258. 

Argenville,  Dezallier  d',  81. 
Argyropylos,  loanne,  148,  149. 
Armand,  148,  173. 
Armann,  "Walter,  172. 
Arms  of  Giovanni  Salviati  (lost),  256, 


INDEX 


Arms  of  Leo  X,  11,  12,  15. 

—  of  the  Lanfredini  (lost),  21,  254- 

255. 

Arte  e  Storia,  264. 
Arte,  I',  181,  201,  203,  205,  207,  228, 

244. 

Art  Journal,  23,  164. 
Art  Prices,  241,  242,  244,  245,  248. 
Art  Sales,  159. 
"Ascension  of  the  Blessed,"  drawing 

for,  263. 

Ashbourne.    See  Widener  Collection. 
Assisi,  193. 

"Assumption,"  Ammnziata,  119. 
Athenceum,  209. 
Auction  Sale  Prices,  241,  242,  244, 

245. 

Avignon.    See  Musee  Calvet. 
Azeglio  d',  235. 

B 

Bacchiacea,  78,  95,  129,  229,  231; 
designs  for  tapestries,  184 ; ' '  Life 
of  Joseph,"  159;  work  for  Ben- 
intendi,  23,  24,  135;  work  for 
Borgherini,  157. 

Baccio  d'  Agnolo,  23,  135. 

Baciocchi  Collection,  200. 

Badia,  Florence,  14,  138. 

Badoer,  Federigo,  204. 

"Baker  Led  out  to  Execution,"  23, 
164-165. 

Baldinucci,  81,  95,  157. 

—  Collection,  69. 
Balocchi,  47,  122. 

Baltimore.    See  Walters  Collection. 

Bamberg,  Collection  of  the  Arch- 
bishop of,  234. 

Bandinelli,  Baccio,  13,  14,  74,  84,  102, 
254. 

Bandinius,  148,  149. 

Banzola,  Scipione,  282. 


"Baptism  of  Christ,"  Carro  della 
Zecca,  137,  138. 

' '  Baptist  in  Wilderness, ' '  Carro  della 
Zecca,  35,  137. 

Barbadori,  47,  120. 

Barberini  Gallery,  Rome,  56,  259. 

Bardi,  Luigi,  136,  152,  205. 

Bargello,  Florence,  121,  148,  150. 

Bartolommeo,  Fra.    See  Porta. 

Battiferra,  Laura,  290-293. 

"Battle  of  Anghiari,"  53,  131,  132, 
269. 

"Battle  of  the  Cascina,"  9,  18,  23, 
38,  246. 

Bayersdorfer,  234. 

Beaucousin,  Edmond,  213. 

"Beheading  of  John,"  Carro  della 
Zecca,  138-139. 

Bellini,  Giovanni,  175. 

Benedetti,  de,  263. 

Benintendi,  Giovanmaria,  23,  135. 

Benivieni,  Bartolommea,  126. 

' '  Benjamin  at  the  Court  of  Pharaoh, ' ' 
tapestry,  70,  71,  72,  186-187. 

Berenson,  Bernhard,  41,  81,  102,  103, 
105,  106,  107,  115,  119,  122,  123, 
125,  128,  129,  132,  133,  134,  136, 
139,  140,  141,  145,  152,  154,  155, 
156,  159,  160,  162,  165,  166,  168, 
169,  170,  176,  177,  178,  179,  181, 
183,  188,  189,  198,  200,  203,  205, 
206,  208,  217,  229,  233,  235,  237, 
264;  on  "Baker  Led  out  to  Exe- 
cution," 165;  on  "Birth-plate," 
Butler  Collection,  242;  on  Bron- 
zino,  97;  on  "Christ  before 
Pilate,"  109;  on  Doetsch  "Holy 
Family,"  126;  on  drawing  by 
Michelangelo,  144;  on  drawing 
for  Certosa,  42;  on  drawing  for 
"St.  Quentin,"  106;  on  drawings 
for  Poggio,  31,  34,  49;  on  "En- 
tombment," National  Gallery, 


323 


INDEX 


213;  on  Giulio  Romano,  81;  on 
Granacci,  208;  on  "Holy  Fam- 
ily," San  Michele  Visdomini,  20; 
on  "Hospital  of  San  Matteo," 
115 ;  on  "Judith, ' '  Palermo,  223 ; 
on  "Life  of  Joseph,"  21;  on 
"Lucretia,"  Borghese,  179;  on 
"Madonna  and  Little  St.  John," 
Palazzo  Corsini,  Florence,  129; 
on  "Madonna  and  Saints," 
Louvre,  51,  168,  169;  on  "Ma- 
donna Enthroned,"  139;  on 
Naldini,  97;  on  "Pieta,"  Acad- 
emy, 200;  on  "Portrait  of  a 
Boy,"  National  Gallery,  213;  on 
' '  Portrait  of  a  Lady, ' '  Tarnowski 
Collection,  198;  on  "Portrait  of 
a  Lady,"  Trivulzio  Collection, 
216;  on  "Portrait  of  a  Lady," 
Turin,  235;  on  "Portrait  of  a 
Lady,"  Vienna,  No.  45,  236;  on 
"Portrait  of  a  Lady,"  Widener 
Collection,  101;  on  "Portrait  of 
a  Man,"  Bonn,  105;  on  "Por- 
trait of  a  Man, ' '  Genoa,  210 ;  on 
"Portrait  of  a  Man,"  Montpel- 
lier,  217;  on  "Portrait  of  a 
Man,"  Platt  Collection,  199;  on 
"Portrait  of  a  Man,"  Wilden- 
stein  Collection,  223;  on  "Por- 
trait of  Ardinghelli, "  Palazzo 
Torrigiani,  258;  on  "Portrait  of 
a  Woman,"  Jarves  Collection, 
222;  on  "Portrait  of  a  Young 
"Woman,"  Stadel  Institute,  153; 
on  "Portrait  of  a  Youth,"  Lo- 
thian Collection,  233;  on  "Por- 
trait of  a  Youth,"  Lucca,  160; 
on  "Portrait  of  a  Youth," 
Plymouth  Collection,  215;  on 
"Portrait  of  a  Youth,"  Vienna, 
237;  on  "Portrait  of  Cosimo  I," 
New  Haven,  220 ;  on  "Portrait  of 


Cosimo  il  Vecchio,"  205;  on 
"Portrait  of  Gualteretti, "  82, 
227;  on  "Santa  Barbara,"  St. 
Petersburg,  224,  229;  on  Santo 
Felicita,  49,  121;  on  "Tobias  and 
the  Angel,"  Borghese,  230;  on 
"Venus  and  Cupid,"  Uffizi,  63, 
143. 

Bergamo,  57,  64,  84,  102,  171,  194. 

Berlin,  85,  103,  105,  144,  194. 

Bernardino  di  Giordano,  13. 

Bernardo,  mentioned  in  Pontormo's 
diary,  303. 

Bettini,  Bartolomeo,  62,  64,  68,  90, 
142. 

Beurnonville,  Collection  de,  87-88, 
201,  241. 

Biblioteca  Borghese,  Rome,  283. 

—  Corsini,  Rome,  149. 

—  Laurenziana,  Florence,  148. 

—  Magliabecchiana,  Florence,  91. 

—  Marucelliana,  Florence,  1,  2,  3,  271, 

272,  273. 

—  Moreniana,  Florence,  254. 

—  Nazionale,  Florence,  1,  2,  91,  127, 

271,  272,  295. 

—  Riccardiana,  Florence,  1,  2,  3. 
Bicchieraio,  Becuccio,  25,  255. 
"Birth-plate,"  Butler  Collection,  130, 

141. 

— ,  Palazzo  Davanzati,  57,  130,  141. 
— ,  Uffizi,  57,  111,  140-141,  156. 
Biscioni,  131,  262. 
Blanc,  Edmond,  144. 
Boccaccio,  lost  portrait  of,  142. 
Bocchi,  10,  11,  15,  17,  55,  75,  79,  94, 

106,  107,  116,  119,  122,  128,  200, 

207,  254,  263,  264. 
Bode,  148,  149,  196,  231,  238. 
Bode  und  Tschudi,  149. 
Boldrone,  Way-side  shrine  at,  45,  103- 

104;  date  of,  45,  104;  mentioned 


324 


INDEX 


by  Vasari,  45,  53,  104;  possible 
drawing  for,  104. 

Bollettino  d' arte,  62,  71,  146,  184, 
185,  186,  260. 

Bologna,  95,  195. 

Bonn,  83,  104,  105. 

Borde,  152. 

Borenius,  23,  200. 

Borgherini,  Casa,  157. 

— ,  Niccolo  di  Giovanni,  157,  163. 

— ,  Pierfrancesco,  22,  23,  55,  56,  157, 
163,  208,  258 ;  panels  for,  21,  22, 
24,  55-56,  97,  163,  164,  165,  208. 

Borghese  Gallery,  69,  85,  86,  209, 
229-231;  "Lucretia"  in,  85,  179; 
"Portrait  of  a  Magistrate"  in, 
154,  229-230;  "Portrait  of  Car- 
dinal Spannocchi  Cervini"  in, 
69,  86,  180-181;  "Tobias  and 
Angel' 'in,  230-231. 

Borghini,  Raffaello,  63,  75,  79,  80, 
108,  110,  115,  116,  117,  119,  121, 
122,  123,  124,  125,  128,  131,  132, 
136,  139,  145,  147,  159,  164,  169, 
177,  228,  229,  254,  255,  256,  257, 
259,  262,  263,  264,  287, 

— ,  Vincenzo,  94,  131 ;  mentioned  in 
-  Pontormo  's  diary,  300. 

Borgia,  Francesco,  181. 

— ,  Pietro  Ludovico,  181. 

Borgo  San  Sepolcro,  21,  105-106,  109. 

Boscoli,  Andrea,  98. 

Boston,  195,  217-218. 

Bottari,  89,  255,  285. 

Botticelli,  Sandro,  149,  175. 

Bracciolini,  Poggio,  237. 

Brandus  Galleries,  242. 

Braun.    See  Photographs. 

Bredius  und  Schmidt-Degener,  162. 

Brett  Collection,  242. 

Brigida,  Mona,  4. 

Brinton,  Selwyn,  118,  119,  143,  145. 

British  Institute,  214,  247. 


British  Museum,  49,  122,  123,  132, 
144,  153. 

Brogi.    See  Photographs. 

Broncone,  Compagnia  del,  13,  253- 
254. 

Bronzino,  Angelo,  21,  56,  78,  80,  86, 
87,  95,  96,  97,  101,  144,  145, 
150,  153,  162,  167,  169,  172,  195, 
200,  211,  213,  219,  221,  227,  228, 
233,  234,  235,  254,  259,  287; 
"Adoration  of  the  Divine 
Child, "  66 ;  birth,  21 ;"  bottega, ' ' 
96;  "Cleopatra,"  179;  copies 
a  "Madonna"  of  Leonardo's, 
53 ;  copies  of  his  portraits  of  the 
Medici,  96;  "Descent  into  Hell," 
81 ;  designs  for  tapestries,  70,  71, 
184,  185,  187;  discusses  Pon- 
tormo's  life  with  Vasari,  56; 
drawings,  97;  finishes  Pontor- 
mo's  San  Lorenzo  frescoes,  4,  79, 
263;  frescoes  in  San  Lorenzo, 
91;  helps  Pontormo  at  Certosa, 
43-44,  113;  helps  Pontormo  at 
Santa  Felicita,  49,  123;  imitates 
Michelangelo,  74;  imitates  Pon- 
tormo, 66,  96,  97;  journey  to 
Rome,  185;  lost  portraits  of 
Dante,  Petrarch  and  Boccaccio, 
142;  mentioned  in  Pontormo 's 
diary,  90,  92,  93,  295,  296,  297, 
298,  299,  300,  301,  302,  303,  304, 
305,  306;  "Pieta,"  Certosa,  113; 
Pontormo 's  portrait  of  the  young, 
25;  Pontormo 's  portraits  com- 
pared with  those  of,  87;  "Por- 
trait of  a  Lady,"  Fischhof  Col- 
lection, 101;  "Portrait  of  Ales- 
sandro  de'  Medici,"  64,  171,  172; 
' '  Portrait  of  Anna  Strozzi, "  96 ; 
' '  Portrait  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio, ' ' 
150;  "Portrait  of  Eleonora," 
Uffizi,  97;  "Portrait  of  Giannet- 


325 


INDEX 


tino  Doria,"  225;  "Portrait  of 
Guidobaldo  della  Rovere,"  59, 
203,  205,  258;  "Portrait  of  Ugo- 
lino  Martelli,"  96,  225;  portraits 
of  Cosimo  I,  220,  221,  235; 
portraits  of  Medici  children,  96 ; 
portraits  of  Pontormo,  80;  por- 
traits of  the  Panciatichi,  85,  96, 
225;  "San  Lorenzo,"  at  Certosa, 
113 ;  ' '  San  Lorenzo, ' '  in  San  Lo- 
renzo, Florence,  80 ;  sonnets,  288- 
293;  work  at  Careggi,  66,  262; 
work  at  Castello,  67,  262;  work 
at  Pesaro,  59,  204 ;  work  for  Bet- 
tini,  142;  work  for  the  Medici, 
184. 

Bruckhardt,  231. 

Bruckmann.    See  Photographs. 

Briiiningk  et  Somof,  228,  229. 

Brunelleschi,  Filippo,  121. 

Brussels,  71,  209. 

Bryan,  105. 

Buchanan,  214. 

Budapest,  61,  195-196. 

Bugiardini,  Giuliano,  5,  95,  195,  236, 
237,  261. 

Bullettino  della  societa  filologica  ro- 
mana,  16,  91,  268,  295,  296. 

Bulloz.    See  Photographs. 

Burger,  W.,  211. 

Burlington  House,  164, 166,  224. 

Burlington  Magazine,  197. 

Butler  Collection,  141,  242-243. 

"Burying  of  the  Bones  of  Jacob," 
Bronzino,  70. 

Butteri,  Giovanmaria,  95. 

Buttery,  241. 


Calvet.    See  Musee  Calvet. 
Cambi,  28,  51. 
Campanari,  201. 


Campi,  Giulio,  222. 

Canova,  217. 

Capodimonte,  219,  220. 

Cappella  del  Papa.    See  Santa  Maria 

Novella. 
Capponi  Chapel,  Santa  Felicita,  46, 

47,  72,  104,  120,  123,  185. 
Capponi,  Gino,  52,  269. 
— ,Lodovico,   47,   52,   120,   128,   176, 

257. 
— ,  lost  portrait  of  the  daughter  of, 

50. 

— ,  Niccolo,  52. 
Caravaggio,  Polidoro  da,  81. 
Carderera,  Valentin,  197. 
Careggi,  lost  paintings  in  the  villa  of, 

65-66,  67,  73,  262. 
Carlo  da  Spello,  282. 
Carmignano.    See  "Visitation,"  Car- 

mignano. 

Carmine,  Florence,  3,  273. 
Carnasecchi,  Carlo,  64,  170-171,  173, 

280. 

Caro,  Annibal,  65,  69,  259,  282,  283. 
Carocci,  Guido,  169,  264. 
Carota,  II,  13,  253. 
Carraia,  Ponte  alia,  Florence,  254. 
Carro  de'  Pazzi,  15. 
Carro  della  Zecca,   14,  15,   136-139; 

date  of,  15,  139 ;  drawing  for,  15, 

139 ;  mentioned  by  Vasari,  139. 
Cars  for  the  Broncone,  7,  13,  14,  253- 

254. 

—  for  the  Diamante,  7,  13,  14,  253. 
Cartoons  for  tapestries.    See  Designs. 
Carucci,  arms  of,  271,  272. 

— ,  Bartolomeo  di  Jacopo,  3. 

—  Chapel  in  the  Carmine,  3,  273. 
— ,  Checci,  3,  273. 

—  da  Colle,  3,  271. 

— ,  document  concerning  a  Jacopo,  5, 
267,  273. 

—  family,  1,  3,  271,  273. 


326 


INDEX 


Carueci,  Francesco,  1,  272. 

— ,  Jacopo  di  Giovanni,  3. 

— ,  Jacopo  di  Luca,  3,  272. 

— ,  Jacopo.    See  Pontormo. 

— ,  Lisabetta,  3,  273. 

— ,  Marietta,  3. 

— ,  Pagolo,  3,  273. 

— ,  Ruggieri  di  Taddeo,  2,  3,  271,  272. 

— ,  Ruggiero,  2,  271. 

— ,  Taddeo  di,  2,  272. 

Casa,  arms  of  the  della,  140. 

Casa  Buonarotti,  201,  222. 

Cassel,  87,  196-197. 

Castellani  Collection,  248. 

Castello,  lost  paintings  in  the  villa  of, 

63,  66-67,  68,  71,  73,  146,  262- 

263;  date  of,  67,  262;  drawings 

for,  67-68,  262. 
Castiglione,   Francesco   da,    85,   133, 

134. 
Catalogue:  Academy,  Florence,  115, 

200. 

—  Attributed  Pictures,  193-249. 

—  Authentic  Pictures,  101-189. 

—  Avignon,  194. 

—  Berlin,  105,  212. 

—  Bonn,  105. 

— r-Borghese  Gallery,  Rome,  179,  181, 
230,  231. 

—  Brett  Collection,  242. 
— Budapest  Museum,  196. 

—  Butler  Collection,  242. 

—  Cassel,  197. 

—  Castellani  Collection,  248. 

—  Chantilly,  214. 

—  Citta  di  Castello,  95,  197. 

—  Clark  Collection,  243. 

—  Codicum  Latinorum,  148. 

—  Colonna  Gallery,  Rome,  145. 

—  Colworth  Collection,  243. 

—  Cook  Collection,  213,  218. 

—  Corsini  Gallery,  Florence,  129,  203. 

—  Crozat  Collection,  229. 


—  D' Alton  Collection,  212. 

—  Dawkins  Collection,  244. 

—  De  Beurnonville  Collection,  241. 

—  DeH***,  88. 

—  Dellafaille  Collection,  244. 

—  Dijon,  198. 

—  Doetsch  Collection,  126,  128,  172, 

244. 

—  Dollfus  Collection,  96. 

—  Erfurt,  199. 

—  Eszterhazy  de  Galantha  Collection, 

245. 

—  Exposition  "Starye  Gody,"  244. 

—  Ferdinand   von    Tirol    Collection, 

261. 

—  Fischhof  Collection,  101. 

—  Gabburri  Collection,  127. 

—  Galleria  d '  Arazzi,  185. 

—  Grafton    Galleries,    23,    164,    165, 

166,  224. 

—  Guggenheim  Collection,  245. 

—  Hague  Portrait  Exhibition,  198. 

—  Hamilton  Collection,  159. 

—  Hampton  Court,  145,  211,  212. 

—  Hermitage,  229. 

—  Inventaire  des  richesses  d' art  de 

la  France,  217. 

—  Jarves  Collection,  221,  222. 

—  Johnson  Collection,  173,  227. 

—  Lamponi  Collection,  141. 

—  Lanfranconi  Collection,  246. 

—  Lanna  Collection,  173. 

—  Lochis  Collection,  194. 

—  Lost  Pictures,  253-264. 

—  Louvre,  169,  170,  226. 

—  Madrid,  216. 

—  Mailand  Collection,  153. 

—  Manoscritti  Torrigiani,  28. 

—  Mond  Collection,  156. 

—  Morelli  Collection,  102,  173. 

—  Munich,  Alte  Pinakothek,  218. 

—  Musee  de  Province,  215. 

—  Museo  Nazionale,  Florence,  121. 


327 


INDEX 


Catalogue:  Museo  Nazionale,  Naples, 
218,  219,  220. 

—  National  Gallery,  London,  159,  213, 

214. 

—  National    Loan    Exhibition,    166, 

224. 

—  Northbrook  Collection,  214,  215. 

—  Oldenburg,  162. 

—  Palazzo  Bianco,  Genoa,  155. 

—  Palazzo  Pitti,  Florence,  132,  133, 

134,  136,  205. 

—  Rezzonico  Collection,  248. 

—  Rome,  231. 

—  Sale  and  Loan  Exhibitions,  241- 

249. 

—  Schevitch  Collection,  248. 

—  Sedelmeyer  Collection,  221,  246. 

—  Spitzer  Collection,  173. 

—  Stadel   Institute,   Frankfort,   153- 

154. 

—  Stuttgart,  234. 

—  Turin,  Regia  Pinacoteca,  235,  236. 

—  Uffizi,  Florence,  140,  141,  145,  152, 

206,  208,  209. 

—  Versailles,  169. 

—  Vienna,  188,  236,  237. 

—  Walters  Collection,  194. 

—  Wanamaker  Collection,  228. 

—  Widener  Collection,  102. 

—  Willett  Collection,  249. 

—  Ximenes     d'Aragona     Collection, 

247. 

—  Yerkes  Collection,  189. 
Catasto,  3,  5,  57,  68,  80,  280,  282. 
"Cattura  di  Benjamin,"  tapestry,  70, 

187. 

"Cattura  di  Simeone, "  tapestry,  70. 
Cavaliere  Tommaso,  60. 
Ceccho   fornaio,   mentioned  in   Pon- 

tormo's  diary,  297. 
CeUini,  Benvenuto,  53,   68,  78,  173, 

297. 
Cenacolo  di  Foligno,  Florence,  201. 


Cerbone  Pucci  Collection,  243. 

Certosa,  near  Florence,  21,  39-44,  45, 
46,  57,  73,  104,  107-114;  "Agony 
in  the  Garden,"  40,  107-108; 
"Christ  before  Pilate,"  40,  107, 
108-109 ;  ' '  Crucifixion, ' '  pro- 
jected for,  40;  date  of  frescoes 
at,  39;  "Deposition,"  projected 
for,  40;  documents  for  frescoes 
at,  39,  44,  108;  drawings  for 
frescoes  at,  39,  40,  42,  43,  110, 
112,  113;  lost  "Nativity"  at,  41, 
257;  lost  "Portrait  of  a  Lay 
Brother"  at,  41,  257;  mentioned 
in  Pontormo  's  diary,  304 ;  ' '  Nail- 
ing to  the  Cross,"  projected  for, 
40;  "Pieta,"  40,  111-112;  Pon- 
tormo's  relations  with  monks  of, 

39,  44,  277-279;  "Risen  Christ," 

40,  112-113;    "Supper   at   Em- 
maus"  for,  41,  42,  114-115,  277; 
Vasari  mentions  frescoes  at,  39, 
40,  43,  44,   107,   108,   109,   110, 
111,    112,    113;    "Way   to    Gol- 
gotha," 40,  109-110. 

Chantilly,  61,  154,  214. 

Chappel  Studio.     See  Photographs. 

Charles  I,  Collection  of,  236. 

Charles  V,  9. 

Chennevieres,  de,  228. 

Chiari,  Alessandro,  119. 

Chiavacci,  132,  133,  134,  136,  205. 

Chiavistelli,  Jacopo,  151. 

Chiazzella,  Andrea,  80,  284. 

Chiesa  delle  Stigmate,  Florence,  201- 

202. 
"Christ  as  Pilgrim,"  lost  fresco  of, 

17,  108,  109,  254. 
Christie's,    158,   241,   242,   243,   244, 

245,  249. 

Christina,  Collection  of  Queen,  209. 
"Christ  in  Glory,"  drawing  for,  75, 

76,  263. 


328 


INDEX 


Chronique  des  arts,  209. 

Cianfanini,  Giovanni,  125. 

Ciangogni,  264. 

Cibo,  Innocenzio,  261. 

Cicerone,  195,  208,  209. 

Cicognara,  173. 

Cigoli,  98. 

Cinelli,  17,  207,  254,  256. 

Citta  di  Castello,  95,  197,  260. 

Clapp,  F.  M.,  64. 

— ,  article  on  ' '  Portrait  of  Alessandro 
de'  Medici,"  64,  173. 

— ,  Dessins,  8,  10,  11,  15,  16,  17,  20, 
21,  23,  24,  29,  30,  38,  39,  40,  42, 
44,  47,  54,  55,  56,  61,  62,  63,  66, 
67,  69,  70,  76,  77,  81,  84,  85,  86, 
96,  97,  98,  104,  106,  107,  108, 
115,  116,  117,  119,  122,  123,  125, 
128,  132,  136,  139,  140,  145,  147, 
154,  159,  164,  165,  166,  169,  177, 
178,  179,  183,  187,  200,  208,  236, 
253,  255,  259,  262,  263,  264,  295. 

— ,  On  Certain  Drawings,  16,  20,  41, 
62,  106,  115,  116,  117,  119,  122, 
125,  128,  136,  177,  264. 

—  See  Photographs. 
Clark  Collection,  243. 

Clement  VII,  Pope,  58,  61,  64,  175, 

281. 

Clouet,  follower  of,  196. 
Clough  Collection,  260. 
Codice  Araldieo,  1,  2,  272. 

—  Atlantico,  209. 

Colasanti,  16,  91,  268,  270,  295,  296. 
Colle,  Vald'Elsa,  1. 
Cologne.    See  Dellafaille  Collection. 
Colonna,  Francesco,  175. 

—  Gallery,  Rome,  145,  201,  237. 
— ,  Vittoria,  201,  241. 
Colworth  Collection,  151,  243. 
Comando  Militare,  254. 
Commonwealth  Inventory,  211. 
Como,  151. 


Compagnia  del  Broncone,  7,  13,  14, 
253-254. 

—  del  Diamante,  7,  13,  14,  253. 

—  del  Disegno,  79. 

—  della  Cecilia,  17,  255. 

—  di  Loreto,  1,  271. 
Company  of  San  Luca,  57. 
Consorteria,  1,  3,  5,  271,  272. 
Constantine,     Collection    of    Grand 

Duke,  243-244. 
Constantini  Collection,  196. 
Conti,  Cosimo,  71,  142,  151,  152,  184, 

185,  261. 
— ,  G.,  151. 
' '  Conversation, ' '     Mond     Collection, 

156. 
Cook,  159. 

—  Collection,  212-213. 

"Coppa  di  Joseph,"  tapestry,  70, 187. 
"Coronation  of  the  Virgin,"  Ridolfo 

Ghirlandaio,  12. 
Correggio,  236. 
Corsini    Gallery,    Florence,    52,    129, 

231. 
— ,  Rome,  85,  182,  214 ;  drawings  in, 

17,  32,  33,  42,  43,  48,  112,  121, 

127,  132,  176,  255. 
Costa,  156. 
Council  of  Trent,  70. 
Cristofano  dell'  Altissimo.     See  Al- 

tissimo. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  23,  81,  119, 

163,  164,  165,  166,  175,  181,  188, 

193,  195,  211,  214,  215,  216,  218, 

219,  224,  229,  231,  232,  234,  237- 

238,  268. 
Crozat,  144. 

—  Collection,  229. 
"Crucifixion,"  projected  at  Certosa, 

40,  111,  113. 

Cruttwell,    108,    119,   122,    129,   130, 
132,  133,  134,  136,  139,  140,  141, 


329 


INDEX 


152,  199,  200,  201,  203,  205,  206, 

208. 

Gust,  Lionel,  196,  197. 
Cybo,  Alberico,  171. 

D 

Daily  Telegraph,  165. 

Dalkeith.     See  Lothian  Collection. 

Daniello,    mentioned   in    Pontormo's 

diary,  90,  92,  93,  283,  296,  297, 

298,  299,  300,  301,  302,  303,  304. 
Dante,    Bronzino's   lost  portrait   of, 

142. 

Davolo,  Alfonso,  56,  60,  62,  259. 
Dawkins  Collection,  205,  244. 
Dazzi,  Andrea,  13,  253. 
''Dead  Christ"  (lost),  253. 
"Death  of  Abel,"  drawing  for,  72. 
"Death  of  Adonis,"  Sebastiano  del 

Piombo,  145. 
Delaborde,  61. 

Delizie  degli  eruditi  toscani,  2,  125. 
Dellafaille  Collection,  244. 
"Deluge,"  drawing  copied  from  the 

San  Lorenzo,  263. 
— ,  drawings   for   the    San    Lorenzo, 

263. 
"Deposition,"  in  Santa  Felicita,  38, 

43,  45,  46,  47,  72,  120-122;  date 

of,  121 ;  drawings  for,  48-49,  121 ; 

mentioned  by  Vasari,  120. 
— ,  projected  at  the  Certosa,  43,  111, 

113. 

Desborough,  Collection  of  Lady,  162. 
Designs  for  tapestries,   70,  71,   183- 

187. 

Dessins.    See  Clapp. 
Deti,  Giovambattista,  229. 
Diamante.    See  Cars. 
Diary  of  Pontormo,  90-94,  295-307. 
Dijon,  94,  95,  197-198. 
Dimier,  210. 


Dirksen  Collection,  85,  103. 

Disegni  delta  Galleria  degli  Uffizi,  53, 
81,  121,  122,  168,  169,  176,  177, 
179,  258,  259,  262,  263,  264. 

Documents:  for  Albertinelli 's  house, 
273;  for  Andrea's  Scalzo 
frescoes,  17;  for  Borgherini 
panels,  158 ;  for  Bronzino  's 
birth,  21;  for  Capponi  Chapel, 
120,  279;  for  Certosa  frescoes, 
39,  44,  113,  276-279;  for  Chiaz- 
zella's  house,  284;  for  "Coppa 
di  Joseph,"  186-187;  for  Del 
Gostra,  283-284;  for  "Deposi- 
tion," Santa  Felicita,  121;  for 
"Faith  and  Charity,"  9,  116, 
275;  for  Feltrini,  9;  for  "Joseph 
and  Potiphar's  "Wife,"  186;  for 
"Joseph  Discovering  Himself  to 
His  Brethren,"  164;  for  "Lam- 
entation of  Jacob, ' '  185 ;  for  lost 
Madonnas,  261,  286-287 ;  for  lost 
"Noli  me  tangere,"  260;  for 
"Pieta,"  Academy,  200;  for 
Pontormo's  ancestors,  271-273; 
for  Pontormo's  death,  284;  for 
Pontormo's  house,  280,  282;  for 
Pontormo 's  life  annuity,  283 ;  for 
Pontormo's  matriculation  in  the 
Medici  e  Speziali,  279;  for  Pon- 
tormo's membership  of  the  Ac- 
cademia  del  Disegno,  279;  for 
Pontormo's  property,  284;  for 
Pontormo's  relations  with  the 
Certosa,  44,  277-278;  for  Pon- 
tormo's relations  with  the  Pu- 
pilli,  274;  for  "Portrait  of  Ales- 
sandro,"  64,  173,  280-282;  for 
"Portrait  of  Guidiccioni, "  259; 
for  "Portrait  of  Guidobaldo 
della  Rovere,"  205;  for  "Supper 
at  Emmaus, ' '  41,  115 ;  for  tapes- 
tries, 184,  185,  186,  187;  for 


330 


INDEX 


"Venus  and  Cupid,"  63,  142, 
287;  for  "Visitation,"  Annun- 
ziata,  16,  119,  275-276;  possibly 
for  Granacci's  "Joseph  Led 
away  to  Prison,"  208. 

Doetsch  Collection,  19,  126,  128,  172, 
209,  244. 

Dollfus  Collection,  96. 

Domenicho,  22. 

Domenico  di  Polo,  172,  173. 

Donatello,  148. 

Dossi,  Dosso,  222. 

Drawing,  by  Michelangelo,  123. 

Drawings,  copies:  of  "Battle  of  the 
Cascina,"  18;  of  "Deluge,"  of 
San  Lorenzo,  263 ;  of  Louvre 
"Madonna  and  Saints,"  168;  of 
"Venus  and  Cupid,"  144. 

Drawings  for:  "Adoration  of  the 
Magi,"  24,  135-136;  "Annuncia- 
tion," Santa  Felicita,  47,  48, 122 ; 
"Baker  Led  out  to  Execution," 
23,  165;  "Benjamin  at  the  Court 
of  Pharaoh,"  187;  Carro  della 
Zecca,  15,  137;  Certosa,  42,  110, 
112,  113;  "Concerto,"  projected 
for  Poggio,  32,  35;  "Cruci- 
>  fixion,"  projected  at  Certosa, 
113;  "Deposition,"  projected  at 
the  Certosa,  43,  113;  "Deposi- 
tion," Santa  Felicita,  48-49,  121; 
Diirer's  altar-piece,  Ober  St. 
Veit,  53;  "Faith  and  Charity," 
10,  11,  116;  "Four  Evangelists," 
Santa  Felicita,  49,  123;  frescoes 
at  the  Certosa,  42,  110,  112,  113 ; 
Granacci's  "Joseph  Led  away  to 
Prison,"  208;  "Holy  Family," 
Visdomini,  20,  30,  127;  "Joseph 
Discovering  Himself  to  His 
Brethren,"  23,  163,  164;  "Jo- 
seph Sold  to  Potiphar,"  23, 
119,  166;  lost  frescoes  at  San 


Lorenzo,  75,  76,  77,  185,  263; 
lost  "Madonna  and  Child,"  20; 
lost  paintings  at  Careggi,  66, 
262;  lost  paintings  at  Castello, 
68,  262;  lost  "Pieta,"  16;  lost 
"Santa  Cecilia,"  17,  29,  30,  255; 
lost  "Raising  of  Lazarus,"  56, 
259;  lunette  at  Poggio,  30-36, 
176;  "Madonna  and  Saints," 
Ammnziata,  8,  117;  "Madonna 
and  Saints,"  Louvre,  52,  168; 
"Madonna  Enthroned,"  Uffizi, 
20,  139;  "Magdalen,"  50;  "Mars 
Hermaphrodite, ' '  Castello,  68 ; 
"Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice," 
54,  132,  140;  Medici  arms,  11; 
"Pieta,"  Certosa,  42;  "Portrait 
of  Young  Cosimo,"  147;  pro- 
jected "Nailing  to  the  Cross," 
Certosa,  40,  43,  113;  Roman  an- 
tiquities, 69,  181;  "St.  Jerome," 
53,  54;  "St.  John  Evangelist," 
Pontormo,  24,  179;  "St.  Mi- 
chael," Pontormo,  24,  178;  "St. 
Quentin,"  44,  106;  Santa  Fe- 
licita, 43,  47,  49,  121,  122,  123; 
"Saturn,"  Castello,  68,  262; 
second  series  of  frescoes,  pro- 
jected at  Poggio,  61,  62,  176; 
"Supper  at  Emmaus,"  42,  43, 
114;  "Three  Graces,"  61;  "Visi- 
tation," Annunziata,  16,  119; 
' '  Visitation, ' '  Carmignano,  55, 
107;  "Way  to  Golgotha,"  42, 
110;  woman,  54;  "Young  Bap- 
tist," 35,  137. 

Drawings  possibly  for:  "Agony  in 
the  Garden,"  42;  "Birth-plate," 
Uffizi,  141;  "God  the  Father  and 
Patriarchs, ' '  Santa  Felicita,  123 ; 
"Joseph  in  Egypt,"  159;  lost 
"Noli  me  tangere,"  260;  lost 
"Pomona,"  258;  lost  "Portrait 


331 


INDEX 


of  Francesco  Guardi,"  259;  lu- 
nette at  Poggio,  29 ;  "  Portrait  of 
a  Young  Woman,"  Frankfort, 
153. 

Drax  Collection,  245. 

Dresden,  8,  24,  56,  117,  135,  139. 

Dreyfus  Collection,  148. 

Dudley  House,  216. 

Duke  of  Altamira.    See  Altamira. 

Duppa,  144,  211. 

Duranty,  81. 

Durazzo  Collection,  235. 

Durer,  "Auferstehung,"  113;  "Bad- 
stube, ' '  109 ;  ' '  Beweinung 
Christi,"  42,  111;  "Christus  am 
Kreuz,"  111;  "Christus  am  Oel- 
berg,"  107;  "Christus  und  die 
Jiinger  von  Emmaus,"  41,  114; 
"Christus  vor  Hannas,"  110; 
engravings,  38,  47;  figures  bor- 
rowed by  Pontormo  from,  40, 
107,  109,  110,  111,  113;  "Grable- 
gung,"  111;  his  influence  on 
Pontormo,  38,  39,  40,  41,  42,  43, 
45,  46,  47,  52,  55,  106,  107,  109, 
110,  111,  113,  114,  129,  168,  256, 
258;  "Kleine  Passion,"  42,  46; 
' '  Kreuzabnahme, ' '  43,  111 ; 
' '  Kreuzigung, "  110 ;  "  Kreuz- 
tragung,"  110,  129;  "Marias 
Erster  Tempelgang,"  109; 
"Marter  des  Evangelisten  Jo- 
hannes," 109;  "Nemesis,"  55, 
106 ;  Pietas,  Munich  and  Nurem- 
berg, 112;  "Sebastian,"  from 
the  workshop  of,  52,  168;  "Vier 
Nackten  Frauen,"  55,  106. 

Dzikow.    See  Tarnowski  Collection. 

E       . 

Edelinck,  132. 

Ehrich  Galleries,  87,  96. 

—  See  Photographs. 


Eleonora  da  Toledo,  53,  93,  96,  97, 
235,  306. 

Empoli,  3,  4. 

— ,  Collegiata  of,  3,  4. 

— ,  Jacopo  da,  98,  108,  109,  112,  115, 
129,  203;  influenced  by  Pon- 
tormo, 98. 

Emporium,  255. 

Engerand,  81,  170. 

Engerth,  Erasmus,  188,  236,  237,  238. 

Englewood.    See  Platt  Collection. 

"Entombment,"  window  in  Santa 
Felicita,  121. 

Erfurt,  144,  199. 

Espagnac,  Collection  d',  245. 

Eszterhazy  de  Galantha  Collection, 
245. 

Etruria  pittrice,  119. 

"Evangelists,"  Santa  Felicita,  49, 
122-123 ;  drawings  for,  263 ;  men- 
tioned by  Vasari,  123. 

"Expulsion  from  Paradise,"  draw- 
ing for,  263. 


Fabre,  217. 

Fabriczy,  91,  122,  148,  173,  203,  205, 

207,  238,  295. 
Fagan,  144. 
"Faith  and   Charity,"   Annunziata, 

7-8,  10,  12,  25,  116;  date  of,  116; 

documents  for,   116;   mentioned 

by  Vasari,  7;  possible  drawings 

for,  10,  116. 
"Fall  of  the  Damned,"  drawing  for, 

263. 

Fantozzi,  207. 

Farinola  Collection,  6,  20,  128. 
Farnese,  Alessandro,  65,  180,  258. 
"Fattore  di  San  Marco,"  Panshanger, 

166. 
Febo,  60. 


332 


INDEX 


Feltrini,  Andrea  di  Cosimo,  9,  12,  13, 

23,  28,  116,  175,  253,  255. 
Ferdinand  von  Tirol  Collection,  151, 

237. 

Fesch  Collection,  153,  213. 
Fiesole,  lost  fresco  of  "Santa  Cecilia" 

in,  17,  255. 

Figana,  Don  Giovanni  di,  261,  264. 
Figiovanni,  60,  260. 
Filhol,  170,  226. 
Firenze  antica  e  moderna,  119. 
Firenzuola,  Ser  Carlo  da,  126. 
Fischhof  Collection,  101. 
Florence,  Signoria  of,  52. 
Follini,  122,  152. 
Fontainebleau,  209,  210. 
Fontana,  Prospero,  238. 
Forni,  Ulisse,  144. 
Fortezza  da  Basso,  Florence,  173. 
Fossart  Sale,  145. 
Fragonard,  31. 
Francesco  da  Toledo,  71. 
Francesco  di  Goro,  284. 
Franciabigio,  8,  9,  23,  24,  28,  29,  58, 

135,  157,  173,  175,  176,  209. 
Francillon  Sale,  145. 
Francis  I,  55,  56,  163,  259. 
Franco,  Battista,  62,  173,  260. 
Frankfort.    See  Stadel  Institute. 
Frantz  Collection,  101. 
Frey,  60,  143,  153,  201,  260. 
Friedlander,  J.,  148,  149. 
Friedrich  der  "Weise,  53. 
Frizzoni,  102,  159,  172,  173,  181,  196, 

209,  213,  214,  231. 
Fucecchio,  210. 
Fuscellino,  299. 
Fry  and  Brockwell,  164,  165. 
Funeral  banners  for  Ginori,  25,  255. 

G 

Gabburri,  Cavaliere,  116,  127. 
Gaci,  Cosimo,  80. 


Gaddi,  mentioned  in  Pontormo's 
diary,  302. 

Galeotti,  Pietro  Paulo,  13,  253. 

Galerien  Europas,  181. 

Galicia.    See  Tarnowski  Collection. 

Gallerie  Nazionali  Italiane,  144. 

Galliera  Collection,  154. 

Gamba,  62,  68,  143,  146,  147,  166, 
169,  218,  223,  224,  237,  260,  264; 
ascribes  ' '  Fattore  di  San  Marco ' ' 
to  Puligo,  166;  ascribes  "Por- 
trait of  a  Youth,"  Panshanger, 
to  Puligo,  224;  believes  a  draw- 
ing in  Louvre  for  "Visitation," 
in  Annunziata,  119;  believes 
"Portrait  of  a  Lady,"  Pans- 
hanger,  to  be  Puligo 's  "Barbara 
Cortegiana,"  224,  229;  his  ar- 
ticle on  Carmignano  "Visita- 
tion," 107;  his  opinion  of  draw- 
ing of  "St.  Michael,"  25;  his 
opinion  of  "Madonna  and  Little 
St.  John,"  Uffizi,  146;  his  opin- 
ion of  "Madonna  and  Saints," 
Louvre,  53,  168;  his  opinion  of 
the  "Venus  and  Cupid,"  Uffizi, 
143. 

—  See  Disegni  delle  Gallerie  degli 
Uffizi. 

Gamurrini,  254. 

Gaye,  Giovanni,  53,  91,  185,  295. 

Gazette  des  beaux-arts,  81,  145,  217, 
228,  231. 

Geisenheimer,  71,  184,  185. 

Genoa,  Durazzo  Collection,  235; 
Palazzo  Bianco,  21,  25,  83,  154; 
Palazzo  Brignole-Sale,  210. 

Gesuati,  Order  of,  121. 

Gheri,  Goro,  22,  150. 

Ghirlandaio,  Domenico,  3,  5,  22,  87. 

— ,Ridolfo,  9,  11,  12,  124,  125,  231, 
258. 

Giglioli,  O.  H.,  4,  178,  200,  205. 


333 


INDEX 


Ginori,  banners  for  the  funeral  of 
Bartolomeo,  20,  25,  255. 

—  Collection,  233. 

— ,  Portrait  of  Leonardo  de ',  233. 
Giordani,  Ser  Giovanni  Battista,  80, 

284. 

Giornale  arcadico,  69,  259,  283. 
Giotto,  115. 

Giovanni  delle  Corniole,  169. 
Giovio,  Paolo,  29,  151,  174. 
Girard,  Joseph,  194. 
Giraudon.    See  Photographs. 
Giulio  da  Pistoia,  282. 
Giulio,     mentioned     in     Pontormo's 

diary,  302,  304. 
Giulio  Romano,  81,  231,  261. 
Giustiniani  Gallery,  144. 
Glen,  245. 
"God  the   Father   and   Patriarchs" 

(lost),  Santa  Felicita,  123,  257. 
"God     the     Father"     (lost),     San 

Ruffillo,  8,  117,  254. 
"God  the  Father,"   Pope's  Chapel, 

Santa  Maria  Novella,  8,  12,  124. 
Goethe,  148. 
Goldschmidt,  104,  107,  109,  122,  124, 

126,  132,  141,  168,  176,  183,  208, 

209,  217,  228,  263,  270. 
Gonfalone  Bue,  2,  3,  272. 

—  Chiave,  3,  57. 

—  Nicchio,  3. 
Gonse,  217. 
Gooden  and  Fox,  242. 
Gori,  Angelo,  151. 

Gostra,  Bastiano  del,  78,  264. 

Gowan's  Art  Books,  179. 

Grafton  Galleries,  164,  166,  224. 

Graham  Collection,  245. 

Granacci,  Francesco,  "Assumption 
of  the  Virgin,"  Academy,  Flor- 
ence, 224;  "Joseph  Led  away  to 
Prison,"  208;  "Joseph  Pre- 
senting Jacob  to  Pharaoh,"  208; 


"Life  of  Joseph,"  Palazzo 
Giraud-Torlonia,  Rome,  232 ; 
"Life  of  Joseph,"  Uffizi  95,  158, 
163-164;  panels  for  Borgherini, 
22,  157 ;  Pontormo  's  influence  on, 
95;  "Portrait  of  a  Woman," 
Panshanger,  229;  work  on  tri- 
umphal arches,  14. 

Grassis,  Paris  de,  134. 

Graves,  159,  164,  165,  212,  243,  246, 
247,  248. 

Gray.    See  Photographs. 

Gronau,  81. 

Grotesques,  Santa  Maria  Novella,  124. 

Gruyer,  F.-A.,  214,  268. 

Gualandi,  65,  170,  173,  280. 

Gualfonda,  Florence,  5. 

Gualteretti,  Portrait  of  Bartolommeo, 
82,  227. 

Gualtieri.    See  Walter  of  Brienne. 

Guardaroba,  Florence,  63,  144,  152. 

Guardi,  lost  Portrait  of  Francesco, 
56,  259. 

Guasti,  258. 

Guedy,  Theodore,  194. 

Guggenheim  Collection,  245. 

Guicciardini,  7,  248. 

Guidiccioni,  Giovanni,  69,  259. 

Guidobaldo  della  Rovere,  203. 

—  See  Portraits. 

Guiffrey,  Jean,  228. 

Guiness,  115,  229. 

H 

Hadrian  VI,  Pope,  29. 

Hague,  The,  83. 

Hamburg  Museum,  132,  140. 

Hampton  Court,  210-212;  copies  of 
"Venus  and  Cupid,"  at,  144, 
211-212;  "Madonna  and  Child," 
at,  210-211. 

Hanfstaengl.    See  Photographs. 


334 


INDEX 


H***,  Collection  de,  88. 

Hare,  Leman,  213. 

Heidelberg,  64,  144,  171,  211. 

Heiss,  A.,  148,  205. 

"Hercules  and  Anteus,"  projected 
fresco  at  Poggio,  61,  176. 

Hermitage.    See  St.  Petersburg. 

Hertz  Collection,  229. 

Hervey,  Mary  F.  S.,  196,  197. 

Hildesheim,  144,  212. 

Hoefle.    See  Photographs. 

Hofstede  de  Groot,  198. 

Hogarth,  212. 

Holbein,  85. 

Holford  Collection,  216. 

"Holy  Family/'  Budapest,  195-196. 

— ,  Santa  Maria  Visdomini,  17,  18-20, 
22,  73,  97,  125-128;  copy  in 
Doetsch  Collection  of,  128,  244; 
date  of,  20,  126 ;  drawing  for,  20, 
30,  127;  mentioned  by  Vasari, 
126 ;  painted  for  Francesco  Pucci, 
126 ;  Pontormo  's  original  of,  127 ; 
shows  influence  of  Leonardo,  18- 
19,  146. 

Home  Collection,  132. 

Hospital,  lost  fresco  in  the  Women's, 
17,  254. 

' '  Hospital  of  San  Matteo, ' '  Academy, 
Florence,  6,  115. 

Hospital  of  the  Innocents,  Florence, 
3,  4,  54,  92,  94. 

Houghton.    See  Photographs. 

Hutton,  165. 


Ince,  near  Liverpool,  216. 
Inghirami,  152. 
Ingres,  85. 

Inventories,    copies   of   "Venus   and 
Cupid"  mentioned  in,  144. 


Jackson,  S.,  242. 

Jacobsen,  128,  155,  158,  159,  169,  177, 
203,  235,  236. 

Jacone,  66,  67,  262. 

Jacopo  di  Sandro,  14. 

Jacopo  da  Empoli.    See  Empoli. 

Jacopo  da  Ponte.    See  Ponte. 

Jacquemart- Andre  Collection,  87, 101, 
167,  224,  225-226. 

Jahrbuch  der  koniglich  preussischen 
Kunstsammlungen,  59,  148,  197, 
205,  208,  209,  232. 

Jahrbuch  der  kunsthistorischen 
Sammlungen  des  Allerhochten 
Kaiserhauses,  151,  172,  261. 

Jameson,  211. 

Jarves  Collection,  132,  147,  220-222. 

Jenaische  Allgemeine  Literatur- 
Zeitung,  148. 

Johnson  Collection,  64,  65,  82,  85,  96, 
170-173,  209,  227,  260. 

"Joseph  and  Potiphar's  Wife,"  tap- 
estry, 70, 186 ;  date  of,  186 ;  docu- 
ments for,  186 ;  mentioned  by 
Vasari,  186;  woven  by  Karcher, 
186. 

"Joseph  Discovering  Himself  to  His 
Brethren,"  Panshanger,  23,  24, 
162-164;  date  of,  163,  164;  draw- 
ings for,  23,  163,  164;  painted 
for  Borgherini,  163. 

"Joseph  in  Egypt,"  21,  22,  156,  159, 
163;  date  of,  21,  159;  drawing 
supposed  for,  159;  iconography 
of,  158;  mentioned  by  Vasari, 
157,  159 ;  painted  for  Borgherini, 
157 ;  portrait  of  Bronzino  in,  25, 
158;  portraits  in,  125;  significa- 
tion of  architecture  in,  158. 
"Joseph  Sold  to  Potiphar,"  Pans- 
hanger,  23,  165-166 ;  date  of,  166 ; 
drawings  for,  23,  119,  166. 


335 


INDEX 


Joubert  Sale,  145. 
Justi,  196-197,  204,  205. 


Kaiser-Friedrich  Museum,  135,  148, 
149. 

Karcher,  Nicholas,  71,  72,  184. 

Keir,  Scotland.  See  Stirling  Collec- 
tion. 

Kenner,  151,  172,  261. 

Kensington.    See  Photographs. 

Kent,  127. 

Keuller,  185. 

Klassischer  Bilderschatz,  181. 

Knapp,  105,  268. 

Krafft,  Albrecht,  188,  237. 

Kugler,  144,  212. 

Kunstblatt,  144,  212. 

Kunstgeschichte  in  Bildern,  181. 

Kunstkritische  Studien,  209. 


Lafenestre,  51,  115, 117,  179,  181, 183, 
230,  231. 

"Lamentation  of  Jacob,"  tapestry, 
70,  183.-185;  borrowed  motives 
in,  72,  185;  date  of,  185;  docu- 
ment for,  185;  mentioned  by 
Vasari,  184 ;  woven  by  Host,  184. 

Lami,  122,  258. 

Lamponi  Collection,  141. 

Landauer  Collection,  234. 

Landon,  169,  170,  226. 

Landucci,  7,  28,  269. 

Lanfranconi  Collection,  202,  246. 

Lanfredini,  Arms  of  Bartolomeo,  21, 
254. 

— ,  Lanfredino,  255. 

— ,  letters  written  by  a  Bartolomeo, 
255. 

Lange-Tiibingen,  234. 

Lanini,  Bernardino,  195. 


Lanna  Collection,  172. 

Lanzi,  243,  264. 

Lapini,  78,  264. 

Lappoli,  Giovann'  Antonio,  25,  95, 
225,  303;  paints  portrait  of  An. 
tonio  da  Lucca,  225-226;  Pon- 
tormo's  lost  portrait  of,  25, 
44,  255;  "Visitation,"  Palazzo 
Spada,  perhaps  by,  232. 

Lasalle,  Collection,  246. 

Lasinio,  209. 

Lateran,  122. 

Law,  144,  145,  211,  212. 

Le  Brun  Collection,  153. 

"Leda,"  Museo  Correr,  Venice,  236. 

Leicester  Collection,  246. 

Lensi,  185,  206. 

Leo  X,  Pope,  175,  256,  258;  commis- 
sions decorations  at  Poggio,  28, 
174;  elevation  of,  7,  9,  13,  268, 
269 ;  his  death,  29 ;  his  entry  into 
Florence,  11,  12,  13,  14,  16,  134. 

Leonardo  da  Vinci,  90;  "Battle  of 
Anghiari,"  53,  131,  132,  269; 
Bronzino  copies  a  "Madonna" 
of,  53;  cartoon  of  "Battle  of 
Anghiari"  studied  by  Pontormo, 
53;  copies  of  his  "Leda,"  209; 
drawings  compared  with  Pon- 
tormo's,  33;  influence  on  Pon- 
tormo, 6,  18,  20,  23,  26,  53,  128, 
131,  146,  168,  268-269;  "Ma- 
donna and  St.  Anne,"  Louvre, 
168;  "Mona  Lisa,"  87;  Pon- 
tormo's  drawings  compared  with 
those  of,  94;  Pontormo 's  por- 
traits compared  with  those  of, 
85;  portrait-drawing  in  Uffizi, 
once  ascribed  to,  86;  "St.  Je- 
rome," 53;  sketches  in  London, 
Venice,  and  Windsor,  132 ;  sketch 
f or  a  "  Leda, "  209 ;  study  for  the 


336 


INDEX 


"Leda,"  209;  visits  to  Florence, 
267,  268. 

Leslie  Collection,  247. 

Libraries.    See  Biblioteca. 

Lichtenstein  Collection,  209. 

"Life  of  Joseph,"  Andrea  del  Sarto, 
154. 

— ,  Bacchiacca,  159. 

— ,  Pontormo.  See  National  Gallery ; 
Panshanger;  Quirinal. 

Ligozzi,  Jacopo,  223. 

Liphart,  244. 

Litta,  147,  152,  173. 

Loan  Exhibitions,  81,  158,  163,  164, 
166,  211,  214,  224,  232,  243,  244, 
247,  248. 

Lochis.    See  Pinacoteca  Lochis. 

Loeser  Collection,  202. 

Lomazzo,  209,  238. 

London.  See  Cook  Collection;  Mond 
Collection ;  National  Gallery ; 
Northbrook  Collection ;  Plymouth 
Collection. 

Lorenzo  di  Credi,  125. 

Lost  Pictures,  Catalogue  of,  253-264. 

Lothian  Collection,  233. 

Louis  XIV,  Collection  of,  83. 

Louvre,  copy  of  "Joseph  in  Egypt," 
159;  copy  of  "Visitation,"  An- 
nunziata,  119,  226;  drawing  by 
Andrea,  16;  drawing  by  Michel- 
angelo, 134;  drawings  by  Pon- 
tormo, 69;  "Madonna  and 
Saints,"  51-53,  54,  55,  167-169; 
date  of  same,  51-52,  168;  draw- 
ing for  same,  52,  168-169;  "Mar- 
riage of  St.  Catherine,"  Fra 
Bartolommeo,  118;  "Portrait  of 
a  Man,"  Zacchia,  98;  "Portrait 
of  Precious-Stone  Engraver,"  83, 
105,  169-170;  Rubens'  drawing 
of  "Battle  of  Anghiari,"  132. 

Lb'wy.    See  Photographs. 


Lucarini,  146. 

Lucca,  56;  "Portrait  of  a  Youth"  in, 

57,  84,  159-160. 
"Lucretia,"  Borghese,  85,  179;  date 

of,  179. 
Lucretia,    mentioned   in   Pontormo 's 

diary,  300. 
Lyons,  Musee,  215. 

M 

Mclhlenny  Collection,  227. 

Macquoid,  243. 

"Madonna":  drawing  for  a,  20;  for 
funeral  banners  of  Ginori,  20, 
25,  255;  (lost),  found  in  Pon- 
tormo's  house  after  his  death, 
262;  (lost),  given  by  Cosimo  I 
to  a  Spaniard,  261;  (lost),  given 
to  Rossino,  260;  (lost),  men- 
tioned in  Inventory  of  Guarda- 
roba,  264;  (lost),  once  owned 
by  Alessandro  d'Ottaviano  de' 
Medici,  260;  (lost),  once  owned 
by  Carlo  Panciatichi,  264;  (lost), 
painted  for  Alessandro  Neroni, 
256;  (lost),  painted  for  Capponi, 

128,  257;     (lost),    painted    for 
certain  Spaniards,  257. 

"Madonna  and  Little  St.  John," 
Corsini  Gallery,  No.  141,  Flor- 
ence, 52,  129. 

— ,  Corsini  Gallery,  No.  185,  Florence, 

129,  130. 

— ,  Farinola  Collection,  20,  128,  146. 

— ,  Uffizi,  53,  145-146 ;  date  of,  146. 

"Madonna  and  Saints,"  Citta  di  Cas- 
tello,  95. 

— ,  Louvre,  52,  53,  54,  55,  167-169; 
date  of,  51,  53,  168 ;  drawing  for, 
52,  168;  meaning  of  medallion 
in,  51,  168 ;  mentioned  by  Vasari, 
51,  168,  169. 


337 


INDEX 


"Madonna  and  Saints,"  San  Luca 
Chapel,  Annunziata,  6,  7,  8,  12, 
15,  117;  date  of,  117;  drawings 
for,  8,  117;  "God  the  Father," 
once  part  of,  254;  mentioned  by 
Vasari,  7,  117. 

"Madonna  Enthroned,"  Uffizi,  20, 
139;  date  of,  20,  129;  drawings 
for,  20,  139. 

Madrid,  Prado,  "Holy  Family,"  as- 
cribed to  Pontormo,  215-216; 
"Madonna,"  ascribed  to  Pon- 
tormo, 216. 

"Magdalen,"  drawing  for  a,  50. 

Mailand  Collection,  153. 

Malespina,  Giulia,  171,  281. 

— ,  Ricciarda,  171. 

— ,  Taddea,  64,  65,  171,  280-281. 

Mancciucca  Collection,  283. 

Manchester,  163,  211,  222. 

Manni,  263. 

Manuscripts  containing  miniatures 
of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio,  148. 

Manutius,  175. 

Marcantonio  Raimondi,  38,  61. 

Marcellus  II,  Pope.  See  "Portrait 
of  Spannocchi  Cervini." 

Marchese,  268. 

Marchese  del  Vasto.    See  Davolo. 

Mareillac,  Guglielmo  da,  121. 

Maria  Maddalena,  Archduchess,  19, 
126. 

Maria,  mentioned  in  Pontormo 's 
diary,  94,  300. 

Mariette,  127,  128. 

Marignolle,  mentioned  in  Pontormo 's 
diary,  303. 

"Marriage  of  St.  Catherine,"  Dres- 
den, 139. 

Martini,  Luca,  mentioned  in  Pon- 
tormo's  diary,  93,  297,  300,  304. 

"Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice,"  Pitti, 
53,  54,  55,  56,  72,  131-132,  208; 


copy  in  Jarves  Collection,  132, 
221;  date  of,  54,  132;  drawing 
for,  132;  drawing  for  a  variant 
of,  54,  140;  influenced  by  Leon- 
ardo, 53,  269;  influenced  by 
Michelangelo,  53,  55;  mentioned 
by  Vasari,  54,  131;  painted  for 
the  women  of  the  Innocents, 
131;  variant  in  the  Uffizi,  131. 

— ,  Uffizi,  54,  55,  132,  139-140,  141; 
mentioned  by  Vasari,  54,  140; 
painted  for  Carlo  Neroni,  140, 
141,  259;  variant  in  the  Pitti, 
54-55,  140. 

"Martyrdom  of  San  Lorenzo,"  lost 
drawing  for,  263. 

"Martyrdom  of  the  Theban  Legion." 
See  Martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice. 

Masaccio,  77,  270. 

Mason  Perkins,  199,  223. 

Mechel,  237. 

Medals  of  Alessandro  de '  Medici,  172, 
173. 

—  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio,  147,  148,  149. 

Medici,  29,  37,  56,  137,  162,  214; 
account-books  of,  78;  chapel  in 
San  Lorenzo,  78. 

— ,  Alessandro  de',  51,  52,  58,  64,  65, 
66,  172,  173,  258,  262,  280-282; 
portraits  of,  64,  65,  68,  82,  85,  96, 
170-173,  203,  258,  260,  280-282. 

— ,  Alessandro  d'Ottaviano  de',  150, 
260,  261. 

— ,  Cosimo  I  de',  13,  52,  58,  66,  67, 
74,  146,  147,  170,  220,  255,  261, 
280;  Bronzino's  portrait  of,  96; 
Bronzino's  portrait  of  the  chil- 
dren of,  96;  fosters  tapestry 
weaving  in  Florence,  70,  71; 
Jarves  copy  of  Pontormo 's  por- 
trait of,  147;  letter  to  Bronzino, 
91;  mentioned  in  Pontormo 's 
diary,  93,  297,  306;  orders  San 


338 


INDEX 


Lorenzo  frescoes,  78 ;  Pontormo  's  , 
portraits  of,  146. 

Medici,   Cosimo  il  Vecchio  de',   147,  ] 
149,  205-206,  260 ;  cameo-portrait  : 
of,    150;    Colworth   portrait   of, 
243;    medals    of,    147-148,    149; 
miniatures  of,   149 ;  Pontormo 's 
portrait  of,  25,  82,  83,  147-152; 
portrait-relief  by  Del  Tadda  of, 
150;  portraits  of,  149-151,  152; 
terra-cotta  portrait-relief  of,  150. 

—,  Ferdinando  I  de',  64,  170. 

— ,  Francesco  de',  157,  163,  233,  280. 

— ,  Giuliano  de',  7,  13,  159,  253. 

— ,  Giulio  d'Alessandro  de',  170,  171, 
281. 

— ,  Giulio  de'  (Clement  VII),  28,  58, 
61,  64,  65,  171,  174. 

— ,  Ippolito  de',  51,  52,  204;  Bron- 
zino's  "Guidobaldo  della  Ro- 
vere"  confused  with  Pontormo 's 
portrait  of,  203 ;  lost  portrait  of, 
247,  258;  Titian's  portrait  of, 
204. 

— ,  Leopoldo  de',  295. 

— ,  Lorenzino  de',  13,  22,  28,  148,  150, 
253. 

— ;0ttaviano  de',  28,  58,  145,  171, 
175,  261. 

— ,  Pierode',  149. 

— ,  Tanay  de',  185. 

• — ,  Tommaso  de',  281. 

Medici,  Uld.,  129,  203. 

Medici  e  Speziali,  57,  284. 

Meini,  Vincenzo,  119. 

Mendoza,  Don  Diego  de,  145. 

Methuen  Collection,  81,  247. 

Meyer,  Heinrich,  148. 

Michelangelo  Buonarotti,  90,  210; 
''Battle  of  the  Cascina,"  18,  23, 
38,  246;  cartoon  for  lost  "Noli 
me  tangere,"  60,  62,  259;  car- 
toon for  "Venus  and  Cupid," 


62,  142 ;  drawings  by,  36,  60,  69, 
122,  123,  144,  153,  179,  270; 
"Entombment,"  213;  "Holy 
Family,"  72,  129;  influence  on: 
Bronzino,  97;  Florentine  School, 
37,  94;  Pontormo,  12,  18,  26,  31, 
32,  35,  36,  37,  38,  42,  52,  53-54, 
55,  59,  60,  61,  62,  68,  69,  70,  72, 
73,  74,  77,  78,  88,  131;  "Leda," 
236;  Naldini's  drawings  con- 
fused with  those  of,  97 ;  personal 
contact  with  Pontormo,  60,  142; 
' '  Phgethon, "  60 ;  Pontormo 's 
drawings  compared  with  those 
of,  94 ;  praises  ' '  Faith  and  Char- 
ity," 116;  San  Lorenzo  Tombs, 
60,  61,  68 ;  selects  Pontormo  to 
paint  "Noli  me  tangere,"  259- 
260;  selects  Pontormo  to  paint 
"Venus  and  Cupid,"  62;  Sixtine 
ceiling,  33,  35,  36,  42,  69;  "Tity- 
rus,"  60;  "Venus  and  Cupid," 
once  ascribed  to,  211. 

Michelozzo,  148. 

Migliore,  Filippo  del,  48,  116,  117, 
119,  122,  126,  128,  258,  264. 

Milan.     See  Trivulzio  Collection. 

Milanesi,  104,  143,  144,  184,  261; 
ascribes  "Assumption,"  Annun- 
ziata,  to  Pontormo,  119,  200; 
believes  Capponi  ' '  Deposition ' ' 
has  been  cleaned,  121;  confuses 
Granacci's  "Life  of  Joseph" 
with  Pontormo 's,  163;  copies  of 
"Venus  and  Cupid"  mentioned 
by,  144;  identifies  Chiazzella 
with  Sguazzella,  80;  mentions 
stained  glass  window,  Capponi 
Chapel,  121;  on  Borgherini 
panels,  157,  163;  on  Bronzino 's 
copy  of  a  "Madonna"  by  Leon- 
ardo, 53;  on  Carro  della  Zecca, 
14,  138;  on  contest  for  Pon- 


339 


INDEX 


tormo's  property,  80;  on  date  of 
"Supper  at  Emmaus,"  41;  on 
' '  Holy  Family, ' '  Visdomini,  126 ; 
on  inscription  in  San  Lorenzo, 
4;  on  lost  ' '  Sant '  Agostino, " 
256 ;  on  ' '  Madonna  and  Saints, ' ' 
Louvre,  51,  168;  on  "Pieta," 
Academy,  199;  on  Pontormo's 
journey  to  Rome,  69;  on  "Por- 
trait of  Guidiccioni, "  259;  on 
supposed  portrait  of  Ippolito,  in 
Pitti,  204;  on  "Venus  and 
Cupid,"  63,  145;  on  "Visita- 
tion," Annunziata,  16. 

Milizia,  II,  264. 

Mini,  Antonio,  69. 

Mireur,  145,  241,  245,  246,  248. 

Moise,  F.,  151,  280. 

Molini,  152,  208,  209. 

Monaco,  218. 

"Mona  Lisa,"  Pontormo's  portraits 
compared  with,  87. 

Monatshefte  fur  Kunstwissenschaft, 
134,  201,  218. 

Mond  Collection,  156. 

Montanti  Chapel,  Annunziata,  81. 

Montault,  Barbier  de,  231. 

Monte  Cimino,  65. 

Monte  di  Pieta,  141;  mentioned  in 
Pontormo's  diary,  302. 

Monte  Imperiale,  villa  of,  59. 

Montelupo,  3. 

— ,  Baccio  da,  14,  254. 

Montemurlo,  battle  of,  66,  98,  261. 

Monte  Oliveto,  mentioned  in  Pon- 
tormo's diary,  93,  300. 

Monte  Pilli,  1,  2,  271. 

Montorsoli,  79. 

Montpellier,  Musee,  216-217. 

Monzies,  153. 

Morelli,  102,  122,  128,  134,  179,  180, 
181,  183,  206,  216,  218 ;  ascribes : 
"Holy  Family,"  Vienna,  to 


Bugiardini,  236;  "Lucretia," 
Borghese,  to  Bronzino,  179;  at- 
tributes to  Pontormo:  Munich 
"Madonna  and  Child,"  217; 
"Portrait  of  Cardinal  Span- 
nocchi  Cervini,"  86,  180;  "Por- 
trait of  Cesare  Borgia,"  231; 
"Portrait  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio," 
Palazzo  Vecchio,  205. 

—  Collection.    See  Bergamo. 
Moreni,  Domenico,  4,  74,  75,  79,  80, 

108,  113,  119,  134,  257,  262,  263, 
264,  287. 

Moriana,  family  of  the  della,  3,  273. 

Moro,  Antonio,  87,  196. 

Moscioni.    See  Photographs. 

"Moses  Receiving  the  Tables  of  the 
Law,"  75,  76,  263. 

Muller-Walde,  209. 

Munich,  112;  copy  of  a  lost  "Ma- 
donna" at,  217-218,  223. 

—  See  Rohrer  Collection. 

Miintz,  81,  132,  134,  141,  148,  149, 
151,  159,  169,  170,  181,  185,  208, 
209,  213. 

Murray,  C.  Fairfax,  214. 

Musee  Calvet,  Avignon,  194. 

Museo  Nazionale.    See  Bargello. 

Museum  Mazzuchelli,  148. 

Muziano,  201. 

N 

"Nailing  to  Cross,"  projected  at 
Certosa,  43,  113. 

Naldini,  Battista :  draughtsmanship, 
23,  97;  drawings  confused  with 
Andrea's,  97;  with  Michelan- 
gelo's, 97;  with  Pontormo's,  97; 
helps  Vasari,  97;  imitates  Pon- 
tormo, 97,  98;  life  with  Pon- 
tormo, 92;  "Madonna,"  in  Bos- 
ton, 195;  mentioned  in  Pontor- 


340 


INDEX 


mo's  diary,  298,  299,  300,  301, 
303 ;  pupil  of  Pontormo,  97. 

Naples,  Museo  Nazionale,  "A  Cardi- 
nal," 218;  copies  of  ''Venus  and 
Cupid,"  143,  144,  219,  220; 
copy  of  Raphael's  "Portrait  of 
Leo  X,"  261;  "Madonna  and 
Angels,"  219;  "Portrait  of  a 
Woman,"  219;  "Portrait  of 
Two  Architects,"  219;  "Tibal- 
deo,"  237. 

Napoleon,  168. 

Nardi,  Jacopo,  7,  13,  66,  253. 

National  Gallery,  London,  83,  213- 
214;  Bacchiacca's  "Life  of  Jo- 
seph," 159;  "Joseph  in  Egypt," 
21,  156-159;  Michelangelo's  "En- 
tombment," 213;  "Portrait  of 
a  Boy,"  213;  "Portrait  of  a 
Cardinal,"  214;  "Portrait  of  a 
Man,  "214. 

"Nativity"  (lost),  painted  for  Cer- 
tosa,  41,  113,  257. 

Necrologia  della  Grascia,  3. 

Neoustroieff,  201. 

Nerli,  28,  45. 

Neroni,  Alessandro,  256. 

— ,  Carlo,  54,  131,  259. 

Nesius,  lohann,  149. 

Nesselrode  Collection,  172. 

New  Haven.     See  Jarves  Collection. 

New  Jersey.  See  Platt  Collection, 
Englewood. 

New  York,  151,  222,  223,  231. 

Niccolini  Chapel,  San  Proculo,  Flor- 
ence, 207. 

Niceolo  da  Magna.    See  Schomberg. 

Nichols  Collection,  247. 

Nicolaus  Florentinus,  148,  149. 

Nicolle,  228. 

"Noli  me  tangere"  (lost),  for  Ales- 
sandro Vitelli,  62,  260. 

—  (lost)  for  Davolo,  56,  60,  259-260; 


copies  of,  260;  date  of,  260; 
documents  for,  260;  Michel- 
angelo's cartoon  for,  62,  259. 

—  See  Michelangelo. 

Notai  Nobili,  de,  3. 

Northbrook  Collection,  196,  211,  214- 
215. 

Northumberland  Collection,  193,  247. 

"Nudes  Playing  at  Calcio, "  pro- 
jected for  Poggio,  61,  62,  173, 
176. 

Nuremberg,  112. 

O 

Ober  St.  Veit,  near  Vienna,  53,  168. 
Oldenburg,  86,  161-162,  235. 
On  Certain  Drawings.    See  Clapp. 
Onken.    See  Photographs. 
Oppler  Collection,  209. 
Orlandini  Collection,  149. 
Orleans,  Collection  d',  172,  209. 
Osservanti,  Borgo  San  Sepolcro,  21, 

105,  106. 
Ottaviano,  mentioned  in  Pontormo 's 

diary,  94,  296,  300,  301,  302,  303, 

304. 

Ovid,  29,  175. 

Oxford,  Christ  Church,  121. 
— ,  University  Galleries,  132. 
— ,  Watney  Collection,  223. 


Paggi,  151. 

Paghanelli,  Antonio,  47,  120. 

— ,  Bernardo,  47,  120. 

Pagni,  Cristiano,  71,  184. 

Pagolo,  il  Rosso,  mentioned  in  Pon- 

tormo's  diary,  300. 
Palazzo  Albani,  Urbino,  205. 

—  Barberini,  Rome,  144,  182-183. 

—  Bianco,  Genoa,  21,  25,  83,  96,  154- 

155. 

—  Capponi  delle  Rovinate,  121. 


341 


INDEX 


Palazzo  Capponi,  Farinola  Collection, 
128. 

—  Corsini,    Florence,    129-130,    202- 

203,  246. 

—  Corsini,  Rome,  17,  32,  33,  42,  43, 

48,  85,  112,  121,  127,  132,  176, 
182,  214,  255. 

—  Davanzati,  Florence,  57,  130,  242. 

—  del  Podesta,  Florence,  14. 

—  del  Quirinale.    See  Quirinal. 

—  Farnese,  Rome,  219,  220. 

—  Giraud-Torlonia,  Rome,  231-232. 

—  Pazzi,  Florence,  65,  171. 

—  Pitti,  22,  23,  25,  53,  59,  81,  95,  97, 

132-136,  180,  207;  "Adoration 
of  the  Magi,"  23-24,  135-136; 
Andrea's  ' '  Madonna  and 
Saints,"  255;  "Martyrdom  of 
St.  Maurice,"  53,  54,  55,  56,  72, 
131-132,  208;  "Portrait  of  a 
Man,"  85,  133-134;  "Portrait  of 
Cosimo  I,"  ascribed  to  Bron- 
zino,  221;  "Portrait  of  Guido- 
baldo  della  Rovere,"  203-205, 
258;  Rosso 's  altar-piece,  94;  "St. 
Anthony,"  132-133;  "The  Three 
Fates,"  Rosso,  203;  "Tobias  and 
Angel,"  232. 

—  Ricasoli,  Florence,  166. 

—  Rospigliosi,  Rome,  233. 

—  Spada,  Rome,  232-233. 

—  Strozzi,  Florence,  202. 

—  Torrigiani,  Florence,  258. 

—  Vecchio,  Florence,  95,  232 ;  Camera 

di  Cosimo  il  Vecchio,  151;  Cap- 
pella  della  Signoria,  124,  125; 
Carro  della  Zecca,  14,  136-139; 
Chapel  of  Eleonora,  97;  Chapel 
of  Leo  X,  151,  205-206,  221; 
"Portrait  of  Cosimo  I,"  206; 
' '  Portrait  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio, ' ' 
205-206;  Quartiere  di  Leone  X, 
261;  Sala  de'  Dugento,  70,  71, 


184;  Sala  di  Clemente  VII,  172; 
Sala  di  Cosimo  I,  146;  Salotto 
della  Duchessa,  142 ;  Ufficio  delle 
BeUe  Arti,  41,  108,  109,  112, 115, 
136-139,  206;  Vasari's  frescoes, 
97,  133,  261. 

Palermo,  Museo  Nazionale,  223. 

Palla,  Giovambattista  della,  22,  55- 
56,  163,  258,  259. 

"Pallas  Tuning  Her  Instrument," 
14. 

Panciatichi,  Bartolomeo,  257;  Bron- 
zino's  portrait  of,  85. 

— ,  Carlo,  257. 

Panshanger,  Collection  of  Lady  Des- 
borough,  21,  24,  223-224;  "Baker 
Led  out  to  Execution,"  23,  164- 
165;  "Fattore  di  San  Marco," 
166;  "Joseph  Discovering  Him- 
self to  His  Brethren,"  23,  162- 
164;  "Joseph  Sold  to  Potiphar," 
23,  119,  165-166;  "Portrait  of  a 
Lady,"  224,  229;  "Portrait  of  a 
Youth,"  223,  224. 

Paolino  da  Pistoia,  Fra,  268. 

Paris.  See  Jacquemart-Andre  Col- 
lection; Louvre. 

Parma,  Palazzo  del  Giardino,  219, 
220. 

Parsons,  244. 

Pasquale  di  Zenobi,  4. 

Passavant,  81,  181,  217. 

Passerini,  51,  169,  204. 

Pastermo,  69,  259,  283. 

Pelagi,  G.,  254. 

Perazzi.    See  Photographs. 

Perfetti,  Antonio,  152. 

Perkins.    See  Mason  Perkins. 

Perugino,  210,  238. 

Pesaro,  59. 

Petit,  Georges,  248. 

Petrarca,  mentioned  in  Pontormo's 
diary,  304. 


342 


INDEX 


Petrarch,  1,  142. 

Philadelphia.  See  Johnson  Collec- 
tion ;  Mclhlenny  Collection ; 
Wanamaker  Collection;  "Widener 
Collection. 

Phillips,  Sir  Claude,  23,  164,  165. 

Philpots.     See  Photographs. 

Photographs.  Alinari,  95,  107,  115, 
116,  119,  122,  127,  128,  130,  132, 
133,  134,  136,  145,  146,  147,  150, 
151,  152,  160,  172,  176,  177,  181, 
200,  201,  202,  203,  205,  206,  207, 
210,  228,  236,  237,  261,  263. 

—  Anderson,  152,  161,  181,  219,  229, 

231,  232,  233,  255. 

—  Braun,  119,  127,  132,  136,  145, 153, 

166,  168,  169,  170,  181,  200,  205, 
206,  208,  213,  216,  224,  226,  229, 
237,  263. 

—  Brogi,  129,  132,  133,  134,  136,  141, 

145,  152,  155,  179,  201,  205,  206, 
208,  209,  219,  220,  235,  237,  238. 

—  Bruckmann,    153,    188,    198,    213, 

218,  236. 

—  Bulloz,  167,  226. 

—  Chappel  Studio,  227. 

—  Clapp,  104,  106,  107,  108,  109,  110, 
-,       112,  113,  114,  117,  119,  121,  122, 

123,  127,  132,  136,  137,  138,  139, 
140,  141,  155,  164,  166,  168,  176, 
177,  178,  179,  183,  187,  206,  208, 
255,  258,  259,  262,  263. 

—  Ehrich  Galleries,  222. 

—  Giraudon,  119. 

—  Gray,  213,  224. 

—  Hanfstaengl,   115,   117,    159,   196, 

197. 

—  Hoefle,  234. 

—  Houghton,  106,  113,  119,  121,  123, 

127,  136,  165,  176,  177,  178,  259, 
263. 

—  Istituto  d'Arti  Grafiche,  102. 

—  Kensington,  123. 


—  Lowy,  237. 

—  Moscioni,  179,  182,  230,  231. 

—  Onken,  162. 

—  Perazzi,  124,  146,  147,  178,  179. 

—  Philpots,  107. 

—  Pini,  122,  127,  168,  176,  178,  262, 

263. 

—  Randall,  221,  222. 

—  Reali,  81,  107,  115,  193,  223. 

—  Taramelli,  102. 

—  University  Prints,  152. 
Piazza  dell' Olio,  Florence,  7. 
Pichi,  Giovamnaria,  21,  44,  95,  105, 

225. 

Pieraccini,  115,  200. 
Pier  di  Cosimo,  6,  14,  22,  26,  83,  232, 

267,  269. 

Pierfrancesco  di  Jacopo,  66,  232,  262. 
Pierin  del  Vaga,  181. 
Piero,     mentioned     in     Pontormo's 

diary,  93,  297,  298,  300,  301,  302, 

303,  304. 

Pieroni,  Alessandro,  150. 
"Pieta,"     Academy,     Florence,     as- 
cribed to  Pontormo,  199-200. 
— ,  Certosa,  Florence,  111-112 ;   date 

of,  112;  drawings  for,  42,  112; 

mentioned  by  Vasari,  111. 
— ,  drawing  for  a  lost,  16,  29. 

—  for  merchants  of  Ragusa    (lost), 

256. 

—  for  the  monks  of  San  Gallo  (lost), 

16-17,  256. 

Pietro,  Filippo  di,  177.' 
Pinacoteca  Lochis,  194. 
Pinadori,  family  of  the,  55,  106. 
Pini.    See  Photographs. 
Piombo,  Sebastiano  del,  81,  145,  153, 

201,  234. 
Pippo  Spano,  frescoes  of  the  life  of, 

66. 

Pisa,  56,  66,  93. 
Pitti,  Andrea,  55. 


343 


INDEX 


Pitti,  Buonaccorso,  168. 

—  See  Palazzo  Pitti. 
Platt  Collection,  198-199. 
Plymouth,  Collection  of  the  Earl  of, 

215. 

Poccetti,  Bernardino,  151. 
Poggiali,  Gaetano,  295. 
Poggio  a  Cajano,  frescoes  projected 

for,  34,  58-59,  61,  62,  64,  89,  175- 

176,  237. 

— ,  lunette  in  the  villa  of,  27,  28-36, 
37,  38,  41,  45,  59,  61,  73,  94,  173- 

177,  228 ;  date  of,  176 ;  drawings 
for,  30-36,  43,  176 ;  mentioned  by 
Vasari,  28,  29,  177. 

Polydorus,  181. 

"Pomona"  (lost),  for  Filippo  del 
Migliore,  48,  258;  possible  draw- 
ing for,  48,  258. 

"Pomona  and  Vertumnus."  See 
Poggio  a  Cajano  (lunette). 

Ponte  alia  Carraia,  21. 

—  Santa  Trinita,  21. 
Ponte,  Jacopo  da,  170. 
Pontormo,    Jacopo    da:    "Adoration 

of  the  Magi,"  72,  81,  135-136, 
185 ;  age,  4,  80 ;  "  Annunciation, ' ' 
Capponi  Chapel,  46,  122;  ap- 
prenticeship, 5,  6,  8,  267-270; 
"Arms  of  Leo  X,"  10,  11; 
"Arms  of  the  Lanfredini,"  21, 
254-255 ;  "Baker  Led  out  to  Exe- 
cution," 23,  164-165;  birth,  4; 
' '  Birth-plate, ' '  Palazzo  Davan- 
zati,  130;  "Birth-plate,"  Uffizi, 
140-141;  Carro  della  Zecca,  14, 
136-139 ;  Certosa  frescoes,  39,  41, 
44,  46,  98,  107-114;  character, 
6,  38,  89,  91;  childhood,  4,  6; 
contribution  to  portraiture,  87; 
death,  4,  79;  decorations  of  the 
Capponi  Chapel,  46,  47,  48,  49, 
120-123;  decorative  gift,  26; 


' '  Deposition, ' '   Capponi   Chapel, 

45,  72,  120-122;  designs  for  tap- 
estries,   71,    183-187;   diary,   40, 
91,  92,  268,  295-318;  dislike  of 
collaborators,  44,   67;   drawings, 
23,  33,  34,  61,  63,  81,  85,  97,  169, 
295 ;  enrolled  in  the  Company  of 
San  Luca,  57,  279;  enrolled  in 
the  Medici  e  Speziali,  57,  279; 
"Evangelists,"    Santa    Felicita, 

46,  122-123;  "Faith  and  Char- 
ity," Annunziata,  10,  116,  269; 
family,    1-2,    267;    "Fattore    di 
San    Marco,"     166;    food,     93; 
forerunner  of  the  Seicento,  50; 
friends,  93;  funeral,  79;  German 
manner,     39,     104;     "God    the 
Father,"   Santa  Maria  Novella, 
124,  270;  "Holy  Family,"  San 
Michele  Visdomini,  17,  18-20,  22, 
73,    97,    125-128;    "Hospital    of 
San  Matteo,"  6,  115;  house,  57, 
68,   90;   illnesses,    93;   imitators 
of,  94,  95 ;  influence :  on  Andrea, 
95;  on  Andrea  Boscoli,   98;  on 
art,   94;  on  Bacchiaeca,   95;  on 
Bronzino,  96,  97;  on  Bugiardini, 
95 ;  on  Cigoli,  98 ;  on  Empoli,  98 ; 
on  Granacci,  95;  on  Naldini,  97- 
98;   on   portraiture,   87,   88;   on 
Rosso,  94;  on  Stradano,  98;  on 
Vasari,  95,  205;  on  Zacchia,  98; 
influenced :  by  Albertinelli,  8,  11, 
12,  15,  26,  268 ;  by  Andrea,  8,  11, 
15,   17,   18,   19,   20,  22,   23,   24, 
26,  37,  77,  94-95,   118,  169;  by 
Diirer,  38,  39,  40,  41,  42,  43,  45, 
46,  47,  52,  55,  106,  107,  109,  110, 
111,  113,  114,  129,  168,  258;  by 
Fra   Bartolommeo,    8,    53,    168; 
by  Leonardo,  18,  19,  20,  23,  26, 
53,  128,  168,  268-269 ;  by  Michel- 
angelo, 12,  18,  26,  31,  32,  35,  36, 


344 


INDEX 


37,  38,  42,  52,  53-54,  55,  59,  60, 
61,  62,  68,  69,  70,  72,  73,  74,  77, 
78,  131;  by  Pier  di  Cosimo,  26, 
83;  "Joseph  Discovering  Him- 
self to  His  Brethren,"  23,  24, 
162-164;  "Joseph  in  Egypt,"  21, 
22,  166-169;  "Joseph  Sold  to 
Potiphar,"  23,  165-166;  journey 
to  Rome,  69,  181;  letter  to 
Varchi,  89,  285-286;  lost  "An- 
nunciation," 267;  lost  frescoes 
at  Careggi,  65-66,  67,  263;  lost 
frescoes  at  Castello,  67-68,  262- 
263;  lost  frescoes  in  San  Lo- 
renzo, 70,  71,  74,  75,  76,  77,  78,  79, 
86,  90,  94,  95,  263-264,  295,  296, 
297,  298,  299,  300,  301,  302,  303, 
304,  306;  lost  "God  the  Father," 
San  Ruffillo,  117;  lost  "God  the 
Father,"  Santa  Felicita,  46,  123; 
lost  "Nativity,"  113;  lost  "Noli 
me  tangere,"  56,  60,  259-260; 
lost  "predella"  for  "San  Gallo 
Annunciation,"  270;  lost  "Rais- 
ing of  Lazarus,"  55,  56,  258-259; 
"Lucretia,"  Borghese,  85,  179; 
"Madonna  and  Saints,"  Louvre, 
51,  53,  55,  167-169;  "Madonna 
and  Saints,"  San  Luca,  Annun- 
ziata,  117,  268,  270;  "Madonna 
Enthroned,"  Uffizi,  20,  139; 
"Madonna,"  Farinola  Collection, 
20,  128,  146;  "Madonna,"  Pal- 
azzo Corsini,  Florence,  129-130, 
145-146;  manner  of  life,  57,  73, 
90,  92,  93,  94;  "Martyrdom  of 
St.  Maurice,"  53,  55,  131-132, 
139-140,  269  ;  opinions  on  art,  37, 
43,  59,  77,  89,  90,  285-286;  por- 
traits, 25,  41,  44,  57,  64,  68,  69, 
80-81,  82-88,  94,  96,  101,  102, 
103,  104-105,  107,  113,  133-134, 
141,  146-155,  159-162,  167,  169- 


173,  180-181,  182,  188-189,  198, 
205,  229-230;  property,  80; 
pupils,  94-95,  225;  "Pygmalion 
and  Galatea,"  56,  182-183;  re- 
lations: with  Andrea,  269;  with 
Certosa,  39,  40,  44 ;  with  Hospital 
of  Innocents,  72;  with  Michel- 
angelo, 259-260;  with  Naldini, 
92;  with  Vasari,  95,  171;  "St. 
Anthony,"  Pitti,  132-133;  "St. 
John  Evangelist,"  Pontormo,  24, 
178-179;  "St.  Michael,"  Pon- 
tormo, 24,  177-178;  "St.  Quen- 
tin,"  22,  44,  105,  106,  109; 
"Santa  Veronica,"  6,  12,  123- 
125,  270;  sonnets  on  his  death, 
80,  287-293;  studies  "Battle  of 
the  Cascina,"  18,  23;  studies 
Masaccio,  270;  studies  Pier  di 
Cosimo,  269 ;  studies  Sixtine  ceil- 
ing, 35-36;  "Supper  at  Em- 
maus,"  41,  98,  114-115;  tribute 
to  Michelangelo,  286;  under- 
standing of  Michelangelo's  art, 
34,  62,  73;  "Venus  and  Cupid," 
142-145,  286;  "Visitation,"  An- 
nunziata,  15-16,  117-119;  "Visi- 
tation," Carmignano,  55,  106- 
107;  way-side  shrine,  Boldrone, 
45,  103-104 ;  work  at  Poggio,  28, 
31,  32,  33,  35,  36,  37,  38,  41,  45, 
58,  173-177;  work  on  cars  of 
Broncone,  13,  253-254;  work  on 
cars  of  Diamante,  13,  253 ;  works 
found  in  his  house  at  his  death, 
80. 

Pontormo,  memorial  tablet  to,  80. 

— ,  portraits  of,  81,  247,  248. 

— ,  village  of,  3,  6,  11,  177. 

Pope's  Chapel.  See  Santa  Maria 
Novella. 

Porcacchi,  Tommaso,  290. 

Porta  a  Faenza,  Florence,  10,  116. 


345 


INDEX 


Porta,  Fra  Bartolommeo  della,  6,  8, 

53,  98,  118,  168,  268. 
Porta  Prato,  Florence,  302. 

—  Romana,  Florence,  107. 

—  San  Frediano,  Florence,  51,  168. 

—  San  Gallo,  Florence,  16,  256. 
Portrait-drawings,  25-26,  49,  82,  84, 

85,  86,  96,  154. 

Portraits :  of  a  boy,  National  Gallery, 
ascribed  to  Pontormo,  213;  of 
a  boy,  Trivulzio  Collection,  84, 
160-161;  of  a  lady,  Jacquemart- 
Andre  Collection,  87,  101,  167; 
of  a  lady,  Oldenburg,  86,  161- 
162;  of  a  lady,  Tamowski  Col- 
lection, ascribed  to  Pontormo, 
198;  of  a  lady,  Turin,  ascribed 
to  Pontormo,  235;  of  a  lay 
brother  (lost),  113,  257;  of 
Alessandro  de'  Medici,  64,  65, 
68,  82,  85,  96,  170-173,  203,  258, 
260,  280-282;  of  a  man,  Palazzo 
Corsini,  Rome,  85,  182;  of  a 
man,  Pitti,  133-134;  of  a  man, 
Platt  Collection,  ascribed  to 
Pontormo,  199;  of  a  man,  Uffizi, 
57,  84,  141,  259;  of  Amerigo 
Antinori  (lost),  64,  260;  of  an 
engraver  of  precious  stones, 
Louvre,  82,  105,  169-170;  of 
Anna  Strozzi,  by  Bronzino,  96; 
of  an  old  lady,  Vienna,  87,  107, 
188;  of  Ardinghelli  (lost),  258; 
of  a  woman,  Panshanger,  by 
Granacci,  229;  of  a  young 
woman,  Dirksen  Collection,  85, 
103;  of  a  young  woman,  Stadel 
Institute,  85,  103,  152-154;  of  a 
young  woman,  Widener  Collec- 
tion, 86,  101 ;  of  a  young  woman, 
Yerkes  Collection,  86,  96,  188- 
189;  of  a  youth,  Bergamo,  57, 
84,  102;  of  a  youth,  Bonn,  83, 


104-105 ;  of  a  youth,  Jacquemart- 
Andre  Collection,  ascribed  to 
Pontormo,  225-226;  of  a  youth, 
Lucca,  57,  84,  159-160;  of  a 
youth,  Palazzo  Bianco,  Genoa, 
21,  25,  83,  96,  154-155;  of  Bar- 
bara Cortegiana,  St.  Petersburg, 
ascribed  to  Pontormo,  224,  229; 
of  Bartolomeo  Compagni,  86, 
155;  of  Becuccio  Biccheraio's 
son-in-law  (lost),  25,  255;  of 
Capponi's  daughter  (lost),  50, 
257;  of  Cardinal  Spannocchi 
Cervini,  69,  86,  180-181;  of  Carlo 
Neroni  (lost),  259;  of  Cosimo  I, 
68,  180,  220-221;  of  Cosimo  il 
Vecchio,  21-22,  25,  82,  83,  147- 
152,  173,  205;  of  Francesco 
Guardi  (lost),  259;  of  Giulio  de' 
Medici  (lost),  261;  of  Gualte- 
retti  ascribed  to  Pontormo,  227; 
of  Guidiccioni  (lost),  259;  of 
Guidobaldo  della  Rovere,  by 
Bronzino,  203-205;  of  Ippolito 
de'  Medici  (lost),  258;  of  Lap- 
poli  (lost),  255;  of  Maria  Sal- 
viati  (lost),  68,  261;  of  the  Fat- 
tore  di  San  Marco,  Panshanger, 
166;  of  Vittoria  Colonna  as- 
cribed to  Pontormo,  201;  of 
Young  Cosimo  I,  146-147. 

Pourtales  Collection,  153. 

Poynter,  159,  213,  214. 

Pozzo,  Cassiano  del,  209. 

Prato  Ognissanti,  mentioned  in  Pon- 
tormo 's  diary,  303. 

' '  Presentation  in  the  Temple, ' '  Dijon, 
95. 

Priorista  di  Monaldi,  1,  2,  130,  271. 

Provinzial  Museum.    See  Bonn. 

Public  Guardians.    See  Pupilli. 

Pucci,  Antonio,  28. 

Pucci  family,  126. 


346 


INDEX 


Pucci,  Francesco,  19,  126. 

— ,  Giovanni  d' Antonio,  126. 

— ,  Lorenzo,  mentioned  in  Pontormo  's 

diary,  94,  303. 
Puligo,  Domenico,  166,  207,  215,  224, 

229. 

Pulzone,  Scipione,  214,  232. 
Pupilli,  6,  274. 
" Pygmalion   and  Galatea,"   Palazzo 

Barberini,  Rome,  56,  182-183. 

Q 

Quarto,  104. 

Quattrocento,  87. 

Quirinal,  Rome,  70,  72,  183-185,  186- 

187. 

R 

Raffaellino  del  Garbo,  95. 

Raffaello  da  Colle,  187. 

''Raising  of  Lazarus"  (lost),  55,  56, 
258-259;  date  of,  56,  259;  men- 
tioned by  Vasari,  55;  possible 
drawing  for,  56,  259. 

Randall.    See  Photographs. 

Raphael,  5,  61,  81,  86,  132,  180,  181, 
205,  209,  253,  261,  267. 

Rassegna  d' arte,  64,  98,  119,  173,  189, 
199,  218,  223,  237. 

Reali.    See  Photographs. 

Reber,  von,  218. 

Regia  Pinacoteca.    See  Turin. 

Registro  dei  Battezzati,  21. 

Reinach,  Salomon,  102,  181,  214,  234, 
244,  248. 

Reiset,  264. 

—  Collection,  81,  248. 

Renouvier,  217. 

Repertoire.    See  Reinach. 

Repertorium,  91,  128,  148,  159,  169, 
177,  236,  295. 

"Resurrection,"  drawings  for,  76, 
263. 


Revue  de  I' art  ancien  et  moderne, 
228. 

Rezzonico  Collection,  248. 

Riccardi  Collection,  153. 

Ricci,  Seymour  de,  51,  168,  169,  170, 
226. 

Richa,  8,  10,  15,  19,  51,  75,  79,  116, 
117,  119,  121,  122,  126,  128,  131, 
132,  168,  169,  199,  207,  256,  264. 

Richter,  J.  P.,  21,  126,  156,  158, 159, 
213. 

Rieffel,  234. 

Rigoni,  185. 

Rinaldis,  Aldo  de,  218,  219,  220,  261. 

Riposo.    See  Borghini  (Raffaello). 

Ris,  de,  215. 

"Risen  Christ,"  Certosa,  42,  112-113. 

Ristretto,  119,  122,  128. 

Rivista  d'arte,  64,  68,  107,  147,  166, 
171,  173,  176,  178,  179,  205,  206, 
224,  228,  229,  280. 

Rohrer  Collection,  218. 

Rome,  Pontormo 's  drawings  of  an- 
tiquities of,  69. 

—  See  Borghese  Gallery ;  Corsini  Gal- 
lery; Palazzo  Farnese;  Palazzo 
Giraud-Torlonia ;  Palazzo  Ros- 
pigliosi;  Palazzo  Spada;  Quiri- 
nal. 

Romena,  chapel  of  the  da,  Santa 
Maria  Maddalena  de'  Pazzi,  207. 

Roselli  family,  157. 

Rosenberg,  81. 

Rosini,  152,  264. 

Rospigliosi.    See  Palazzo  Rospigliosi. 

Rossellino,  25. 

Rossi,  Giovan  Gherardo  de',  158. 

Rossino,  260. 

Rosso,  9,  14,  94,  129,  139,  238,  253, 
270 ;  altar-piece  in  Pitti,  94,  154- 
155 ;  ' '  Assumption, ' '  Annun- 
ziata,  119,  200;  "Deposition," 
Volterra,  94,  238;  influenced  by 


347 


INDEX 


Pontormo,  94;  "Marriage  of  St. 
Catherine,"  San  Lorenzo,  Flor- 
ence, 94;  "The  Three  Fates," 
Pitti,  203. 

Host,  Giovanni,  71,  72,  184. 

Rothschild  Collection,  209. 

Rovere,  Portrait  of  Guidobaldo  della, 
59,  203,  205,  258. 

Royal  Academy,  Loan  Exhibitions, 
81,  243,  247,  248. 

Rubens,  132. 

Ruble  Collection,  209. 

Rudiger,  W.,  13. 

Rusconi,  181. 

Rustici,  Giovan  Francesco,  14,  69. 


"Sacrifice  of  Cain  and  Death  of 
Abel,"  drawing  of,  75,  263. 

St.  Anne,  convent  of,  51,  168. 

"St.  Anthony,"  Pitti,  132-133;  date 
of,  133. 

"St.  Bartholomew"  for  Ginori's 
funeral  banners,  25,  255. 

St.  Catherine  of  Siena,  convent  of, 
254. 

"St.  Jerome,"  drawing  of,  53. 

"St.  John,"  Carro  della  Zecca,  138. 

"St.  John  Evangelist,"  Pontormo,  24, 
178-179;  date  of,  179;  drawing 
for,  24,  178;  mentioned  by  Va- 
sari,  178. 

St.  Louis,  Museum,  87. 

"St.  Matthew,"  Carro  della  Zecca, 
137. 

"St.  Michael,"  Pontormo,  24,  177- 
178;  date  of,  178;  drawings  for, 
24-25,  178 ;  mentioned  by  Vasari, 
178. 

St.  Petersburg,  Hermitage,  "Santa 
Barbara,"  228-229;  "Holy  Fam- 
ily," 228. 


"St.  Quentin,"  Borgo  San  Sepolcro, 
21,  44,  105,  106,  109;  date  of, 
21,  106;  drawing  for,  44,  106; 
mentioned  by  Vasari,  105-106. 

"St.  Zenobius,"  Carro  della  Zecca, 
137. 

Sala  del  Papa,  53. 

Sale  X.,  145. 

Salviati,  Francesco,  75,  78,  144,  145, 
184-185,  213,  218;  cartoons  for 
tapestries,  70,  184;  "Portrait  of 
a  Boy,"  Poldi-Pezzoli,  237; 
"Portrait  of  a  Man,"  Colonna 
Gallery,  Rome,  237;  "Portrait 
of  a  Man,"  Corsini  Gallery, 
Florence,  237;  "Portrait  of  a 
Man,"  Platt  Collection,  199; 
"Portrait  of  a  Youth,"  Uffizi, 
237;  "Portrait  of  a  Youth," 
Vienna,  237;  "Portrait  of  Him- 
self," Uffizi,  237;  "Tibaldeo," 
Naples,  237. 

— ,  lost  Arms  of  Giovanni,  17,  256. 

— ,  Maria,  67 ;  lost  portrait  of,  68,  261. 

— ,  Piero,  80,  262. 

Salvini,  Salvino,  258. 

Salvio,  painter  to  Cavalier  Somo,  171, 
281. 

San  Domenico,  mentioned  in  Pon- 
tormo's  diary,  93,  300. 

Sandrino,  mentioned  in  Pontormo 's 
diary,  93,  302,  303. 

San  Francesco,  Borgo  San  Sepolcro, 
105. 

— ,  Florence,  mentioned  in  Pontor- 
mo's  diary,  298,  304. 

San  Gallo,  Aristotile  da,  14. 

San  Giovanni,  arms  of  the,  130. 

San  Lorenzo,  Florence,  Archives  of, 
78. 

— /'Assumption  of  the  Virgin"  in, 
207. 


348 


INDEX 


San  Lorenzo,  Bronzino  finishes  Pon- 
tormo's  frescoes  in,  79,  263. 

— ,  drawing  by  Bronzino  for  the 
" Deluge"  in,  79. 

— ,  lost  frescoes  in :  70,  71,  74,  75,  76, 
77,  78,  79,  86,  90,  94,  95,  263-264; 
date  of,  78-79,  263 ;  drawings  for, 
71,  72,  75,  76,  77,  185,  263 ;  men- 
tioned by  Vasari,  74,  78,  79,  264 ; 
mentioned  in  Pontormo's  diary, 
79,  91,  92,  263,  295,  296,  297,  298, 
299,  300,  301,  302,  303,  304,  306 ; 
no  documents  for,  78,  264;  sym- 
bolism of,  77,  94. 

— ,  memorial  tablet  in,  4,  80 ;  Michel- 
angelo 's  tombs  in,  59 ;  Ottaviano 
de'  Medici  buried  in,  94;  relief 
of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio  in,  150; 
Rosso 's  "  Marriage  of  St.  Cathe- 
rine" in,  94. 

San  Lorenzo  a  Galuzzo.    See  Certosa. 

San  Lorenzo  al  Monte.    See  Certosa. 

San  Luca  Chapel,  Annunziata,  in- 
scription on  the  vault  of,  79. 

—  See  ' '  Madonna  and  Saints. ' ' 

San  Marco,  Florence,  150. 

— ,  Piazza  di,  Florence,  254. 

San  Michele,  Pontormo,  4,  24,  177- 
179. 

San  Michele  Visdomini,  Florence, 
"Holy  Family"  in,  6,  17,  18-20, 
22,  73,  125-128,  146. 

San  Miniato,  mentioned  in  Pontor- 
mo's diary,  93,  300,  304. 

San  Pancrazio,  Florence,  2,  272. 

San  Proeulo,  Florence,  207. 

San  Remigio,  Florence,  2,  272. 

San  Ruffillo.  See  "Madonna  and 
Saints,"  San  Luca  Chapel,  An- 
nunziata. 

Sansovino,  Jacopo,  14. 

"Santa  Barbara."  See  St.  Peters- 
burg. 


Santa  Cecilia,  Compagnia  di,  255. 

— ,  lost  lunette  of,  17,  29,  30,  255; 
date  of,  255;  drawings  for,  17, 
255;  mentioned  by  Vasari,  17. 

Santa  Croce,  Florence,  1,  2,  3,  271; 
' '  Madonna  and  Saints, ' '  ascribed 
to  Pontormo  in,  206;  Zanchini 
Chapel  in,  81. 

Santa  Felicita,  Capponi  Chapel,  46, 
47,  48,  49,  53,  54,  55,  73,  84; 
drawings  for  decoration  of,  43; 
"Annunciation"  in,  46,  122; 
drawings  for,  47-48;  "Deposi- 
tion" in,  38,  45-49,  94,  120-122; 
date  of,  47,  121;  drawings  for, 
47-49,  121 ;  mentioned  by  Vasari, 
47,  120;  "Evangelists"  in,  46, 
122-123;  drawing  for,  49,  123; 
lost  "God  the  Father  and  Pa- 
triarchs" in,  46,  257;  possible 
drawings  for,  49. 

Santa  Maria  del  Fiore,  mentioned  in 
Pontormo's  diary,  302-303. 

Santa  Maria  Maddalena  de'  Pazzi, 
207. 

Santa  Maria  Novella,  Florence,  5,  11, 
124;  "Santa  Veronica"  in,  12, 
123-125;  "God  the  Father"  in, 
12,  124. 

Santa  Maria  sopra  Minerva,  Rome, 
258. 

Santa  Trinita,  Florence,  199. 

Santa  Trinita.    See  Ponte. 

"Santa  Veronica,"  Santa  Maria 
Novella,  Florence,  6,  12,  123- 
125,  270 ;  date  of,  125 ;  mentioned 
by  Vasari,  124. 

Santi  di  Tito,  237. 

SS.  Annunziata.  See  "Madonna  and 
Saints";  "Visitation." 

"Sant'Agostino"  (lost),  10,  256. 

Sant'  Angelo  in  Vado,  Rome,  204. 

Sant'  Antonio,  Florence,  116. 


349 


INDEX 


Sant'  Eusebio,  Florence,  168. 

Santo  Stefano,  Pisa,  4. 

Sardi,  Tommaso,  149. 

Sardinia,  King  of,  235. 

Sarto  Agostino,  282. 

— ,  Andrea    del.      See    Andrea    del 

Sarto. 

Savoy,  House  of,  235. 
Scala,  Bartolomeo,  147. 
Sealzo,  Florence,  17. 
Schaeffer,  115,  133,  134. 
Schevitch  Collection,  248. 
Schlegel,  A.  W.  von,  212. 
Schmidt,  W.,  218. 
Schomberg,  Nicolaus  von,  260. 
Schubring,  136,  141,  158,  208. 
Schulze,  154,  179,  198,  200,  201,  205, 

228,  234,  235. 
Schweitzer  Collection,  209. 
Scotland.      See    Lothian    Collection; 

Stirling  Collection. 
Scotti,  Luigi,  126. 

Sedelmeyer  Collection,  203,  221,  246. 
Servites,  9,  10,  79,  269. 
Sesto,  Cesare  da,  132. 
Sguazzella,  80. 
Siena,  Library  of  the  Cathedral  of, 

61. 

Signoria  of  Florence,  2,  51. 
Siren,  Osvald,  221,  222. 
Sixtine  Ceiling.    See  Michelangelo. 
Smith  Collection,  248. 
Societa  Colombaria,  Florence,  151. 
Soderini,  7,  126. 
Solly  Collection,  105. 
Somo,  Cavalier,  281. 
Somzee  Collection,  209. 
Sonnet  on  "Venus  and  Cupid,"  143. 
Sonnets  on  the  death  of  Pontormo, 

287-293. 
Spannocchi  Cervini.     See  "Portrait 

of     Cardinal    Spannocchi     Cer- 
vini." 


Spence,  Campbell,  214. 

Spinelli,  Niccolo  di  Forzore,  148. 

Spini  Filippo,  17. 

Stadel  Institute,  Frankfort,  drawings 
in,  35,  53,  153;  "Portrait  of  a 
Young  Woman"  in,  85,  103,  152- 
154. 

Steinmann,  201. 

Stephano  Romano,  282. 

Stirling  Collection,  86,  155. 

Stradano,  Giovanni,  98. 

Strozzi,  Alessandro,  295. 

— ,  Carlo  di  Tommaso,  295. 

— ,  Filippo,  56. 

— ,  Giovambattista,  mentioned  in  Pon- 
tormo's  diary,  94,  300. 

— ,  Pontormo 's  diary  once  in  the 
library  of  the,  295. 

—  See  Palazzo  Strozzi. 

Sturgis,  Russell,  222. 

Stuttgart,  Staatsgalerie,  234. 

Suida,  155. 

Supino,  147, 148, 176. 

"Supper  at  Bmmaus, "  Academy, 
Florence,  41,  114-115;  date  of, 
41,  114;  drawing  for,  42,  114; 
document  for,  41,  115,  277. 


Tadda,  Francesco  del,  150. 

Tapestries,  Pontormo 's  designs  for, 
70-72,  183,  187. 

Taramelli.     See  Photographs. 

Tarnowski  Collection,  198. 

Tasso,  Battista,  mentioned  in  Pon- 
tormo's  diary,  297,  304. 

— ,  Giuliano  del,  14. 

— ,  Marco  del,  15,  138,  297. 

Terey,  Gabriel  de,  196. 

Terzano,  1,  271. 

Thaw  CoUection,  151. 

Thode,  59,  60,  63,  143,  144,  145,  171, 


350 


INDEX 


179,  201,  205,  211,  213,  220,  236, 

260. 

Thode  Collection,  64. 
"Three  Graces,"  drawing  for,  61. 
— ,  marble  group  of,  61. 
"Tilling  of  the  Soil,"  drawing  for, 

76,  263. 

Timbal  Collection,  132. 
Tischendorf,  158. 
Titi,  144. 
Titian,  204,  237. 
"Tobias  and  the  Angel,"  Borghese 

Gallery,  230-231. 
Tomitano,  69. 

Tornaquinci,  arms  of  the,  140. 
— ,  Elisabetta,  141. 
Touaglia,  Giuliano  del,  264. 
Tour  d'Auvergne,  Madeleine  de  la, 

28. 
Trapesnikoff,  148,  149,  150,  152,  160, 

205,  206. 

Tregua,  feast  of  the,  93,  302. 
Tresor  de  numismatique,  148. 
Treviso,  Girolamo  da,  237. 
Tribolo,  66,  74. 

Triumphal  arch  for  Leo  X,  7,  14,  254. 
Trivulzio  Collection,  84,  160-161,  216. 
Tschudi,  149. 
Tucker,  von,  181. 
Tureo,  family  of  the  del,  157. 
Turin,  154,  234-236. 

U 

Ufficio  delle  Belle  Arti.  See  Palazzo 
Vecchio. 

Uffizi,  15,  139-152,  169;  "Birth- 
plate"  in,  57,  140-141;  copy  of 
Leonardo's  "Battle  of  Anghi- 
ari,"  132;  "Expulsion  from 
Paradise,"  ascribed  to  Pontormo, 
207-208;  "Leda  and  the  Swan," 


ascribed  to  Pontormo,  209 ;  ' '  Life 
of  Joseph,"  Granacci,  208;  "Ma- 
donna and  Little  St.  John,"  53, 
145-146 ; ' '  Madonna  Enthroned, ' ' 
139;  "Martyrdom  of  St.  Mau- 
rice," 54,  139-140;  portrait- 
drawing:  of  an  artisan,  85;  of 
a  bishop,  86,  of  a  boy,  86,  of  a 
soldier,  85 ;  "Portrait  of  a  Man," 
57,  84, 141 ;  "Portrait  of  a  Man," 
by  Botticelli,  149;  "Portrait  of 
a  Youth,"  by  Salviati,  237; 
' '  Portrait  of  Cosimo  il  Vecchio, ' ' 
21-22,  25,  82,  83,  147-152,  173, 
205;  "Portrait  of  Eleonora,"  by 
Bronzino,  97;  "Portrait  of  Him- 
self," by  Andrea,  83;  "Portrait 
of  Himself,"  by  Salviati,  237; 
"Portrait  of  Young  Cosimo," 
146-147;  "Venus  and  Cupid," 
63,  142-145. 

— ,  drawings  in,  10,  11,  16,  17,  20,  23, 
24,  25,  26,  29,  30,  31,  32,  33,  34, 
35,  36,  38,  39,  42,  43,  44,  47,  48, 
49,  50,  52,  54,  55,  56,  57,  61,  62, 
63,  64,  66,  68,  71,  72,  77,  81,  84, 
85,  86,  91,  96,  97,  98,  104,  106, 
110,  112,  113,  114,  116,  117,  119, 
121,  122,  123,  125,  127,  136,  137, 
139,  144,  147,  153,  159,  160,  164, 
165,  166,  168,  176,  177,  178,  179, 
187,  200,  218,  255,  258,  259,  262, 
263. 

— ,  paintings  mentioned  in,  15,  20,  21, 
53,  54,  62,  68,  81,  83,  95,  97,  111, 
132,  149,  151,  156,  163,  171-172, 
180,  201,  207-209,  237. 

Ughi,  arms  of  the,  130. 

Ulivelli,  Cosimo,  151. 

Ulmann,  208. 

University  Prints.    See  Photographs. 

Urbino,  Palazzo  Albani,  205. 


351 


INDEX 


Vagnonville,  Baron  de,  249. 

Val  d'Ema.    See  Certosa. 

Valori,  Baccio,  268. 

Varchi,  51,  52,  56,  63,  94,  142,  145, 
262,  285;  mentioned  in  Pon- 
tormo's  diary,  300,  304;  Pontor- 
mo's  letter  to,  89,  285-286;  son- 
net to  Bronzino,  287,  296;  son- 
net to  Pontormo,  93. 

Vasari,  78,  95,  106,  116,  145,  201; 
"Battle  of  Val  di  Chiana,"  95; 
copies  Pontormo 's  "Portrait  of 
Cosimo  il  Vecchio,"  150,  151; 
copies  Pontormo 's  "Portrait  of 
Young  Cosimo  I, "  146 ;  "  Corona- 
tion of  the  Virgin,"  Citta  di 
Castello,  95;  decorations  for  the 
reception  of  Charles  V,  9 ;  draw- 
ings from  Pontormo 's  Certosa 
frescoes,  39,  95,  113;  frescoes  in 
Palazzo  Vecehio,  97,  133,  146- 
147,  261;  letter  to  Francesco 
Lioni,  145;  letter  to  Ottaviano 
de'  Medici,  171;  "Life  of  Bron- 
zino," 49,  95,  262;  "Life  of 
Cristofano  dell'  Altissimo,"  95; 
"Life  of  Feltrini,"  9;  "Life  of 
Lappoli,"  225;  "Life  of  Mar- 
cantonio,"  38;  "Life  of  Pon- 
tormo," 89;  Michelangelo's  in- 
fluence on,  74,  144;  personal 
appreciation  of  Pontormo,  37, 
89,  90,  91;  Pontormo 's  influence 
on,  95,  133,  205;  "Portrait  of 
Alessandro  de'  Medici,"  Uffizi, 
64,  95,  171,  172;  "Portrait  of 
Cosimo  I,"  Palazzo  Vecchio,  95, 
180,  206,  221;  "Portrait  of 
Cosimo  il  Vecchio,"  Palazzo 
Veechio,  95,  180,  205,  206; 
"Portrait  of  Maria  Salviati," 


Palazzo  Vecchio,  261;  "Ragiona- 
menti,"  133,  151;  "The  Three 
Graces,"  Budapest,  61;  "Venus 
and  Cupid,"  Galleria  Colonna, 
145. 

— ,  Lives  of :  edition  of  1760,  81 ;  edi- 
tion of  1832-1838,  143 ;  first  Ger- 
man edition,  143;  Milan  edition, 
75,  131,  256;  Milanesi  edition. 
See  Milanesi;  Roman  edition, 
131;  translation  De  Vere,  119, 
122,  132,  136,  159,  170,  206. 

—  mentions :     Albertinelli  's     ' '  Holy 

Family,"  8;  Andrea's  "Birth 
of  Virgin,"  16;  Bacchiacca's 
panels  for  Benintendi,  135; 
Bronzino 's  draughtsmanship,  97 ; 
"Pieta,"  199;  "Portrait  of 
Guidobaldo,"  204,  205;  work  at 
Certosa,  113;  Bugiardini's  ap- 
prenticeship, 5;  Dal  Prato's 
medallions,  171;  Delia  Palla, 
56 ;  Diirer  's  woodcuts,  38 ;  Fran- 
ciabigio's  panels  for  Benintendi, 
23;  Granacci's  "Life  of  Jo- 
seph," 158;  Lappoli 's  copies  of 
Scalzo  frescoes,  232;  Leonardo's 
cartoon  of  the  "Battle  of  An- 
ghiari,"  53;  Marco  del  Tasso, 
138;  Michelangelo's  influence  on 
Pontormo,  62 ;  Michelangelo 's 
San  Lorenzo  tombs  and  Cavalieri 
drawings,  60;  Ottaviano  de' 
Medici,  94;  Puligo's  "Barbara 
Cortegiana,"  224,  229;  Puligo's 
"Madonna  and  Saints,"  Santa 
Maria  Maddalena  de '  Pazzi,  207 ; 
Ridolfo  Ghirlandaio 's  frescoes  in 
the  Cappella  della  Signoria,  125. 

—  mentions:  Pontormo 's  "Adoration 

of  the  Magi,"  Pitti,  23,  135,  136; 
apprenticeship,  5,  6,  267-268,  270 ; 
birth,  4;  Carro  della  Zecca,  15, 


352 


INDEX 


139;  cartoons  for  tapestries,  70, 
184,  185,  186;  Certosa  frescoes, 
39,  40,  43,  44,  107,  108,  109,  110, 
111,  112,  113,  death,  79;  "Depo- 
sition," Santa  Felicita,  120, 
122;  "Evangelists,"  46-47,  123; 
"Faith  and  Charity,"  7,  9,  10, 
116;  family,  1,  3,  4,  6;  frescoes 
in  the  Pope's  Chapel,  11 ;  funeral, 
79 ;  "  Holy  Family, ' '  San  Michele 
Visdomini,  19,  126;  house,  57, 
68;  "Joseph  in  Egypt,"  21,  22, 
157,  159;  lost  "Annunciation," 
5,  253;  lost  "Arms  of  the  Lan- 
fredini,"  21,  254;  lost  "Arms 
of  Giovanni  Salviati,"  17,  256; 
lost  cars  for  the  Broncone,  13, 
14,  253;  lost  cars  for  the  Dia- 
mante, 13,  14,  253;  lost  "Dead 
Christ,"  253;  lost  frescoes  at 
Careggi,  65,  66,  262;  lost  fres- 
coes at  Castello,  66,  67,  262 ;  lost 
frescoes  in  San  Lorenzo,  74,  75, 
76,  78,  79,  263,  264;  lost  fresco 
of  "Christ  as  Pilgrim,